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seat of the President fixed at Ludlow. This arrangement was confirmed in 1536 when Wales was incorporated with England; and was not abolished till 1689. In 1634 the Lord President was John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater.
Ludlow is in Shropshire, close on the Herefordshire border. In the Castle Butler wrote the first three cantos of “Hudibras" while Secretary to the Earl of Carberry, Lord President after the Restoration.
1. 20, derived from Homer's Circe. There is no need to go back to the “Odyssey.” The plot is derived partly from an accident which had happened to the children of the Lord President of Wales, who had been actually benighted in Haywood Forest, and partly, as Cunningham points out, from Peele's play, “The Old Wives' Tale” (1595).
1. 23, a quo ceu fonte. Ovid, “ Amores,” lib. iii., eleg. ix., 25. Ovid himself applies this to Homer.
1. 25, “Lycidas.” This was the last piece in the volume of memorial poems, entitled “Justa Edovardo King," published 1638. It contained poems in Greek, Latin, and English. See Globe, pp. 429, seq.
Edward King died by shipwreck, crossing from Chester to Ireland, in August, 1637. 1. 33, by some lines, viz., 113-131.
p. 7, l. 2, “ Arcades.” This was “ part of an entertainment presented to the Countess Dowager of Derby at Harefield by some Noble Persons of her Family.” It was probably written about 1634, and was first published in January, 1645.6. See Masson in Globe edition, p. 410, seq.
1. 4, Harefield, in Middlesex, four miles from Uxbridge. To the same lady, Alice Spencer, afterwards Countess Dowager of Derby, Spenser had dedicated his “ Tears of the Muses” (1591).
1. 8, the Inns of Court. The name properly belongs to certain societies, or colleges, of barristers and law-students existing in London, viz., the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn.
1. 9, death of his mother. She died on April 3rd, 1637, at Horton. There is a monument to her in the church of that village.
1. 10, Sir Henry Wotton's directions. Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) was a scholar, poet, and diplomatist. He was ambassador at Venice and elsewhere from 1604 to 1624. On his return to England he took holy orders, and was made Provost of Eton. His life, written by Izaak Walton, was prefixed to the “ Reliquiæ Wottonianæ " (1651).
Wotton's letter to Milton is given by Masson, “Life,” i. 737.
l. 15, Lord Scudamore. Sir John Scudamore (died 1671), created Viscount Scudamore in 1628, English ambassador at Paris in the reign of Charles I.
1. 16, Grotius. Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), scholar, lawyer, and theologian, one of the most learned men of his age. He was born at Delft; his real name was Van Groot, which was latinized in the usual fashion of the age. His famous treatise, “ De Jure Belli ac Pacis" (1625), is the foundation of the science of international law. His theological writings were marked by great fairness, and a strong desire to reconcile the difference between Catholics and Protestants. He was drawn towards Laud and the High Church party in the Church of England by their liberality, when compared with the Calvinists and the extreme Roman Catholics.
1. 17, Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, and Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, when she resigned the throne. She was a very eccentric woman, and took great pride in her patronage of men of letters. She was the patron of Descartes and Salmasius (see p. 105), as well as Grotius. She turned Roman Catholic, and died at Rome in 1689.
1.21, at Florence. Milton was at Florence during August and September, 1638.
1. 22, the academies. The Italian academies were the outcome of the Renascence. One of the earliest was the Academia Platonica, founded by Lorenzo de' Medici, in 1474. More famous was the Accademia della Crusca, established at Florence in 1582. They were literary and artistic societies which published editions of classical authors and dictionaries, while in their periodical meetings members discussed philosophical and critical difficulties, and read their own compositions to each other.
1. 25, says he. “Reason for Church Government,” bk. ii., “Prose Works,” Bohn, ii. 477-478. The whole passage is full of dignified egotism.
p. 8, 1. 2, Carlo Dati, a scholar and historian, at the time of Milton's visit to Florence was only nineteen. He left no work of any great importance.
1. 3, tumid lapidary style, the exaggerated style of inscriptions on tombs. As Johnson said, in the hearing of Dr. Burney, “In lapidary inscriptions a man is not upon oath” (Boswell, Bohn, ii. 369). Dati's Latin address (prose) is given in the Globe edition, p. 581.
1. 4, Francini. Another minor Florentine writer. See Masson, “Life,'' i. 780. The ode is given in the Globe edition, p. 579.
1.9, Holstenius. Lucas Holstein (died 1661), a learned German, had taken up his residence at Rome as secretary to Cardinal Barberini, and a librarian at the Vatican. There is a letter of Milton to Holstenius, see " Prose Works," Bohn, iii. 498.
1. 11, Cardinal Barberini. This was Francesco Barberini (1597-1675), a member of a family which gave several cardinals to the Church, had great influence at the Papal court, and founded the Barberini library. He was noted for his patronage of literary men.
1. 13, Selvaggi. “Who Selvaggi was I have not been able to ascertain.” Masson, “ Life of Milton," i. 754 (ed. 1859).
1. 14, Salsilli. Identified by Mr. Masson with “Giovanni Salzilli, a poet not mentioned in any of the histories of Italian literature" (" Life of Milton," i. 754, ed. 1859).
l. 14, tetrastick. A tetrastick (or tetrastich), is a stanza of four lines, just as a distich is one of two.
1. 21, to publish them. The verses by Francini, Salsilli, Selvaggi, and Manso are given in the Globe edition, pp. 578, seq.; Milton's Latin verses to Salsilli and Manso are given in Globe edition, pp. 614, seq.; Aldine, ii. 371.
1. 23, he says. See the Latin note prefixed to the “ Testimonia,” Globe, p. 578; Aldine, ii. 325.
1. 29, on to Naples. In November, 1638. Nothing is known of the hermit.
1. 31, Manso. Giovanni Battista Manso, Marquis de Villa (1560-1645), who was an old man,“ had been for two generations the Mæcenas of letters in Southern Italy. He had sheltered Tasso in the former generation, and Marini in the latter."
1. 32, Tasso. See p. 144.
p. 9, 1. 8, for the liberty, i.e., on account of the liberty he had allowed himself in talking on matters of religion. He had not observed very strictly Sir Henry Wotton's advice.
Johnson's authority is Philips, “ Life," Godwin, pp. 360-361.
1. 14, Galileo. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) had in 1616 got rid of the charges brought against him on account of his adoption of Copernican doctrines by submission to the Pope's order not to “ hold, teach, or defend them;" but in 1632 he got into more serious trouble by his somewhat tactless “Dialogo sopra i due Sistemii del Mondo,” and was examined by the Inquisition, and perhaps subjected to torture, although nearly seventy years of age.
In the “ Areopagitica," Milton says: “There (viz. in Italy] it was that I found and visited the famous Galileo, grown old, a prisoner to the Inquisition, for thinking in astronomy otherwise than the Franciscan and Dominican licensers thought." This passage contains a direct suggestio falsi, as Galileo was not in any real sense a prisoner in 1639.
He had indeed been sentenced to confinement during the
pleasure of the Inquisition. But he was at once permitted to reside in what he calls in one of his letters “the delightful palace of Trinità di Monte,” the residence of the Tuscan ambassador at Rome; after several months he was allowed to return to his own house, near Florence, the Villa d'Arcetri, where, under some slight restrictions, he lived unmolested for the rest of his days.
1. 15, he was told by Manso. Philips, “Life,” Godwin, p. 360.
1. 20, went on to Florence. He arrived here on the second occasion probably at the beginning of March, 1639.
1. 23, having sent away. See Philips, “Life,” Godwin, p. 361.
1. 25, metropolis of orthodoxy. Geneva was the headquarters of Calvinism.
1. 27, John Diodati (1576-1649) was the uncle of Charles Diodati, Milton's schoolfellow and friend. See p. 85. He was Professor of Theology after the death of Beza, and translated the Bible into Italian (1607).
1.27, Frederick Spanheim (1600-1648), Professor of Theology at Geneva, and afterwards at Leyden. Father of Ezechiel Spanheim, diplomatist, and writer on numismatics.
1. 35, “Epitaphium Damonis,” Globe, p. 617; Aldine, ii. 376.
p. 10, 1. 2, in St. Bride's Churchyard. See Edward Philips's "Life of Milton," pp. 362-364.
St. Bride's Church is in the angle between Fleet Street and New Bridge Street, close by Ludgate Circus. Here Sir Richard Lovelace was buried (1658). After the Fire the church was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren.
1. 3, John and Edward Philips. See p. 83. These were the sons of the poet's elder sister, Anne, by her husband, Edward Philips, who was now dead. The boys were at this time about eight or nine years old.
1. 5, in Aldersgate Street. The house is described by Edward Philips as "a pretty garden house in Aldersgate Street, ... at the end of an entry, and, therefore, the fitter for his turn, by reason of the privacy; besides that, there are few streets in London more free from noise than that” (“Life," Godwin, p. 364. Howell in 1657 says that Aldersgate Street“ resembled an Italian street more than any other in London, by reason of the spaciousness and uniformity of the buildings and straightness thereof, with the convenient distance of the houses" (Quoted by Dr. Garnett, p. 67).
1. 10, Let not our veneration. Recent writers on Milton condemn this passage as unfair to Milton and discreditable to Johnson. It is difficult to see why, unless the person of Milton
is to be considered superior to all criticism. Johnson had a great batred of cant, and he had been himself a schoolmaster; he saw nothing discreditable in Milton's occupation, but he thought the biographers absurd to try and disguise it beneath high-sounding phrases. Compare p. 18.
l. 27, a formidable list. See Aubrey, “ Collection for the Life of Milton,” Godwin, p. 343, and Philips, “ Life,” Godwin, p. 362. It included many writers whose works are scarcely looked into by the classical scholars of to-day; such as Varro, Columella, Palladius, Cornelius Celsus, Oppian, Dionysius Afer, Quintus Calaber, and Polyænus. Italian and French, Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac, were studied as well as Greek and Latin ; and in Mathematics the boys read “ Urstitius his · Arithmetic,' Riff's 'Geometry,' 'Petiseus his Trigonometry,' Johannes de Sacro Bosco, 'De Sphæra.'”.
p. 11, 1. 6, Georgick. Used here as an adjective. Johnson means works on agriculture, such as the “ Georgics" of Virgil and the “De Re Rustica ” of Columella.
1. 8, Cowley. See note to p. 2, 1. 32. Cowley mixed more with the Court than Milton, and hence is supposed by Johnson to have had better means of knowing “what was wanting to the embellishments of life.”
l. 10, the same plan. For Milton's plan of education, see his “ Letter to Hartlib,” Bohn, iii. 462 seq., as well as the account given by his nephew Philips.
Cowley's plan is contained in bis “Proposition for the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy,' Cowley's “ Works,” 1710, ii. 608.
1. 12, the knowledge of external nature. Johnson's position is just the opposite to that of some modern writers on education. Compare, for instance, Herbert Spencer: “ Thus to the question we set out with, "What knowledge is of most worth ? ' the uniform reply is, ' Science. This is the verdict on all the counts. ... Equally at present, and in the remotest future, must it be of incalculable importance for the regulation of their conduct, that men should understand the science of life, physical, mental, and social; and that they should understand all other science as a key to the science of life” (“ Education," 1887, pp. 47, 48). Cf. Masson's “Life,” iii. 251 seq.
1. 25, Physiological learning, that is, physical science. “Physiological” is now restricted to mean the science which deals with the bodily functions of living creatures, and particularly animals.
p. 12, l. 6. Socrates was rather of opinion. Compare Xenophon, “ Memorabilia," I. i.
1. 8, ŐTTI TOI, “ Odyssey," iv. 392, “ Whatever may have hap