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people. ' By the ancient laws of this kingdom, no man wa; to find himself in a worse condition from being a representa:ive of the peo. ple, than had they never conferred that honour upon him. Archat time there was but one order of men in the nation that cou'd not fit in the House of Commons, which were the Clergy; and the reason was, they had a House of Representatives to fic in Convocation, where the aids of the Clergy were granted to the Crown. At that time there was but one civil officer who could not be rerurned to fit in Parliament, which was the riturning officer of the Writ of Election ; and even this was a grievance loudly complained of, when any man was appointed heriff, with a design to prevent his election.
By the Statutes at large of chis nation, no laws are to be found in former ages to diiqualify gentlemen from fitting as Members in Parliament if duly elected, by realon of any employment whatsoever, either under the Crown or otherwise. The Journals of the House of Commons Thew the fense of our forefathers ftrongly agairft every thing of his patare: when any one was chof:n to sit in Parliament, they made no scruple to affert it to be both his duty and right to fit there, whatever employment he might hold, or whatever fummons he might have to attend in any other flation.' Several cases of this kind are cited from the Journals of the house.
The present patriotic principle of uncorrup'ed representation, is traced by our Author up to the famous Self-denying Ordinance of the Long Parliament; in the hiftory of which, from Lord Clarendon, he Mews it to have been the leading measure to the fubverfion of the conftitution and of public liberty; and which finally subrerted even the deluded parliament that adopted it.
Palling over these well known facts, we find the following observa. tion on like attempts after the Revolution. When this event h id eft de blished King William on the throne, the Jacobites, who ftill re:ained their love for an arbitrary reign, weré to wise as to carry on their schemes, even by the arts of men wnom they had in abhorrence, and remembering well the success of the Oliverian Fashion, in changing the conftitution by the means of the Self-denying Ordinance ; they took up the same resolucion in their turn, and were in hopes.that the old game which had ruined the Long Parliament, would equally tend to detroy that Parliamentary Power, which was the support of King William's reign.'
His reasoning on the principle of such a Parliamentary disqualia fication, is clearly and concisely summed up in the following thost representations : * It is, I trust, and ever will be the natural and warrantable ambition of the beff gentlemen in this country, not only to represent the people, but execuie the public ofiices. If their rulls are at any time divided, and if persons who execute the one, are rendered incapable of the other, the great misfortune will be, that the weight of families and fortunes will entirely fall into one scale or the other; and either the House of Commons must be unvorbily composed, or all the employments of the public unworthily du: plied.
If the Commons are incapable of administring any office of the Government, it must then naturally fall into the hands of the Nibi. lity: and the weight of the power will be so great in the halien of the Lords, that this alone mult detroy the liberty of the Conilitudin.
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• If the Lords and Commons are equally disabled to hold employe ments in the State, the weight of power will then fall into the hands of a separate party, and will create a separate interest, which will be always attended with infinite mischiefs, and may probably terminate in the destruction of the liberties of Parliament.
• Whilft gentlemen of great fortunes, estates and interests in the counties of England, thall, by reason of their credit and weight in their counties, be the only persons thought capable of holding employments in the State, the power of employments (be they contracts or otherwise) will not be directed to hurt the liberties of the people, because the gentlemen who discharge then are interested in the most faithful execution of them.
• But if ever gentlemen of such fortunes, ellates and interests with the people, ihall be the only men in England incapable of public em. ployments, all the offices must be filled with others, who will have a less concern in the liberty and happiness of their country, and must be more easily drawn into measures against that common intereft, in which their own Mare is so much less considerable. '
"The objection of dependance on the Crown arising from trusts of this nature, is merely invidious; for a gen:leman of one thousand pounds per annum in his own right, will never lessen the security of his eltate on any consideration, even of double the sum enjoyed by favour. He may serve the King with greater affection for the honour or advantage accruing to him; but if he hath human reason, he will not balance a moment, when his only option must be, Whether he will hazard his liberty and fortune, or his employment.'
Dangerous as it may be, to repose too unreserved a confidence in any set of men engaged in the adminiftration of government, the above argument has much more sobriety in it, than is found in many senatorial declamations, calculated to work on the prejudices of those who are apt to consider ministers, and all persons employed in na. tional affairs, as ex officio enemies to their country. How far it may coincide with Montesquieu's idea of the union of the legislative with the executive power being deliructive to liberty, or how far such abstract propofitions can be adhered to in practice, are points which must be left to the ingenuity of those who have abilities and leisure for the investigation.
DR A MAT I C. Art. 17. The Loyal Shepherd: or, The Rustic Heroine, a
Dramatic Pastoral Poem, in one Ac. To which is affixed, several
A wretched collection of trash!
Comedy in Two Acts, as performed at the Theatre Royal in
Suo fibi gladio hunc jugulo Here are the arms of the French turned against themselves ;--a Farce taken from that language, and converted into a national satire. The piece is not despicable, nor is its merit beyond mediocrity. The chief aim of the writer seems to have been, to serve and celebrate a theatrical þeroine of the name
of Jackson, whose picture and panegyric are prefixed and subjoined to his performance.
CONTROVERSIAL. Art. 19. Three Letters to the Reverend Dr. Price: Containing
Remarks on his Faft Sermon. By a Cobler. 8vo. 6 d. Bladon. 1779.
· I am a Cobler, and the son of a Cobler,' says this arch letter. writer, but he does not inform us what kind of cobler; whether he means to rank as a cobler of looes, a cobler of fouls (not foals), or a cobler 'of the flate. We apprehend, he is of the latt mentioned class;- some bastard, perhaps, thrice removed from Sacheverel, or Filmer. A merry-begotten one, no doubt, he is, and, with his laudable zeal, and happy exertions, he may figure in time, ac the head of some of our fate-cobling Boards: a Lord of Trade, be.' like, or a Commissioner of the Customs, or Standard-bearer to the Penfioners. He is certainly entitled to promotion, in reward of his attachment to the powers that be, and of his popular defence of their measures, in opposition to the antiministerial writer, Dr. Price ; whom he really combats with a good deal of shrewdness : and it is but justice to his abilities to add, that he is one of the Doctor's most spirited antagonists. We wish we could likewise have said the most candid", and the most liberal.
Our theologico-political Cobler is even possessed (perhaps ja vir. tue of his calling, for all coblers have, or should have, a dath of the comic) of some portion of that rare quality, humour, -- very little of wbich is seen in the polemical papers of the present times.
MATHEMATICS. Art. 20. Elements of Algebra, for the Use of Students in Unio
verficies. 8vo. 3 s. 6 d. boards. Cadell. 1779. This little tract, as we learn from a short Advertisement prefixed to it, was drawn up for the use of Students attending the Author's lectures, and is not offered as a complete treatise on the subject. The work is divided into three parts, preceded by a short introduction, which contains some pertinent remarks on the nature, extent, and object of algebra, with its advantages over common arichmetic. The Author then proceeds to define the terms, characters, and notation of which he makes use; after which he treats of what he calls fundamental operations; that is, of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplica. tion and Division; demonftrating, in a concise manner, the principal roles, &c.
He then proceeds to the doctrine of Algebraic fractions, propor. cion, the nature, management and methods of solving fimple equations; to involution and evolution of quantities, the doctrine of surds, the resolution of equations which involve pure powers, and also quadracic equations. He next explains the nature of indeterminate problems; of arithmetical, geometrical, and infinite series ; and concludes his first part with an Appendix, shewing che use of logarithms
* The following paffage will justify this drawback on the commendation due to the Author's abilities :- Blush, Doctor :if there is any blood in your veins, let us fee it in your face.' p. 24. Bloch, Cobler, bluch!
in resolving algebraic questions, the application of algebra to phy fical problems, interest, aonujcies, &c. &c.
In the second part, he treats of the origin and composition of ge. I neral equations, their transformation, and resolution, by different methods.
The third part is employed in the application of algebra to geometry: He here explains the methods of exprefling geometrical mag. nicudes algebraically; also how the different orders of hues are expressed and defined by algebraic equations; and news how to determine the figure and general properties of curves from those equations, together with various other circumstances relating to this very curious, and difficult subject. He concludes the book with thewing the na. ture, use and construction of the loci of equations, and also how to construct the equations themselves.
From this account the Reader will perceive, notwithstanding the Author's modeit Advertisement, that his book is not a mere syllabus; and we venture to pronounce that it will be found useful to all who Audy this difficult and extensive science, either with or without a tutor, as it contains many curious and useful particulars, not to be met with in larger treatises of algebra. Art. 21. The Seaman's complete Daily Adilant: Being an eafy and
correct Method of keeping a Journal at Sea Containing Rules for working the Cases in plain (plane) Middle-latitude, and Mercator's failing, by the Tables of sifference of Latitude and Departure.And for finding the Latitude, Longirude, Amplitude, and Azi. muth, by Observation. Illustrated by a sufficient Number of, Examples. Likewise Rules Thewing, how the Allowances are to be made for Lee-way, Variation, Heave of the Sea, setting of the Currents, &c. And to correct the dead Reckoning by an Observacion in all Cases. The new Method of finding the Latitude by two Altitudes of the Sun; and the finding the Longitude by the Moon's Distance from the Sun, or a fixed Slar, rendered easy to any common Capacity. To which are added, the Tables of Dif.
ference of Latitude and Departure 10 300 Miles of Dittance; the · new Solar Tables, and Tables of na:ural Sines; with a larger
and more correct Table of the Latitudes and Longitudes of Places, than any hitherto published, together with all che Tables necessary. for :he Seaman's Uie, in working a Day's Work at Sea. The
whole constructed upon a new Plan. By John Hamilton Moore, - Author of the Praclical Navigator, and formerly belonging to the. Royal Navy. 8vo. 35. Robinson. 1779.
The Reader will readily judge of the true intent and complexion, of this work, from the quan:ity of matter contained in its title-page : the proportion, however, which generally obtains in things of this natüre; namely, that the guantity of matter in the book is inversely as tha: in the title page, fails here.
Mr. Moore, besides precepts in abundance, ad a new journal, gives us tables of difference of la:itude and departure to excry degree, as well as to every point and quarter point of the compass, op 19 300 miles of distance, a table of meridional parts, a table of the fun's. ainalitude for every degree of his declination, and to each degree of latitude from the equator to the polar-circle, and a table
of the variation of the sun's declination to every ten degrees of longitode, all taken from Hafelden's old Seaman's Daily Afflittant :A table of the refraction of the heavenly bodies in aliitude, a table of the disc of the horizon, and a table of the correction of the moon's altitude for the joint effects of parallax and refraction, taken from the cables requisire to be used with the nautical Almanac:--Tables for finding the Jaricude by two altirudes, and a cable of natural fines from N. Falck, M. D. who had before borrowed them from another person. These, together with some others, of less use, from different Authors, render the work more comprehensive, and of course more useful, than the old one, to such perfons as understand the use of tbe tables, without the help of the precepts which are annexed to them by the Compiler. But the precepts want that perfpicuity for which Hasel. den's book has so long been admired; and this circumstance renders the present volume useless to such as have occafion to consult them: moreover, in attempting to plume the feathers which he has borrowed, the Compiler has betrayed a deficiency of knowledge in the lubject on which he has undertaken to write...
For example, not content with the description of the nautical day, and the manner in which seamen keep their accounts of time, as he found it in other authors; he adds, " Therefore, the d.clination used in rectling any day's latitude, must be the declination for the following day in the table of declination. Thus, in fettling my latitude on Wednesday, May 6th, or finding my latitude at the close of that day, I use the declination for Thuriday, May 7th.” Now all this is absolutely wrong, for the oth nautical day begins on the sth, at noon, according to the common, or civil account of days, and ends at noon on the 6th, at which time the 6th aitronomical day begins ; : to which instant, namely, the end of the 6th nautical day, and be. ginning of the och astronomical day, the declination of the sun is: computed in all tables whatsoever ; consequently, as the seaman always makes up his reckoning at the end of his day, and the begin. ning of the aitronomical one of the same name, he must use the declination put down in the tables for that day, and not “ the declination for the following one," as Mr. Moore advises. This mistake, which runs through all Mr. Moore's naucical writings.*, is the more extraordinary in a person who tells us, he has formerly belonged to the royal navy; but, we will venture to afirm, th3t on board no ihip in the royal navy could he ever have worked an observation, at noon, without differing from every other person in i:.
From among the many unfortunate addicions made by this Author, we shall only select one more, viz. Page 63, he gives the common rule for computing an azimuth (which is to be met with in every book of navigation), namely, ' Add: the complement of the latitude, the complement of the altitude, and the fun or star's polar distance into one sum: from half thai fum, subtract the polar distance, and note the half fum and the remainder.' So far our Author runs with the herd; but in order to supply the defciencies of all who wsore before him, he adds, “ But if the half Jum be-lefs than the
* See p. 162, of his Practical Navigator, 2d edite