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Vol. IV.

THE opinions expressed by John Ruskin on various artists, referred to in Chapter III:

“Now it is evident that in Rembrandt's “Modern system the colours are all wrong from begin- Painters.” ning to end.”

Page 42. “Vulgarity, dulness, or impiety will indeed Vol. III.

. always express themselves through art in brown Page 263. and gray, as in Rembrandt.”

“There appears no exertion of mind in any Vol. I. of his (Ruysdael's) works. They are good Page 340. furniture pictures, unworthy of praise, and undeserving of blame.” “One work of Stan- Vol. I. field alone presents us with as much concen

Page 348. trated knowledge of sea and sky as, diluted, would have lasted any one of the old masters his life.”

“The collectors of Gerard Dows and Hob- Vol. III. bemas may be passed by with a smile.”

Page 19. “I was compelled to do harsh justice upon Vol. III. him, because Mr. Leslie has suffered his

Page 343. per

Appendix. sonal regard for Constable so far to prevail, as to bring him forward as a great artist, compar

able in some kind with Turner. As Constable's reputation was, even before this, most mischievous in giving countenance to the blotting and blundering of modernism, I saw myself obliged, though unwillingly, to carry the sug

gested comparison thoroughly out." Vol. I.

“Let us refresh ourselves for a moment by Page 382.

looking at the truth. We need not go to Turner, we will go to the man who, next to him, is unquestionably the greatest master of

foliage in Europe, J. D. Harding.' “Art of “You may paint a modern French emotional England.” 1884.

landscape with a pail of whitewash and a pot Page 220. of gas-tar in ten minutes at the outside. The

skill of a good plasterer is really all that is required — the rather that in the modern idea of solemn symmetry you always make the bottom of your picture, as much as you can, like the top. You put some seven or

eight strokes of plaster for your sky, to begin “Whose

with, then you put in a row of bushes with the writing is

gas-tar; you put three or more streaks of white Art, whose Art is un

to intimate the presence of a pool of water worthy his and if you finish off with a log

your picwriting.” Whistler. ture will lead the talk of the town."

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There are two distinct forms of so-called art, of which the elder and true form, the subjective, is an art of expression, whereof the vital quality is that it shall convey, not the facts and actual phenomena which constitute the anatomy of nature, but the emotions and impressions of the artist, in which all the visible forms are but the symbols of language in which the artist, without any restriction of realistic fidelity, shall show forth what he considers artistic truth or ideal beauty in any of its related forms of positive or negative. The other form, objective or realistic art, which is entirely the development of the naturalistic spirit, depends, for its relative value and standing, upon the fidelity which it shows to natural phenomena; it is the art, if it be art, of facts and physics, of the anatomist, the geologist, the botanist, and the portraitist. The former of these has fallen into decay, but en passant I will call attention to the fact which explains itself, that the noblest technique has arisen in the art of expression, and that, for certain forms of it, we have to seek the highest in antique or renaissance art. The supreme artist is the idealist, and the imitator of nature is the artist only in a lower and secondary sense. The distinction is radical, and extreme illustrations will be found in J. F. Millet and Meissonier, the former the most subtle and masterly example of the pure Greek method of approaching art, the latter the extreme manifestation of the purely modern spirit, realism reduced to its last expression. That element in art which makes it such is not its fidelity to nature but its personality, the way in which the artist arranges, subordinates, harmonizes the material which he borrows or invents; in the majesty or sweetness of his composition, the harmony and pathos or splendour of his colour; all those things which in poetry, in music, give rank as poet or musician. The law is the same in all the arts; it is always the subjective element which determines the place of the artist. Art

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