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own interest is defiantly challenged by the colored races. They now rise in a new consciousness of racial dignity and of moral worth, and are asking the white man, “Who made thee ruler and judge over us?” I have never known this tension to be so great or the sentiment so strong and universal in India as it has been recently, owing to the unjust treatment of Indians in South Africa and, more recently, in Canada. They do indeed definitely say that they "do not fight for equal political rights, they recognize that in view of the existing prejudices, immigration from India should be strictly limited, provisions being made for entrance of a sufficient number annually for reason of the wear and tear." These quoted words were written by an Indian authority.

This race conflict is not only acute, it is also unique in that land. It is to the everlasting credit of Great Britain that she has taught the people of India to claim as men those rights which are so dear to all. In all her 200 colleges the 37,000 students are inspired constantly by their English teachers to realize their manhood and to hold most dear all rights incident to that manhood.

In that land the racial difficulty is different from that in other countries. It is unique and peculiar in two particulars. (a) In the first place, it is not the conflict between superior and inferior races, as we are apt to characterize the racial conflict in this country. It is rather the meeting and the conflict of two long separated Aryan brothers, whose common home was somewhere, either in Central Asia or in Europe (authorities disagree). These two brothers were reared in the same home. They prospered and multiplied and finally, say, some four thousand years ago, separated; each to seek his fortune elsewhere. One found his promised land in western Europe, the other in southern Asia, in the peninsula of India. Each triumphed over his enemies in the new land and built for himself a home and founded a civilization all his own. By a strange and unique Providence these two brothers, after millenniums of separation, have come together and are jostling each other upon the plains and mountains of India. The Aryan white of the West (the Anglo-Saxon) and the

Aryan brown of India (the Brahman) have thus met each other face to face under, by no means, pleasant circumstances. The one has triumphed in war over the other and claims superiority and precedence over him. The Western brother regards himself as the rightful owner of that land, and rides rough-shod over the sensibilities and rights of the man of India. But look at the Brahman; he is the most imperially, yea divinely conceited human ever known, and perhaps has a right to reveal this attitude of mind; for has not the destiny of India been largely in his hands during these many centuries? Perhaps no individual has ever, for so long a time, and so exclusively, dominated over a race as this man has who has wielded his unique power in India. Intellectually he has not only been preëminent, but he stands today as the intellectual paragon of that land, as he has indeed perhaps the brightest mind among all men. The wonderful systems of thought which have dominated that land and people for so many centuries—are they not largely the product of his brain? Is he not also the founder and fashioner of society in that land—a society whose every law and custom aims at his aggrandisement and glorification, and has always substantially added, if possible, to his social prestige? Has he not believed and felt that a touch or the shadow of a white man pollutes him as truly as does the touch and shadow of a pariah? Even the shaking of the hands of a Brahman by King George, Emperor of India, would necessitate religious ablutions on the part of that Brahman in order to cleanse himself from the touch of the white man!

Religiously this Brahman is not only supreme among the people of India, he is deemed divine; he is the son of the creator, Brahmâ, and hence is called the “Brahman,” and receives the worship due to his father. Many millions in that land worship him faithfully, and, with proud selfconsciousness, he accepts their devotion and faith as his due!

Thus, this man of the East regards himself as more than primus inter pares among the people of India. He holds

THE JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 5, NO. 3, 1915

aloft his head as the bright son of heaven whom the man of the West should honor and reverence.

But the Englishman smiles at, and casts contempt upon, his vain assumption, and in a thousand ways tries to impress upon the Brahman that he is an inferior, whose right place is at the feet of the man of the West!

This, then, is the situation in a nut shell at the present time. These two men are face to face, each one unwilling to recognize or acknowledge the excellence and eminence of the other.

(b) In the second place, the bitterness of the present race problem in India is affected by another element. India is a part of the British Empire. She has now become a willing member of, and desires to remain permanently in, the union. She appreciates the dignity and value of this union with the white man in many ways; but under the training and through the instigation of the white man himself she is insisting that it be on honorable terms, that even if she enjoy not equal rights and privileges with the Anglo-Saxon she at least be treated with respect and dignity.

India is no longer willing that she, who constitutes threefourths of the population of the Empire, be denied the same prerogatives as the other fourth.

But, unfortunately, this other fourth is not willing to grant her this request. The white man of England, of Canada, of Australia, and of South Africa enjoys, and claims the right to enjoy, equally with the inhabitants of India, all the social, political and commercial blessings of that land. Yea, the white man can, and does, exercise prerogatives and enjoy privileges and opportunities in India which are denied to the native. What, however, chiefly exercises the Indian at this time, and what so annoys him, is that he is not permitted to enter the other countries of the Empire. Australia is a closed door to him as an immigrant. Canada has recently ruthlessly slammed her doors in his face. South Africa is willing to deal with him only as an inferior in semi-bondage, though she badly needs his services. Even in England he is made to feel that he is a persona non grata to be patronized as a ward, it may be,

but not to be welcomed as an honored fellow citizen of the common Empire.

The sinister events of the last two years have roused all the people of India to resentment and indignation beyond anything I have ever known in that land. The recent treatment of Indians in South Africa and in Canada has stirred her to her depth and constitutes in itself a more serious menace to the integrity of the Empire than anything else I know.

Great Britain deplores this narrowness and racial prejudice of her colonies, but is helpless to remove them, since they claim absolute independence and are ready constantly to cry “hands off” whenever the mother country appeals to them on lines of Imperial union and harmony. The situation represents a similar impasse to that between state and federal authority in this land in reference to the reception of the Eastern peoples. The people of India are loyal to the Empire; but with increasing vehemence they demand that justice and right to be dealt evenly between them and the white man, at least within the borders of the Empire. If the other sections of the Empire deny to them the right of entrance, it is but right that those sections also should be denied the right to come to India; and when this is accomplished, we shall witness the absurd and impossible vision of an Empire, which is made up of mutually independent and antagonistic elements, whose only common law and aspiration is that of mutual exclusion and repugnance!

The only redeeming feature to the situation was the effort of the Viceroy to demand from South Africa humane, if not equal, treatment to the Indian. And this brought forth concessions from the South African government. But that the Viceroy, who is eminently conciliatory and ambitious to help his Indian people in this struggle, is nevertheless a white man, possessed of the weakness and foibles of his arrogant race, is evident from his futile attempt to defend Canada in her recent expulsion of the shipload of Indian subjects from her coasts.

At the present time and stress of war India may be willing to hold these fundamental claims and rights in abeyance; but from this time forward Great Britain must count with this new aspiration and deepening purpose of India to find an honorable place in that great Empire. She has no desire whatever to leave the Empire; she knows that her highest interests are connected with it, and she now gladly and unreservedly throws herself into the great war, not only to demonstrate her loyalty, but also to prove herself worthy of the confidence of the West.

I anticipate that through this war India will reveal, as never before, and in a new aspect, the strength of her character and her value as an integral part of the Empire; so that at the close of the war, Great Britain will not hesitate to reward her with more confidence and power and will purge out that bitter racial leaven which must otherwise soon produce undying hatred and a permanent rupture between them.

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