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• By Experiment, No. 16;– Thin SOWING of Wheat on a GRAVEL is fortunate, when the Summer proves wet.
· The i Bushel (see the Experiment) was quite a rank Crop; the 2 Buthels, a middling Crop; but the four Bushels, not more than eighteen inches high ; many of the ears not an inch long, and the straws not thicker than the stems of Rye grass! But, perhaps, had the Spring and Summer proved dry, the first would have been burnt up; while the last, by shading the Surface, and thereby keeping the Soil cool, might have been a good Crop. It must also be observed, that this Experiment was made over Flutes, and probably almost every Grain vegetated.
From this year's experience, and from repeated observations in dry Years, I am convinced that the Quantity of Seed for a burning Gravel, cannot be nearly ascertained without a fore-knowledge of the Weather of the ensuing Summer.
• Therefore ;- Burning Gravels are hazardous Soils.
• Because the Crop depends essentially on the Quantity of Seed; and the proper quantity of Seed depends wholly on that Weather which cannot be foreseen : therefore,
< Perhaps ;-Sow on a Gravel from 21 to three Bushels, of Wheat an Acre; and, if the Winter prove dry, thin the plants with a Hoe in the Spring; but, if the IVinter prove wet, let the whole fand in expectation of a dry Summer *.
Covering • The whole, whether Fallow or Ley, (except a part sown underplit) was harrowed as fine as a Garden. No labour was spared until the beds were rendered (by the concave Hinge Harrows) perfe&tly convex, their Surfaces fine, and the Sced covered.
Adjusing.. Part of the Inter-furrows were opened with the double Plow; pait left cloddy; and a comparative Experiment was registered; but the whole was so rank and so lodged, no accurate inference could be drawn. The wet Soils were carefully cross-furrowed, fufficiëctiy deep to drain effectually the Inter-furrows, and sufficiently wide to walk in,'
The Reader will, we doubt not, be well pleased to see fo much made out of the few Experiments that occur on this head, and will, probably, be impressed with a very favourable idea of the industry and abilities of our Author. He will do well, however, to remark, that the observations are here produced merely as a specimen of the manner in which a farmer should arrange his Experiments, and make his remarks upon them, to ferve as a bahis for future observations. The Author is too judicious not to perceive that no positive conclusions can be drawn from so few experiments, and we wish our Readers never
· * " This, however, must not be taken as an infallible guide ; for ·although the winter of 76-77 was dry, and the ensuing sommer proved wet; yet the winter of 77-78 was equally dry, and the drought continued through the summer.'
to lose sight of this. The following general observations, upon the wheat crop, like every other remark of our Author, when viewed in a proper light, deserve well to be attended to: · · What was the management of the fixteen Acres which this year produced at the rate of 3: Field-Jags an Acre? The Soil, a clayey Loam, was part of it a Summer-fallow ;-part a Bean Quondal, Dog-days fallowed: the whole dunged with about ten fifty-foot loads (about 500 cubical feet) of prime horse dung an Acre, spread over the rough Plit of one deep plowing *; harrowed ;-rolled ; gathered into half-rod ridges very shallow ;-harrowed ;-rolled; the ridges reversed moderately deep ;-lown over the fresh Plit, in very high Tilth in September-October ;-harrowed extremely fine; the Inter-furrows opened, and the Cross-furrows made wide and deep. Although it is very flat, wer land, not a spoonful of water stood on it during the Winter.
• The avocation of Agriculture would indeed be disheartening, if a good crop of Wheat could not be obtained from such management, and such weather as attended these fixteen Acres. And, were Autumns in general as favourable as the last was, I should almost give up the thought of Wheat on a Clover-Ley: but such another Wheat Seed-time may never happen.
" Had the division L, been caught in a wet Autumn, one-half of it at least could not have been cropt with Wheat, and the Seed of the other half must have been put in very badly. Fine as the weather happened, the labour, attendance, and attention bestowed on it was without end; and the anxiety for the weather equal to the disagreeable watchfulness of hay-time and harvest.
• What would have been the case this year, had I had nothing but Fallows-even Summer-Fallows-to depend on for Wheat? The weather, from the middle of May to the middle of July, was incerfantly rainy; and the ample crops of this harvest have fully employed the teams ever since. Part of K 4, a Summer-fallow, is now (10 September) as green as a Ley! I have not an Acre of Fallow · sowable with Wheat without two or three more plowings. Had I nothing but Fallows, I could not, be the weather ever so fine, put in fifty Acres of Wheat, tolerably, before Christmas. Very fortunately, however, I have Clover-Leys, most of them dunged, ready to be landed up for Wheat, as soon as rain comes to moisten the sur. face: And my Fallows being for Spring corn, they will receive the Winter and Spring stirrings. I have no hope of getting fuch noble Crops and beautiful Quondals from Clover-Leys as from dunged Summer-Fallows; but I hope that my Spring Crops and Autumnal Comfort will over-balance even the valuable advantages of a good Crop of Wheat and a clean Quondal.
· The Crop next in goodness was from a clayey Loam, part of it a Bean, part a Tare-barley. Quondal, each of which received a very good Dog-days Fallow, and were managed almost exactly by the process above mentioned ; excepting that this part of the division L, was sown in O&tober-November—That in September October.
* " See Minute of 21 July, 1776
• The next which followed in point of goodness, was raised from a Clover Ley on a gravelly Loam, dunged for Clover; landed-up by two Oxen and a whip-rein Plow, soon after the second Crop of Clover was off ;--lay three weeks in rough Plit;-it was then harrowed; - Aluted,- (lown,-) and harrowed; with one horse only : the whole expence of labour pot five shillings an Acre.
. Lalt Autumn this struck me as a most eligible process: this Har: veft has convinced me that Theory was once right. During Winter and Spring, the Crop was beautiful; and, had it not been lodged by the heavy rains of last Summer, it would have been a very good Crop at Harvest ; and, notwithlanding the wetness of the Summer, and the proneness of the soil to Seed-weeds, this Crop was almost wholly free from them; for they had vegetated abundantly while the Soil lay in rough plit, and the harrows and the flute totally eradicated them.
"The Quondal, it is true, is foul with Root-rveeds ; but this must not be charged to the disadvantage of the succession of Clover.Wheat, nor to the process of fluting the stale plit of a Clover. Ley, but to the slovenly succession of Wheat, Barley, Clover. A clean Clover-Ley, properly plowed, cannot possibly afford a foul Quondal.
IN FUTURE, · "I will never depend wholly on Fallows for Wheat.
"A SUFFICIENCY OF Clean CLOVER-LEYS FOR WHEAT SHALL BE THE PRINCIPAL OBJECT OF MY FUTURE MANAGEMENT*
If the Soil be much out of heart, I will dung one deep plowing for Spring-Corn and Clover. ;
o If the Soil be in tolerable heart, I will top-dress for the Spring Corn and Clover, and dung for the IV heat. • If August be moist, I will endeavour to flute the stale Plit.
If the Surface remain droughty until September-October, I will low on the fresh Plit.
• If the Soil be poor, and Manure scarce, I will endeavour to bury the second Crop of Clover.
• I will endeavour to BEGIN fowing on the poorest, and FINISH with the richest, Soil.
• I will not brine the feed of Wheat; except by way of Expen riment t.
. If the Crop be inclinable to rankness, I will hoe the INTERVALS, and pasture, or top, or verdage the Beds.
"I will begin to cut while the knots are green; and endeavour to let the Sheaves have a power in the Field.'
* • It must be observed, that there Resolutions are formed in the neighbourhood of London, where Clover-hay generally bears a price equal to that of the best Meadow-hay.'
+ If Seed Wheat be foul with light Weed-feeds, it may be convenient to immerge it in Water, in order to gain an opportunity of Himming of the Lights,' .
of hisobby, and useful
In the observations on the Weather, we meet with many ingenious remarks, and useful hints; but here, as usual, he mounts his hobby, and gives us a set of meteorological instruments, of his own invention, which we are sorry to pronounce extremely imperfect, as no one of them admits of being compared with any other instrument of the same kind that has ever yet been used, nor can any other instruments be so conftructed as to correspond with them. As all barometers have the inches of height marked upon them, it was natural, and would have been easy, for him to have mentioned the exact height that corresponded with the bottom and top of his scale ; but this he has omitted. Of the thermometer he has only told us, that the medial point corresponds with the 54th degree of Fahrenheit's scale--but what are the highest or the lowest points, every one is left to guess, at random. The hygrometer is indeed a most useful instrument for the farmer, but, unfortunately, no device has yet been fallen upon to construct an instrument of that kind with any tolerable degree of accuracy, nor is that of our Author calculated to remedy this defect. The aneometer, rain. gage, and exhalacion-gage, are less simple than others that have been used before. On the whole, this set of implements is, in a great measure, incomplete ; and we consider it as a very faulty degree of indolence in an author to publish his inven. tions, on any subject, without either reflecting deeply upon it himself, or examining what has been accomplished by others, -neither of which, it is very evident, has been done by our Author, in the present case.
Notwithstanding these strictures, we consider this work as capable of producing great utility, if it falls into proper hands. The ardour and unremitcing attention of the Author will, stimulate some to attempt what they would not otherwise have thought of. We are far, however, from thinking the plan of observa. tion here pointed out, will prove so extensively useful as the Au. thor seems to apprehend. Persons of mean talents will never be able to comprehend the spirit or meaning of these arrangea ments, and such men always form the majority of every class. Others, who are capable of following the Author in his chain of reasoning, will want that spirit of exertion which is necessary to put it in practice: for indolence is so natural to man, that if not impelled by necessity, or stimulated by some powerful natüral propensity, he is extremely apt to desift from all enterprize and action, although reafon points out, in the clearest manner, the benefits that would accrue from the vigorous employment of his faculties. Indeed the attention neceffary to go through with a work of this nature is so great, that we much doubt if any man of talents could be found who would persevere in it with proper spirit, unless he were urged on by that natural parRev. O&. 1779.
tiality which every one feels for the child of his own fancy. Our Author himself acknowledges the difficolty of attending properly to this object, even when he had the assistance of that powerful stimulus; for he observes, that had the experiments been continued with the same afhduity with which they were begun, they would have been far more numerous than they now are; but the autumn of 1777 was engrossed by the publication of the Minutes of rigriculture; and the spring of 1778 perplexed by a less a reeable circumstance: and a man who attends to the process of experimenting thould have his head at leisure, and his heart at ease. If these requisites are necessary for carrying into practice ine plan here chalked out, we are afraid it will be long before the world can reap much benefit from it; and as we are satisfied of the juftness of the remark, we view it as one of those Utopian schemes which, although it may in a few cases be put in practice by one or two individuals, can never become universally prevalent or extensively useful. It must be by less gigantic strides that the weak, Aluctuating, indolent creature, man, muft advance in knowledge.
Much praise is due to our Author for so strenuously exerting himfelf for the good of others. If they cannot be so bighly benefited by these exertions as he may have withed, the blame is theirs: he will at least have the conscious fatisfaction of having endeavoured to serve them. We return him thanks for the entertainment he has afforded us, and we recommend his performance to the attention of all judicious cultivators, -- to all who have the prosperity of agriculture at heart, as a work that will afford them much pleasure, and some instruction, by teaching them how to make the most advantage of the occurrences that daily happen within the sphere of their own observations.
Art. I. An Harmony of the Gospels : In which the original Text is
disposed after Le Clerc's General Manner ; with such various Read. ings at the Foot or the Page as have received Werflein's Sanction in his Folio Edition of the Greek Testament. Observations are fubjoined, tending to fetile the Time and Place of every Transaction, co eftablish the Series of Facts, and to reconcile seeming Incon ültencies. By William Newcome, D. D. Bishop of Ofiory. Folio. il. 7 s. Boards. Dublin printed, and sold by Cadell in London. 1778. THE numerous attempts that have been made to harmonize
the Gospels, are a proof of the sense that Christians, in general have entertained of the usefulness and importance of reconciling the several accounts which the Evangelists have given of the life and actions of Jesus. They are, likewise, a proof of the difficulty that attends the execution of such a design. This difficulty arises chiefly from the neglect of chronological