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sense and meaning of the word absolutely considered. The apostle exhorts the Hebrews in the words of the psalmist, to make use of the present season by the use of means for the furtherance of their faith and obedience, that they may be preserved from hardness of heart and final unbelief.
And what arguments unto duty are suggested from a present season shall afterwards be considered. To enforce this exhortation the apostle reminds them, that there is in the words of the psalmist, I. A retrospect unto a monitory example. For others there were who had their day also, their season. This they improved not, they answered it not, nor filled it up with the duty that it was designed unto, and therefore the sad event befel them mentioned in the text. Hence doth he enforce his exhortation. It is now today with you, it was to-day with them of old. But you see what a dark sad evening befel them in the close of their day. Take heed lest it be so with you also. 2. A respect unto the day enjoyed in the time of the psalmist, which completed the type, of which before. And yet further; there was, 3. more than a mere example intended by the psalmist. A prophecy also of the times of the gospel was included in the words, as our apostle declares in the next chapter. Such a season as befel the Jews at the giving of the law, is prefigured to happen to them at the giving of the gospel. The law being given on mount Sinai, the church of the Hebrews who came out of Egypt had their day, their time and season for the expressing of their obedience thereunto, whereon their entrance into Canaan did depend. This was their day, wherein they were tried whether they would hearken to the voice of God or not; namely, the space of thirty-eight, or forty years in the wilderness. The gospel was now delivered from Mount Sion. And the church of the Hebrews to whom the word of it first came, had their peculiar day, prefigured in the day after the give ing of the law, enjoyed by their forefathers. And it was to be but a day, but one especial season, as their's was. And a trying season it was to be; whether in the limited space of it they would obey the voice of God or not. And this especial day continued for the space of thirty-eight or forty years, from the preaching of the gospel by our Lord Jesus Christ and his death, to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus; wherein the greatest part of the people fell after the same example of unbelief with their forefathers, and entered not into the rest of God. This was the day and the season that was on the Hebrews at this time, which the apostle exhorts them to the use and improvement of. Squigor, then, or “to-day,' signifies in general, a present season, which men are not long to be intrusted with ; and it hath a triple re., spect, limitation or application. 1. To the season enjoyed by the people in the wilderness, who neglected it. 2. To the persons spoken to in the psalmist typically, who were exhorted to use it. VOL. IV.
3. To the present Hebrews, whose gospel day was therein foretold and prefigured. In all which we are instructed unto the due use of a present season.
Obs. X. Old Testamentexamples are New Testament instructions.' -Our apostle elsewhere, reckoning sundry instances of things that fell out amongst the people of old, affirms of them TAUTA παντα τυποι συνεβαινον εκείνοις, 1 Cor. Χ. 11. " All these things befel them as types.” The Jews have a saying, nias y7x77 Du2 173'0 : That which happeneth to the father, is a sign or example unto the children.' In general and in the order of all things, discipulus est prioris posterior dies : “the following day is to learn of the former. Experience is of the greatest advantage for wisdom. But there is more in this matter. The will and appointment of God is in it. From thence, that all the times of the Old Testament, and what fell out in them, are instructive of the times and days of the New, not only the words, doctrines and prophecies that were then given out, but the actions, doings and sufferings of the people which then fell out, are to the same purpose. There is more in it than the general use of old records and histories of times past, which yet are of excellent use unto a wise consideration in things moral and political. This many have made it their work to manifest and demonstrate. The sum of all is comprised in those excellent words of the great Roman historian concerning his own work. Ad illa mihi acriter pro se quisque intendat animum, quæ vita, qui mores fuerint ; per quos viros, quibusque artibus domi militiaque, et partum et auctum imperium sit. Labente deinde paulatim disciplina, velut dissidentes primo mores sequatur animo, deinde ut magis magisque lapsi sint, tum ire cæperint precipites, donec ad hæc tempora quibus nec vitia nostra, nec remedia pati possumus, perventum est. Hoc illud est pracipue in cognitione rerum salubre et frugiferum ; omnis et exempli documenta in illustri posita monuments intueri. Inde tibi quod imitere copias ; inde fedum incæptı, fædum exitu, quod vites. "Hereunto' (in reading this history) • let every one diligently attend, to consider who were the men, what was their life and manners, by what means and arts this empire was both erected and increased. And then more. over how good discipline insensibly decaying, was attended with manners also differing from the former ; which in process of time increasing, hurried all things at length headlong into these times of ours, wherein we can endure neither our voices nor their re
This is that which in the knowledge of past affairs is both wholesome and fruitful ; that we have an illustrious monument of all sorts of examples, from whence you may take what you ought to imitate, and know also by the consideration of actions dishonest in their undertaking, and miserable in the event, what you ought to avoid.' And if this use may be made of hue man stories, written by men wise and prudent, though in many things ignorant, partial, factious, as most historians have been, unable in many things to judge of actions whether they are really good or evil, praise-worthy or to be condemned, and in all things unable to judge of the intentions with which, and the ends for which, they were done ; how much more benefit may be obtained from the consideration of those records of times past, which as they are delivered to us by persons divinely preserved from all error and mistake in their writings, so they deliver the judgment of God himself, to whom all intentions and ends are open and naked, concerning the actions which they do report. Besides, the design of human story, is but to direct the minds of men in things just and honest with reference unto political society, and the good of community in this world ; with respect whereunto alone it judgeth of the actions of men and their events. But all things in the Scriptures of the Old Testament are directed unto a higher end, even the pleasing of God, and the eternal fruition of bim. They are therefore, with the examples recorded in them, of singular and peculiar use as materially considered. But this is not all. The things contained in them were all of them designed of God for our instruction, and yet do continue as an especial way of teaching. The things done of old, were, as Justin Martyr speaks, προκηρυγματα των κατα Χριστου, “ fore-declarations of the things of Christ.' And Tertullian, to the same purpose, Scimus ut vocibus, ita rebus prophetatum, prophecy or prediction consisted in things as well as words.' And Chrysostom, serm. II. de Jejun. distinguisheth between prophecy by speech or words, and prophecy by examples or actions.
Our apostle expressly treateth of this subject, 1 Cor. x. Con. sidering the state of the people in their deliverance from Egypt, and abode in the wilderness, he refers the things relating unto them to two beads. First, God's miraculous works towards them, and marvellous dealings with them. Secondly, Their sins, and miscarriages, with the punishments that befel them. Having mentioned those of the first sort, he adds, Tævta di tumor mpeon
Front nour, ' now these were all our examples,' ver. 6. types representing God's spiritual dealings with us. And having reckoned. up the other, he closeth his report of them with, TAUTA ds TUTTO OURbarvou exeıyors, they befel them, that God in them might represent unto us, what we are to expect, if we sin and transgress in like manner. They and their actions were our types. TUTOS, a type, hath many significations ; in this use of it, it signifies a rude and imperfect expression of any thing in order to a full, clear, and exact declaration of it. So Aristotle useth dyudas xao as su tutw, in opposition to axqt3ws dingosur, a general and imperfect description, to an exact distinction, Thus they were our types, in that the matter of our faith, obedience, rewards and puniskments were delineated aforehand in them.
Now these types or examples were of three sorts.
First, Such as were directly instituted and appointed for this end, that they should signify and represent something in particular in the Lord Christ and his kingdom. It is true, that God did not institute any thing among the people of old, but what had its present use and service amongst them. But their present use did not comprehend their principal end. And herein do types and sacraments differ. Our sacraments have no use but that with respect unto their spiritual end and signification. We do not haptize any to wash the body, nor give them the supper of the Lord to nourish it. But types had their use in temporal things, as well as their signification of things spiritual. So the sacrifices served for the freeing of the people from the sentence of the law, as it was the rule of their polity or civil government, as well as to prefigure the sacrifice of the body of Christ.
Now these types, which had a solemn, direct, stated institution, were materially either persons as vested with some certain offices in the church, or things.
First, Persons. So the Lord raised up, designed, and appointed Moses, Aaron, Joshua, David, Solomon, and others, to typify and represent the Lord Christ unto the church. And they are to be considered in a threefold capacity. 1st, Merely personal, as those individual men, unto which concernment all their moral good and evil did belong. In this sense, what they did or acted had no respect unto Christ, nor is otherwise to be considered, but as the examples of all other men recorded in the Scriptures. 2dly, As to the offices they bare in the church and among the people, as they were prophets, captains, kings or priests. In this respect, they had their present use in the worship of God, and government of that people according to the law. But herein, 3uly, In the discharge of their offices and present duties, they were designed of God to represent, in a way of prefiguration, the Lord Christ and his offices, who was to come. They were a transcript out of the divine idea in the mind and will of God, concerning the all-fulness of power and grace that was to be in Christ, expressed by parcels, and obscurely in them, so as by reason of their imperfection they were capable.
Secondly, These types consisted in things, such as were the sacrifices, and other institutions of worship among the people. That this was the design and end of the whole Mosaic divine service, we shall manifest in our progress. This therefore is not the place to insist particularly upon them.
Secondly, There were such things and actions as had only a providential ordination to that purpose. Things that occasionally fell out, and so were not capable of a solemu institution, but were, as to their events, so guided by the providence ot God, as that they might prefigure and represent somewhat thai was afterwards to come to pass. For instance, Jeremiah, ch. xxxi. 15. sets out the lamentation of Rachel, that is, the women of the tribe of Benjamin, upon the captivity of the land. * A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children, refused to be comforted for her children, because they were not." It is evident from ch. xl. 1. that after the destruction of Jerusależn by the BabyJonians, Nebuzaradan gathered the people together that were to go into captivity at Ramah. There the women considering how many of their children were slain, and the rest now to be carried away, brake out into woful and unspeakable lamentation. And this was ordered in the providence of God, to prefigure the sorrow of the women of Bethlehem upon the destruction of their children by Herod, when he sought the life of our Saviour, as the words are applied, Matt. ii. S. And we may distinguish things of this kind into two sorts.
First, Such as have received a particular application unto the things of the New Testament, or unto spiritual things belonging to the grace and kingdom of Christ, by the Holy Ghost himself in the writings of the gospel. Thus the whole business of Rebekah's conceiving Jacob and Esau, their birtb, tie oracle of God concerning them, the preference of one above the other, is declared by our apostle to have been ordained in the providence of God to teach his sovereignty in choosing and rejecting whom he pleaseth, Rom. ix. So he treateth at large concerning what befel that people in the wilderness, inaking application of it to the churches of the gospel, 1 Cor. x.; and other instances of the like kind may be insisted on, almost innumerable.
Secondly, This infallible application of one tining and season unto another, extends not (but) unto the least part of those teaching examples, which are recorded in the Old Testament. Many other things were ordained in the providence of God to be instructive unto us, and may by the example of the apostles be in like manner applied. For concerning them all, we have this general rule, that they were ordained and ordered in the providence of God for this end, that they might be examples, documents and means of instruction unto us. Again, we have succeeded into the same place in the covenant, unto them who were originally concerned in them, and so may expect answer:ble dispensations of God towards ourselves. And they are all written for our sakes.
Thirdly, There are things that fell out of old, which are meet to illustrate present things, from a proportion of similitu le between them. And thus where a place of Scripture directly treats of one thing, it may, in the interpretatiou of it, be applied to illustrate another, which hath some likeness to it. These expositions the Jews call *27722; and say, they are made