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Specimens of Experiments concerning Agriculture.
July 1977. Sowed the further (In N. 5.) The whole field a side before, the hither! Sowing Clover. Ivery even, good crop. fide after cross-harrow- Should Clover Seed ing. The whole was be buried deep, or afterwards rolled. Thould it be merely
Either : by this Experiment.
April '76. - l- No. II. - July '78. a, light rolled.
(In N. 6.) Neither the Barley b, heavy-rolled, im- Rolling Gravel. nor the Clover received mediately after the seed! Should a sharp, gra- any perceptible adwas covered.
velly loam be con- vantage or detriment 6, not rolled. densed ? or should it by the rolling.
be left porous ?
Aug. '77. — (a) Town before (In N. 4.) This field was passpikey-rolling. Sowing Mix-GRASS. tured.
rb) sown after it. Should the seed be Not the smallest dif
The whole field was deeply or flightly co- ference to be observed; afterwards swept with vered?
excepting that where the bush harrow. 1 Either : by this Ex the tilth was fine, che periment.
plants are cnick ;
where cloddy, thin. . - April'76. — No. IV. - July '77.
Harrowed all the (In I. 2.) | The whole field was Wheat of . 2, with Sowing CLOVER. equally good. a pair of very light Is harrowing the soil N. B. This belt was harrows, in order to before sowing Clover neither harrowed beraise fresh mould for over Wheat beneficial fore, nor rolled after the seed to drop upon; to the crop ?
rowing: H. 1. the except a beli across No: nút by this Ex-Same, and very good. the middle.
Iperiment. - Sept. "76. — No. V.
Aug. '77. Two lands again at (In P. 1.) It is remarkable that the road, from thel Sowing Wheat. These two lands are for. winding part of the Is brineing the seed warder and a better road upwards, dry ; advantageous to the crop than the rest of the relt pickled, in crop ?
• the field, and as tolime-water brine. Not by this Experi- tally free from frut. ment,
The IntenTION. 1
- O&t. '76.
Aug. '77. a, a, fown with seed (In L. 1.) 1 Remarkable! b, was raised on a sharp 'gra- SEED WHEAT. always the rankef? vel (an oppofite foil). Is changing the seed crop; and is now more
b, with the very from foil to foil of Lodged than a, and fe. same species, raised on different species, be- veral days forwarder. a clayoy loam (a fimi- neficial to the crop ? lar foil).
Oct. '76. —
Aug. '77. a, a, pickled in (In L. 1.) | The crops equal ; ftrong lime water, rale. Sowing WHEAT. and not a smutry ear ed until it would bear! Is brineing the seed in the whole fieid: at an egg. beneficial ?
least, not in the part b, fown dry.
- 1776. -
(a) much the rank. of fix plowings (in- FALLOWING. felt crop of Wheat, with cluding the breaking- Is a Summer-Fallow a gardenly quondal. up).
Jor a Fallow-Crop more b, Mazagan beans advantageous to the. Aug. '78. in drills-horse-hoed, succeeding crops ? L a, obviously the beft hand - hoed, hand. A Summer-Fallow *. crop of Oats, and by weeded, and (with
much the cleanest the spring - plowing)
quondal. five times plowed.
O&.'76. --- No. IX. - Aug. '77. 17 lands over.
(In L. 1.). The under-plit the 2 under. SOWING WHEAT. Atronger straw and the 4- over.
Is under plit or larger ears; but much 2 — under over-plit preferable ? the thinneft, much the 66 over.
Over-plit; with the fouleit, and much che The quantities of fame quantity of seed. thabbieft crop. seed equal : about 21 buhels an acre.
No. X. - Aug. '77. — The outfides of the (In L. 1.) Equally thin, and two double lands above Sowing WHEAT, Jequally foul. . mentioned were har! Is it better to har. But perhaps (indeed rowed thrice in a row after sowing under, most like) the outsides place : the insides left for to leave the soil in were not fown so chick rough.
as the insides. 1 Undecisive. * Whenever a positive answer is given, “ by chis Experiment," must always be understood. For it is not one Result; but a series of fimilar Results which amount to certainty. (See MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE, 7 Nov, 1776.) - R 3
The other experiments are recorded in the same form.
Our Author, after minuting in this manner all the experiments and observations that had occurred to him during the years 1777 and 1778, proceeds to explain his ideas by some general observations on scientific agriculture, --which most com*mon farmers, we are afraid, will find to be above their comprehension. The following are a part of these observations that
will be understood by more than will put the precepts in prac. tice :
. There are few men, perhaps, who have leisure and perseverance enough TO MINUTE every useful incident which may occur to them throughout the year; but the man who has not leisure and industry enough to pay unremitted at:ention to his farm, during hay-time and barvest, and to make ANNUAL OBSERVATIONS on his management, is by no means a man fit for a Farmer,
• Taking for granted that there are many men who have both opportunity and inclination to increase their own stock, and to add to the public store, of agricultural knowledge; to those the Author addresses the following hints,
« Attending to incidenis, and to the results of experiments; and, on hours of leisure, digesting the observations made chcreon; are, to a man wholly detached from other amusements, agreeable relaxations from the more active employments of the day; especially as a nicety of language is not in the least degree neceffary to the rough tkerch to be ftruck out in harvest ; for it is not the manner of relating the facts, but the facts themselves, which are then to be particularly attended to. Besides, by letting ihem lie in-the-rough until after autumnal seed-time, and then making out a fair transcript, many errors, fuperfluities, and defects, may be discovered, which might (even on a revision) at harvest have been overlooked : the facts will not only be now seen in a new light; but the transcription will root them anew in the memory. Every man who has accustomed himself to write his ideas muit have observed, that after his autograph has lain by him until its contents have been in some measure forgotten, he has, on Revision, seen it in a new point of view: he has reviewed it, in fome degree, as the production of another; consequently with a less partial eye than that with which he saw it at the time of writing; and his judgment has of course been proportionally ftrengthened. And he must also have remarked, that TRANSCRIPTION seldom fails of producing an improvement of the original,
* At the time of making out the fair transcript, A GENERAL REVIEW of the elements and processes mould be taken. This will not only call to the memory many incidents which otherwise would have escaped it; but will at the same time give an opportunity of fyftemi. zing the incidents and experiments which have been minoted and registered in the course of the year, and which appertain to heads not peculiarly noticeable at harvest.
Thus a complete systematic view of PAST MANAGEMENT will be taken; and a valuable collection of useful lessons retained, as guides to FUTURE MANAGEMENT : not, however, the theoretic dogmas, por even the scientific observations, of other men, made on
other other foils ; but maxims drawn from self-management, on the identical soil to be hereafter managed.
• This mode of acquiring agricultural knowledge is not new: it bas been more-or-less practised ever since mankind were dissatisfied with the spontaneous productions of Nature : for it is in this manner the most illiterate Farmer becomes knowing in his profession :perhaps, however, without being aware of his acquisitions; or, if apprised, without providing any other means of preservation, than merely trusting them in the care of his memory.
• Every Farmer who is one link fuperior to his beasis of labour, must say to himself at harvest, “I have this year got such and such crops ;-what has been the management?”.
• As he buitles across his fields, or keeps-sentry over his work. people, it is scarcely possible for him to refrain froin reflections like these:
“ Great Clayey Close is a brave piece of Wots : the swaths lie rare-and-round, i'faith! Zuckers, and what an even plant of Clo. ver; and how clean !-Ha! there's nought beats a summer fallow for Great Clayey Close. You may talk of fealing a crop, indeed; but, i'cod, it's like fealing from your neighbour : there's noa good comes ont at lait.”
• From his lower, his business calls him to his upper farm; where ideas like the following must necessarily hobble across his intellects :
“ The Barley of Upland-Down is a brave piece of barley, that it is. Aye, aye, it was a rare fallow. And then the hoeings! and the fold !-Odds my life! a turnip.fallow and the fold against the world for Upland-Down."
• If these incidents are so fortunate as to make imprelions on his memory, he next year manages accordingly: he summer fallows his fiff land, and turnips his light. He does not, however, hug himself more on having made the discoveries, than on his being cunning enough to keep them as family-secrets : and consequently, on being able to monopolize to himself and his heirs, the advantages which may accrue. The next market-day, however, may be lucky enough co liberalize his notions; and, over the tankard, he may communicate his sentiments to his poc-companions; who, probably, are either too much wedded to the customs of their forefathers, or have too high an opinion of their own management, or perhaps of the management of some favourite neighbour *, to profit by the information. Thus the discovery either dies neglected ;-remains with the family of the discoverer ;--or, at belt, is introduced to a few neigh. bouring Farmers. Whereas, the information of the man who is conftantly on the watch for incidents, who is repeatedly making experiments, and who annually reduces his experience to system, is not only more ample and interesting, but he communicates his improvements to thousands he never heard of, and perhaps to tens of thou. sands yet unborn. For it is scarcely possible for a man who scruti
•• For almost every parish in the kingdom contains “ the best farmer in England.”. RA
nizes his DAILY EXPERIENCE with a scientiFIC EYE, not to make some useful discovery. And there is scarcely any man of common understanding, who has carefully attended to the results of his present management, in order to regulate the procesles of his future; and who has chronologically memorized, and annually registered, these results, systematically ; who must not in a few years have produced a work of PUBLIC UTILITY.
That our Readers may have some idea of the Author's plan, we give the following section entire, as it contains a general view of the whole operations of the farm :
• In AUTUMN,-prior to Wheat Seed time, the Writer has made it a Rule to sketch out the Plan of his next Year's Management, by delineating an INTENDED ARRANGEMENT. This theoretic Plan, however, he has never considered as perfect and inviolable ; but has continued altering and improving it, as Circumsances pointed out in the Course of his Management. He, nevertheless, has always found it of very great service in proportioning his work to his teams ;-the number of acres to be plowed, to the number of beasts of labour he has had to plow them with : besides having a more distinct view of the business of the coming year, than he could have had without such a Sketch. The utility of this intended Arrangement will appear more fully when the REAL ARRANGEMENT and its Uses are pointed Qut.
• In Seed-TIME,—the following has been his constant practice : As soon as the fowing of any particular field is finished, he first ad. jults and closes the Labour decount of that field; (See DIGEST, P.145.). and, having previously opened a Seed Account * for each of the Crops intended to be fown next year, he registers in one line (as in the following Arrangement) the Time of Sowing, the Number of Acres, and Name of the Field; with the Quantity and Quality of Seed which has been sown in it. As soon as the whole of a crop, as Wheat, for instance, is sown, he adds up the quantity of acres and the quantity of seed sown over chem; and thus fixes the real Arrangement with respect to Wheat.
• These several Operations, and this Arrangement, set the Soil and Seed Processes in a clear and interesting point of view; much useful information necessarily arises; and many incidents now require to be retained, until Harvest, by rough Memorandums.
• In MAY,-or as soon as the Seed is all in, he takes a general View of the whole Farm; correcting such departments of the intended arrangement as have not fallen under the Seed-Process ;-as Meadow, Pasture, Fallow, &c. and thus ascertains, precisely, the REAL ARRANGEMENT.
*The References to these Seed- Accounts were omitted (by a typographical error) in the Index which was given in page 145 of the Digesri'