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BOO K machines as the ship of the failor, the mill of

the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consider only what a variety of labour is requisite in order to form that very simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips the wool. The miner, the builder of the furnace for smelting the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made use of in the smelting-house, the brick-maker, the bricklayer, the workmen who attend the furnace, the mill-wright, the forger, the smith, muft all of them join their different arts in order to produce them. Were we to examine, in the same manner, all the different parts of his dress and household furniture, the coarse linen shirt which he wears next his skin, the shoes which cover his feet, the bed which he lies on, and all the dif. ferent parts which compose it, the kitchen-grate at which he prepares his victuals, the coals which he makes use of for that purpose, dug from the bowels of the earth, and brought to him perhaps by a long sea and a long land carriage, all the other utensils of his kitchen, all the furniture of his table, the knives and forks, the earthen or pewter plates upon which he serves up and divides his victuals, the different hands employed in preparing his bread and his beer, the glass window which lets in the heat and the light, and keeps out the wind and the rain, with all the knowledge and art requisite for preparing that beautiful and happy invention, without which these northern parts of the world could scarce have afforded a very



comfortable habitation, together with the tools C HA P. of all the different workmen employed in producing those different conveniences; if we ex. amine, I say, all these things, and consider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that without the affiftance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to, what we very falfely imagine, the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated. Com. pared, indeed, with the more extravagant luxury of the great, his accommodation must no doubt appear extremely simple and easy; and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation of an European prince does not always so much exceed that of an industrious and frugal peasant, as the accommodation of the latter exceeds that of many an African king, the absolute master of the lives and liberties of ten thousand naked savages.

Of the Principle which gives occasion to the Divi-

fon of Labour. TH

'HIS division of labour, from which fo C HA P.

many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to


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BOO K which it gives occafion. It is the necessary, I.

though very flow and gradual, consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view no such extensive utility; the propenfity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another,

Whether this propensity be one of those original principles in human nature, of which no further account can be given ; or whether, as seems more probable, it be the necessary consequence of the faculties of reason and speech, it belongs not to our present subject to enquire. It is common to all men, and to be found in no other race of animals, which seem to know neither this nor any other species of contracts. Two greyhounds, in running down the same hare, have sometimes the appearance of acting in some fort of concert. Each turns her towards his companion, or endeavours to intercept her when his companion turns her towards himself. This, however, is not the effect of any contract, but of the accidental concurrence of their pafsions in the same object at that particular time. Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with another dog. Nobody ever saw one animal by its gestures and natural cries signify to another, this is mine, that yours ; I am willing to give this for that. When an animal wants to obtain fomething either of a man or of another animal, it has no other means of persuasion but to gain the favour of those whose fervice it requires. A

upon its dam, and a spaniel endea

puppy fawns


vours by a thousand attractions to engage the c H A P. attention of its master who is at dinner, when it wants to be fed by him. Man sometimes uses the same arts with his brethren, and when he has no other means of engaging them to act according to his inclinations, endeavours by every servile and fawning attention to obtain their good will. He has not time, however, to do this upon every occasion. In civilized fociety he stands at all times in need of the co-operation and assistance of great multitudes, while his whole life is scarce fufficient to gain the friendship of a few perfons. In almost every other race of animals each individual, when it is grown up to maturity, is intirely independent, and in its natural state has occafion for the assistance of no other living creature. But man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favour, and shew them that it is for their own advantage to do for him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another a bargain of any kind, proposes to do this : Give me that which I want, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning of every fuch offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those good offices which we stand in need of. It is not from the bene. volence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their


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BOOK regard to their own interest. We address our.

selves, not to their humanity but to their selflove, and never talk to them of our own neces, fities but of their advantages. Nobody but a beggar chuses to depend chiefly upon the benevolence of his fellow-citizens. Even a beggar does not depend upon it entirely. The charity of well-disposed people, indeed, fupplies him with the whole fund of bis fubfiftence. But though this principle ultimately provides him with all the necessaries of life which he has occasion for, it neither does nor can provide him with them as he has occasion for them, The greater part of his occasional wants are fupplied in the same manner as those of other people, by treaty, by barter, and by purchase. With the money which one man gives him he purchases food. The old cloaths which another bestows upon him he exchanges for other old cloaths which suit him better, or for lodging, or for food, or for money, with which he can buy either food, cloaths, or lodging, as he has occasion.

As it is by treaty, by barter, and by purchase, that we obtain from one another the greater part of those mutual good offices which we stand in need of, so it is this fame trucking disposition which originally gives occasion to the division of labour. In a tribe of hunters or shepherds a particular person makes bows and arrows, for example, with more readiness and dexterity than any

other. He frequently exchanges them for cattle or for venison with his companions ;


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