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in the previous lines of a 'vale.' The older texts read bred in the bay, of which no satisfactory interpretation seems possible. Mason thought that the words meant 'woven in the garland,' but there is no instance of brede braid having a strong past participle.

II. ii. 26. This wire: part of a woman's head-dress. Cf. Jonson's Silent Woman, 'It dropt all my wire and my ruff with wax candle,' and Middleton's Michaelmas Term, 'A narrow-eared wire sets out a cheek so fat and so full.'

II. ii. 61. White money: a cant term for silver specie' (Dyce). II. ii. 65. Camphire constitutions. Camphire was considered pre-eminently cold.

II. iii. 26. Was never altered: this is the reading of the Quartos, and should be retained. The use of a singular verb after a plural substantive is common in Elizabethan English. F. alone reads were. II. iv. 92. Makes the reading of all the old texts. Cf. previous


II. iv. 99. Renegadoes: the Spanish renegado was used throughout the seventeenth century with the meaning, 'apostate,' 'turncoat.' Cf. Twelfth Night, III. ii. 63, 'Malvolio is turned heathen, a very renegado.' It seems here to be loosely used in the sense of 'treacherous intruders,' or perhaps, 'ruffians.'

II. iv. 123. Ride a stage: the reading of Q. 1, and evidently correct. The majority of the other editions read a stagge, while Q. 8 has stag, and Q. 6 and F. stagg. There is an allusion to the necessity, at the period, of obtaining a warrant for the hire of posthorses.

II. iv. 178. Nine worthies: Joshua, Judas Maccabæus, David, Alexander the Great, Hector, Julius Cæsar, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and King Arthur.

III. i. 23 Bulls of brass: an allusion to the brazen bull of Phalaris. III. 106. For bursting: for fear of bursting. It was popularly supposed that there were districts where no venomous creature could live.

IV. i. 22. A sick man's salve: an ironical allusion to a work by Thomas Bacon called The Sick Man's Salve. Wherein al faithful Christians may learne both how to behave themselves patiently and thankfully in the time of sicknesse, and also vertouslie to dispose their temporall goods and finally to prepare themselves gladly and godly to die. The first edition was published in 1561.

IV. i. 33. A foolish twinkling with the eye, that spoils her coat: 'The allusion is to mullets, or stars, introduced into coats of arms, to distinguish the younger branches of a family, which, of course, denote inferiority.'

IV. i. 48. Large: the reading of Q.'s 1 and 2. The later editions read great.

IV. ii. 10-11. He forsook the say, for paying ten shillings. It was customary, after the deer had been hunted down, for the keeper to offer his knife to a leading personage among the huntsmen, that he might rip up the belly and take an assay of the condition of the game. Pharamond declined the offer, in order to escape the fee of ten shillings. On the use of for in the passage, cf. III. i. 106.

IV. ii. 14-15. The velvet-head... to turf his hat withal. Turbervile, in his Art of Venerie, states that a hart's head (i.e. horns) 'when it cometh first out, hath a russet pile upon it, the which is called velvet, and his head is called then a velvet-head.' To turf is to 're-cover.'

IV. ii. 16. Sir Tristrem: the patron knight of the chase.

IV. ii. 18. A rascal milking in a meadow: the reading of all the texts. A 'rascal' is a lean deer, not fit to be hunted, Theobald, followed by later editors, has substituted 'miching,' i.e. 'creeping along by itself,' for 'milking,' but the original reading may be


IV. ii. 84. Studded with: Q. I reads 'star-dyed with,' and Q.'s 7 and 9 and F. read subbed with.'

IV. iii. 53. Sirs: used formerly as a term of address to women as well as men.

IV. iii. 61. Meeting: the reading of all the old texts except Q. 1, which has meetings.

IV. iii. 89. Venies at wasters: bouts at cudgels. Cf. Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 'They that play at wasters exercise themselves by a few cudgels how to avoid an enemy's blows.' Theobald connects 'wasters' with the Latin vastatores, but the origin of the word is doubtful.

IV. iv. 1. A heaviness near death: Q. 1 reads O heavens! heavy death.

IV. iv. 60. To hurt. Q. 2 alone reads strike.

IV. iv. 123-124. But say It was Philaster: this, the reading of all texts except Q. 1, is not nonsense, as Dyce suggests. Pharamond, in his eagerness to convict his rival Philaster of crime, characteristically appeals to the King to declare that he, and not Bellario, is guilty of the attack on the Princess. Q. I reads 'but sute it was. Hence Dyce reads 'but sure it was.'

v. ii. 1. Nay, faith, Philaster: the reading of Q.'s 1, 2, and 3. The other texts (except Q. 9, which has Nay, Philaster) read 'Nay, dear Philaster.'

v. ii. 5. Shot: the reading of all the texts except Q. 1, which has shut.

V. ii. 21. By limbs: this, the reading of Q. 2, is preferable to that of the later texts, 'my limbs.' Q. I reads 'waste by time,'

v. ii. 40. Your life no price compared to mine. This was Mason's alteration of the original reading, My life no price compared to yours, which gives a sense opposite to that intended by Philaster. Mason's alteration had been already anticipated by the author of The Restauration. Q. I reads, My life no whit compared to yours for love. V. iii. 29. Free from the fervour of the Sirian Star: the reading of Q. I. Other texts have, Free from the Sirian Star.

v. iii. 42. Divided: Q. I reads unarm'd.

v. iii. 55. Hymen turn his saffron. The figure of Hymen in masques was arrayed in saffron-coloured robes.

v. iii. 65. Chafed: the reading of Q. 1.

Chast is the reading of

Q.'s 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8; Cast of Q.'s 6, 7, 9, and F.

v. iii. 80. This line is only found in Q. 1.

V. iii. 108. Fearing: fearing for.

V. iii. 130. Shin: Q. I reads skin, which may be right. v. iii. 133. Bawled: adopted by Dyce from Heath's Ms. notes. The old texts have bath'd.

V. iii. 143-144. False lights used by dishonest tradesmen to enable them to palm off inferior goods on their customers. Dyce refers in illustration to Middleton's Michaelmas Term, where the rascally woollen-draper addresses his assistant, Falselight-

'Go, make my coarse commodities look sleek;
With subtle art beguile the honest eye;

Be near to my trap-window, cunning Falselight.'

v. iii. 153-154. The Goatish Latin: the reading of Q.'s 1 (with the spelling gotish), 2, 3, and 9, and certainly correct. Dyce quotes from Hormanni's Vulgaria: 'The rank savour of gotes is applied to them that will not come out of their baudy [i.e. foul, barbarous) Latin.' The other texts read goarish.

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V. iii. 170. Soil you. ... a brace of foremen: fatten a brace of geese. Soiling, the last fattening given to fowls when they are taken up from the stack or barn-door, and cooped for a few days.'— Forby's Vocabulary of East Anglia.

v. iv. 7. Ding-a-dings: Q. 1. Other texts read, ding-dongs. The phrase darlings.

v. iv. 8. Kings of Clubs: an allusion to the favourite weapons of the London apprentices.

V. iv. 9-10. Paintings Spitted with copper: coloured clothes stitched over with copper. Cf. Cotgrave: Broché, Broached, spitted; also, grosely stitched, sowed or set with great stitches.'

v. iv. 11. Bodkin: a corruption of Baudkin, or Baudekyn, which Nares defines as 'the richest kind of stuff, the web being

gold and the woof silk, with embroidery.' According to Strutt, Henry III. was the first English king to use it for his vesture. In the Wardrobe Inventories of Henry v. and Henry VIII. we hear of 'baudekyn of purple silk,' 'white baudekyn of gold,' etc.

v. iv. 15. Your three-piled spirits, your wrought valours: An elaborate play on words. Three-piled was originally used of the best velvet, because it was thought that 'there was a three-fold accumulation of the outer substance or pile' (Nares, quoted by Dyce). It was thence applied to anything specially excellent, and its use in an address to shopkeepers has a peculiar propriety. Similarly valours is used with a punning reference to velures or valures, i.e. velvets.

V. iv. 19. Rose-nobles: gold coins worth 6s. 8d., struck originally in the reign of Edward III., and stamped with a rose.

v. iv. 20. Lord-prince: Q. I reads lord-prisoner, which may be right, as it is metrically preferable.

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v. iv. 22-24. That will not strike. cry cockles. That will not yield to an inferior vessel, and let a man-of-war be idle, and engage in an inferior form of trade. 'Foist' (Fr. fuste, Ital. fusta) is a small vessel, and, as Weber remarks, in its application to Pharamond, with his gaudy attire and ostentation, there is probably an allusion to the Lord Mayor's gorgeously painted barge, the galley-foist. For the meaning of 'hull' cf. Twelfth Night, Act I. v. 216-217 :

'MAL. Will you hoist sail, sir? Here lies your way.

VIOL. No, good swabber; I am to hull here a little longer.' 'Cry Cockles,' according to Grose (Class. Dict. of the Vulgar Tongue), quoted by Dyce, means 'to be hanged,' perhaps from the noise made whilst strangling. If this is the correct interpretation, there is an abrupt change in the metaphor, suggested by the fate of which Philaster stands in peril. But 'cry cockles' may perhaps mean 'engage in an inferior form of trade.' Such an in

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