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partial substitution, at least, of the rule of the people for the rule of those who esteem it their God-given right to govern the people despotically and tyrannically, might prevent a repetition of such disastrous warfare," says Roosevelt.
Again, the wide adoption of democratic principles, even in lands retaining monarchical governments, will also serve in striking ways to unify the forms of social organization and activity; a very important factor in the creation of internationalism.
It has become clear in the present war, that to the eye of despotic militarism-to which morality and religion are mere silly talk and the superstitious rites of the weakminded-no right, no treaty, no guarantee, that is not backed by force, has any value. To it, "might is right," and a treaty of neutrality is nothing but "paper." If there is no meaning to the words "right" and "wrong" in international matters, however; if the standard of national intercourse is still so low and brutal as that, what a perilous condition there is for the world. No safety, no protection for the weak; in fact, nobody knows tomorrow's fate, for has not might the supreme right?
In the present war, who does not shudder at the savageness of the fighting, and weep over the awful fate and the terrible suffering of Belgium; the peace-loving, industrious, commercial Belgium; the most lamented neutral state, Belgium? "Let each man think of his neighbors," says a writer, "of the carpenter, the station-agent, the day-laborer, the farmer, the grocer-who are around him, and think of these men deprived of their all, their homes destroyed, their sons dead or prisoners, their wives and children half starved, overcome with fatigue and horror, stumbling their way to some city of refuge, and when they have reached it, finding air-ships wrecking the houses with bombs and destroying women and children." To say nothing of the damage done to the beautiful cities, the quaint, old, historical ruins, the precious and rich treasures of art and science, the pride of the nation, and the glory of civilization; who is not awestruck at the dreadful tragedies of this war?
It is useless to state reasons showing the momentous im
portance of international laws, an international court, an international police organization, and an international arbitration, that, representing the collective determination of civilization, should have authority and power enough to enforce justice, to prevent uncontrolled violence, to limit excessive accumulation of armaments, and to guarantee the neutrality of nations. An increase of the number of neutral nations is an essential condition of peace. "Humanity awaits with eager eyes and attentive ears, the rhythmic pulsation of united life, feeling assured that progress now requires a centralization of all human efforts for the amelioration of mankind," says Mr. Anderson.
We believe that the zealous spiritual coöperation of the leading thinkers and eminent scholars of various nations, including international men of business like Carnegie and Rockefeller-in other words the centralization of all the efforts of the "perfect men" as Shelley calls, the "tribeless and nationless men" alone can promote such institutions and organizations, and effectively solve those imperative international questions as well as the common national problems, which are now confronting each nation, and which can be properly solved only with the international mind and interests. Again, I say, this is the aim of the Association Concordia, and for this purpose, we the members of the Japanese Association appeal to our American friends for such coöperation on behalf of humanity.
The last but by no means the least question is that of an international religion. The importance of the coöperation of all the religions of the world is at present beginning to be keenly felt. While the earnest study of the history, literature, ethics, and philosophy of various nations has been shedding the necessary light for an understanding of the mutual relations and the reciprocal influences of the nations, and leading them to create international sentiments and ideals, on the other hand, the study of comparative religions and psychical researches have been enabling the religious men to lay aside deeply rooted prejudices and to solve the traditional difficult problems of the world's religions.
Hitherto, a confederation of the different denominations and sects, and brotherly love among Christian nations have been largely spoken of, but not an inclusion of all the religions of the world. The diversities of religions—of Buddhism, Brahmanism, Confucianism, Judaism, Mohammedanism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, of one hundred and thirty-seven sects of Christianity besides have been so conspicuous that few have dared to think of a tolerance among them of different opinions, still less of an appreciation and understanding of each other. When religions are too subjective, they become so self-assertive and self-conscious; and on the other hand, their view-points become so narrow and partial that there always rise feelings of rivalry, jealousy, hatred, and revenge. This is true even among the followers of the Prince of Peace, and the believers of the God of Love. The history of religion is often unfortunately a history of blood shedding. The history of the Crusades, of the Thirty Years' War, of the Huguenot persecution, and what not! History is full of it. Men must be baptized with a holy love and enlightened with the divine wisdom from on high, before they can fully perform their duties as the sons of God.
The world has now, however, begun to realize that the essence of all the religions is one. And such fundamental moral sentiments, as justice, veracity, gratitude, service, sympathy, and love as well as wonder, awe, reverence, worship, hope, and aspiration-of all that which quickens the human soul-are, by the comparative method, proved to be common to all the various systems of faith. But "difference of climate, environment, heredity, and racial origin, these" it has been shown, have given "rise to varieties in the expression of one and the same fundamental religious feeling." Therefore, it is now even thought among the leading thinkers that a universal religion, attaching a higher value to spiritual freedom than to tradition and adherence to creed or custom, and lifting itself above all differences of creed, color, class, and race to a sublime spiritual plane, is a possibility.
In saying this, however, I do not mean to propose an amal
gamation of religions. Indeed, numerous diversities of characteristics, and various forms of expression only add richness to the religious Whole each representing a special part of the Whole. Therefore, it is not to unify all the religions into one form, one doctrine; but to bring all the special histories and the individuality of each and all the religions into a great harmonious Whole, wherein each may fill its apportioned place, and form part of the grand symphony of the world's sacred ideal, this is the music that the Association Concordia is endeavoring to play.
The next stage where both the political and commercial problems of the East and West are to meet is on the Pacific Ocean. The world is wondering whether it will be a friendly reunion or a hostile encounter. It is of the utmost importance that we prepare for this meeting with a mutual and friendly understanding of thoughts and ideals on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. If we could succeed in establishing a spiritual union of the East and West, then every other thing would of itself come into harmony. If the scholars together with the religious men, the statesmen, and business men of both lands and all other lands, could heartily coöperate, as the Association Concordia proposes, for international peace and good will among men; then we might promote a better understanding between the East and West, and create a reciprocal sympathy in relation to the deeper problems of the spirit.
This is the gleam upon the hills, this is the glow in the upper air, which the Association Concordia is eager to see increase into a noon-day glory.
THE SOCIAL AND RACIAL UNREST IN INDIA By John P. Jones, D.D., Professor of Missions at the Kennedy School of Missions, Hartford; Until recently Missionary at Madura, India
In that ultra conservative land we are permitted to see constant unexpected and striking manifestations of development on lines that are social and racial. The spirit of progress is in the air. Yes, it is penetrating the innermost recesses of the Indian soul. Kipling portrayed British impatience at the immobility of the East when he wrote:
It is bad for the Christian's peace of mind,
For the Aryan smiles and the Christian riles,
And the end of the fight is a tombstone white
And an epitaph drear, "a fool lies here
Who tried to hustle the East."
The need of hustling the man of India, by the man of the West, is much less than it used to be. His immobility is gradually disappearing. He is now moving forward voluntarily with ever increasing momentum.
Let us consider recent developments on two lines in India.
Striking social progress is there evidenced on all sides, and the advance is so un-Hindu and so peculiarly Christian in its type that no one can doubt as to the forces which have produced it. We see it first in the new rebellion against the dictates and punishment of the caste system. Hitherto Hindus have regarded caste laws as supreme, an appeal from the decisions of which was impossible because there was no higher court of appeal. This situation has changed. Recently a Hindu woman in the Bombay Presidency was arraigned before the highest tribunal of her