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BOO K two or three diftinet operations; to put it on, is

a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eigh, teen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them. I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a midding fize. Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thou. fand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thou, fand eight hundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of

a proper


a proper division and combination of their CH A P. different operations.

In every other art and manufacture, the effects of the division of labour are similar to what they are in this very trifling one; though, in many

of them, the labour can neither be so much fub. divided, nor reduced to so great a simplicity of operation. The division of labour, however, so far as it can be introduced, occafions, in every art, a proportionable increase of the productive powers of labour. The separation of different trades and employments from one another, seems to have taken place, in consequence of this advantage. This feparation too is generally carried furtheft in those countries which enjoy the highest degree of industryandimprovement; what is the work of one man in a rude state of society, being generally that of several in an improved

In every improved society, the farmer is generally nothing but a farmer; the manufac, turer, nothing but a manufacturer. The labour too which is necessary to produce any one com, plete manufacture, is almost always dividedamong a great number of hands. How


different trades are employed in each branch of the linen and woollen manufactures, from the growers of the flax and the wool, to the bleachers and smoothers of the linen, or to the dyers and dreffers of the cloth! The nature of agriculture, indeed, does not admit of so many subdivisions of labour, nor of so complete a separation of one business from another, as manufactures. It is impossible to separate fo entirely, the business of




BOOK the grazier from that of the corn-farmer, as the

trade of the carpenter is commonly separated from that of the smith. The spinner is almost always a distinct person from the weaver ; but the ploughman, the harrower, the fower of the feed, and the reaper of the corn, are often the fame. The occasions for those different forts of labour returning with the different seasons of the year, it is impossible that one man should be con, ftantly employed in any one of them. This impossibility of making fo complete and entire a separation of all the different branches of labour employed in agriculture, is perhaps the reason why the improvement of the productive powers of labour in this art, does not always keep pace with their improvement in manufactures. The most opulent nations, indeed, generally excel all their neighbours in agriculture as well as in manufactures; but they are commonly more diftin. guished by their superiority in the latter than in the former. Their lands are in general better cultivated, and having more labour and expence bestowed upon them, produce more in proportion to the extent and natural fertility of the ground. But this fuperiority of produce is fel. dom much more than in proportion to the fuperiority of labour and expence. In agriculture, the labour of the rich country is not always much more productive than that of the poor; or, at least, it is never fo much more productive, as it commonly is in manufactures. The corn of the rich country, therefore, will not always, in the fame degree of goodness, come cheaper to



market than that of the poor. The corn of c H A P. Poland, in the same degree of goodness, is as cheap as that of France, notwithstanding the fuperior opulence and improvement of the latter country. The corn of France is, in the corn provinces, fully as good, and in most years nearly about the fame price with the corn of England, though, in opulence and improvement, France is perhaps inferior to England. The corn-lands of England, however, are better cultivated than those of France, and the corn-lands of France are said to be much better cultivated than those of Poland. But though the poor country, notwithstanding the inferiority of its cultivation, can, in some measure, rival the rich in the cheapness and goodness of its corn, it can pretend to no fuch competition in its manufactures; at least if those manufactures suit the soil, climate, and situation of the rich country. The filks of France are better and cheaper than those of England, because the filk manufacture, at least under the present high duties upon the importation of raw filk, does not so well suit the climate of England as that of France. But the hard-ware and the coarse woollens of England are beyond all comparison fuperior to those of France, and much cheaper too in the fame degree of goodness. In Poland there are said to be scarce any manufactures of any kind, a few of those coarser household manufactures excepted, without which no country can well fubfift.

This great increase of the quantity of work, which, in consequence of the division of labour,


BOOK the same number of people are capable of per

forming, is owing to three different circuñ. ftances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman ; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly loft in passing from one fpecies of work to another; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.

First, the improvement of the dexterity of the workman necessarily increases the quantity of the work he can perform ; and the division of labour, by reducing every man's business to some one simple operation, and by making this operation the fole employment of his life, neceffarily increases very much the dexterity of the workman. A common smith, who, though accustomed to handle the hammer, has never been used to make nails, if upon some particular occafion he is obliged to attempt it, will scarce, I am assured, be able to make above two or three hundred nails in a day, and those too very bad

A smith who has been accustomed to make nails, but whose fole or principal business has not been that of a nailer, can seldom with his utmost diligence make more than eight hundred or a thousand nails in a day. I have seen several boys under twenty years of age who had never exercised any other trade but that of making nails, and who, when they exerted them. selves, could make, each of them, upwards of two thousand three hundred nails in a day. The making of a nail, however, is by no means one



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