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and he finds at last that he can in this manner get CHAP. more cattle and venison, than if he himself went to the field to catch them. From a regard to his own intereft, therefore, the making of bows and arrows grows to be his chief business, and he becomes a sort of armourer, Another excels in making the frames and covers of their little huts or moveable houses. He is accustomed to be of use in this way to his neighbours, who reward him in the same manner with cattle and with venison, till at last he finds it his interest to dedicate himself entirely to this employment, and to become a fort of house-carpenter. In the fame manner a third becomes a smith or a brazier ; a fourth a tanner or dreffer of hides or fkins, the principal part of the clothing of savages. And thus the certainty of being able to exchange all that surplus part of the produce of his own labour, which is over and above his own consumption, for such parts of the produce of other men's labour as he


have occasion for, encourages every man to apply himself to a particular occupation, and to cultivate and bring to perfection whatever talent or genius he may possess for that particular fpecies of business.

The difference of natural talents in different men is, in reality, much less than we are aware of; and the very different genius which appears to distinguish men of different professions, when grown up to maturity, is not upon many occafions so much the cause, as the effect of the division of labour. The difference between the C 4



BOO K most diffimilar characters, between a philosopher

and a common street porter, for example, seems to arise not so much from nature, as from habit, custom, and education. When they came into the world, and for the first fix or eight years of their existence, they were, perhaps, very much alike, and neither their parents nor playfellows could perceive any remarkable difference. About that age, or soon after, they come to be employed in very different occupations. The difference of talents comes then to be taken no. tice of, and widens by degrees, till at last the vanity of the philosopher is willing to acknowledge scarce any resemblance. But without the disposition to truck, barter, and exchange, every man must have procured to himself every neceffary and conveniency of life which he wanted. All must have had the same duties to perform, and the same work to do, and there could have been no such difference of employment as could alone give occasion to any great difference of talent.

As it is this disposition which forms that dif. ference of talents, so remarkable among men of different professions, so it is this fame disposition which renders that difference useful. Many tribes of animals acknowļedged to be all of the fame species, derive from nature a much more remarkable distinction of genius, than what, antecedent to custom and education, appears to take place among men. By nature a philofopher is not in genius and disposition half fo different from a street porter, as a mastiff is from a



greyhound, or a greyhound from a spaniel, or ch A P. this last from a shepherd's dog. Those different tribes of animals, however, though all of the sạme species, are of scarce any use to one another. The strength of the mastiff is not in the least supported either by the swiftness of the greyhound, or by the fagacity of the spaniel, or by the docility of the shepherd's dog. The effects of those different geniuses and talents, for want of the power or disposition to barter and exchange, cannot be brought into a common stock, and do not in the least contribute to the better accommodation and conveniency of the species. Each animal is still obliged to support and defend itself, separately and independently, and derives no sort of advantage from that variety of talents with which nature has diftinguished its fellows. Among men, on the contrary, the most diffimilar geniuses are of use to one another; the different produces of their respective talents, by the general disposition to truck, barter, and exchange, being brought, as it were, into a common stock, where every man may purchase whatever part of the produce of other men's talents he has occasion for,




That the Divison of Labour is limited by the

Extent of the Market.


S it is the power of exchanging that gives

occafion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market. When the market is very small, no person can have any encouragement to dedicate himself entirely to one employment, for want of the power to exchange all that surplus part of the produce of his own labour, which is over and above his own consumption, for such part of the produce of other men's labour as he has occasion for,

There are some forts of industry, even of the lowest kind, which can be carried on no where but in a great town. A porter, for example, can find employment and subsistence in no other place. A village is by much too narrow a sphere for him ; even an ordinary market town is scarce large enough to afford him constant occupation. In the lone houses and very small villages which are scattered about in so desert a country as the Highlands of Scotland, every farmer must be butcher, baker and brewer for his own family. In such situations we can scarce expect to find even a smith, a carpenter, or a mafon, within less than twenty miles of another of the same trade. The scattered families that


live at eight or ten miles distance from the CHAP, nearest of them, must learn to perform them. selves a great number of little pieces of work, for which, in more populous countries, they would call in the assistance of those workmen. Country workmen are almost every where obliged to apply themselves to all the different branches of industry that have so much affinity to one another as to be employed about the fame fort of materials. A country carpenter deals in every fort of work that is made of wood : a country smith in every fort of work that is made of iron. . The former is not only a carpenter, but a joiner, a cabinet maker, and even a carver in wood, as well as a wheelwright, a plough-wright, a cart and waggon maker. The employments of the latter are still more various. It is impossible there should be such a trade as even that of a nailer in the remote and inland parts of the Highlands of Scotland. Such a workman at the rate of a thousand nails a day, and three hundred working days in the year, will make three hundred thousand nails in the year. But in fuch a situation it would be imposlible to difpose of one thousand, that is, of one day's work

in the year.

As by means of water-carriage a more extenfive market is open to every sort of industry than what land-carriage alone can afford it, so it is upon the sea-coast, and along the banks of navigable rivers, that industry of every kind naturally begins to fubdivide and improve itself, and it is frequently not till a long time after that


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