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all in concert, would make them in- | clusive, Free Trade years, was $68,comparably worse. A protective tax 776,000. The average value of our would cripple our weakened commer annual exports from 1879 to 1881 in. cial energies ; it would fail to produce clusive, Protective years, was $70,revenue, because our people could not 369,000, and in each of the three last afford to pay the tax, and it would mentioned years, commencing with equally fail to develop home industry.' | 1879, the increase has been by a The working-men and their friends bound. The figures speak for themturned away in despair.
selves... But there was another public man
EXPORTS. in Canada, one who was not at the
$60,089,000 time a member of the government,
$70,096,000 and he said to the working-men, "Take
$80,921,000 heart. The eve of a general election is at hand and the issue is with you. But if our exports under Protection I stand at the head of a party in Can. have greatly increased, our imports of ada whose faith is, that we can make raw material under the same policy or mar ourselves ; that we have a show a remarkable increase also. In destiny which is our own in the work | 1877-78, the last year of Free Trade, ing out. My motto is, he said, “Can we imported of raw cotton to the value ada for the Canadians,” protection to of $7,243,413. In 1880-81, under home industry, development of our Protection, the imports of raw cotton own national resources, and spending were valued at $16,018,721 ! So too, all the money we have to spend in of hides. In 1877-78, we imported to the purchase of manufactured goods the value of $1,207,300. In 1880-81, at home, and among our own work- | the value of the imports of hides men, and not abroad among the for reached $2,184,884. Of wool, in eign workmen. I predict, that if 1877-78, we imported 6,230,084 lbs. ; you at the polls declare in favour of in 1880-81, we imported 8,040,287 the National Policy of my party, de- lbs. The increase for three years of pression will pass away and an im Protection in the manufacture of cotprovement in trade take place, such as ton, leather and wool alone in the Dothe country has not seen before.' The minion, reaches $5,500,000. Instead man who said this was Sir John A. of this five and a half millions going Macdonald.
to the foreign manufacturers, our own The new policy was carried. Let Canadian manufacturers and working us see if the predictions made for it men have received it. Yet Sir Richard have been verified. I shall take a few | Cartwright said in questions affecting general figures from the public blue the commercial prosperity of a counbooks. From the years 1874-75 to 1878- |
try, governments are only flies on the 79, which were Free Trade years, the wheel, and that the National Policy deficits in the revenue of the Domin- would 'not develop home manufacion, that is, the excess of expenditure ture.' over income, reached $5,491,269. But the increase in the imports of Last year under the Protective policy, the raw material quoted is only indithere was a surplus revenue, that is, I cative of the increase all around in an excess of income over expenditure imported raw materials. In addition to of $4,132,700, though the Liberal this the increased production of native party declared on the hustings that raw material within the same years, if the National Policy would neither it could be estimated, would be found
raise a revenue nor develop manu- to be very large. This raw material, facture.' The value of our average manufactured in Canada under State annual exports from 1874 to 1878 in. / Protection, it is that solved the question which the Liberals declared to be strably certain thatover 10,000 persons politically insoluble. It was in this have directly obtained employment by increased manufacture, that the thous- | reason of the National Policy. I have ands of hungry working men who cla put the number dependent for bread moured around the hustings on the upon these at about 40,000 persons, eve of the general elections got their What then with respect to this item work. How the working-man has alone in results has the National fared in Canada with respect to the Policy done? Has it merely given employment which he could not find bread to these 40,000? Well, if it when we had Free Trade, under the did only that, it would have done a Protective policy of the Government, good thing, a great thing, a something will be best shown by the following well worthy of new and rovolutionary figures. Since March 1879, up to Oc legislation. But it has done more. The tober 1881, it is estimated that one shopkeepers of the country have, as a HUNDRED AND FORTY new industries, consequence, gained 40,000 more cusdeveloped by the Protective policy, tomers, so have the shoemakers, the have been established. The number carpenters, the tailors ; so has every of men employed in these one hun one who has anything to sell. In dred and forty factories, is put at creating these producers of manu10,000. Allow four persons as de facture, theGovernment at the same pending upon each hand employed time created consumers of manufacin these industries, and we find that I
ture; and the consumer is as necesthe Government by their policy have sary to the producer as the arm is to created in this item alone, a livelihood the body. As a very searching writer for 40,000 souls. Of these industries, has put it, They are both in the same twenty-nine have been established in boat, and must sail or sink together.' Toronto, giving employment to 1,678 So that when the Government aided persons. In Montreal, thirteen indus the working-men, to a like, to an extries have been established under the actly equal, extent did it aid the whole government policy; and in Hamilton community. five. In addition to these, there are As the Conservative party predicted now in progress of construction cotton that prosperity would follow the Nafactories, which will be in operation tional Policy, and as the Liberals within the next twelve months, giv maintained thatcommercial ruin would ing employment to three thousand follow it; and as prosperity has come, persons. Besides the facts stated,
and as the 'ruin' has not come, it four hundred factories established un rests with the Liberal politicians, first der Free Trade have been visited, and to confess that they were false proit has been found that under Protec phets in 1878, and next to explain the tion these employ an average of seven. forces which stopped the out-flowing teen per cent. more hands than they tide of prosperity, and sent it back did under Free Trade. So that it will again upon this country in all its force. be readily seen that the employment I believe there are few thoughtful given directly and indirectly to the men in this country to-day who do not labouring classes by the application of inwardly believe that Protection is Protection is enormous. As I stated good for Canada, and that those rein the beginning of this paper, the sults we see are its legitimate fruits. commercial system of a nation may be compared to the works of a clock, one
FREE TRADE IN ENGLAND. wheel of which put in motion sets all The chief argument the Protection the other wheels in motion, whilst al party had to meet on the hustings in clogging of the one wheel will retard 1878 was the cry, 'Are we wiser than the motion of all the rest. It is demon- | England ? Can we hope to be more
prosperous than England ? Yet Eng. / enough for 3,500,000 people. In ten land's greatness has been derived un. years England's population has inder Free Trade. She declares Protec creased by 3,000,000, and in the tion to be bad.' Now, I cannot stop same period a million acres have gone to prove my contention that it does out of cultivation ; so that she is in a not follow because Free Trade is the position now to feed 6,500,000 people best policy for England that it must less than she was ten years ago. Eng. also be the best policy for Canada, or land's importation of corn, meat, dairy because Protection would be an evil products, and vegetables, averages policy for England, that it must also £45,000,000 annually more than it be an evil policy for Canada. I will did ten years ago. In the ten years simply deny this, and then I shall between 1870 and 1880 England proshow that Free Trade even for Eng duced in wheat annually to the value land is not a boon. Figures from her of £13,000,000 less, and imported anTrade Returns will serve me.
nually to the value of £15,000,000 The commerce of the world has in more than in the years between 1850 creased 36 per cent. in ten years. and 1870. The reasons for this state
In the same period, the commerce of affairs are many, and most of them in the United States, under Protec are the children of Free Trade. Whilst tion, has increased 68 per cent.
the importation of manufactured goods Under Protection, in the same into the protected countries, France, period, the increase of commerce in Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Holland and Belgium, of France and America, are each year diminishing, of Germany, is 57, 51, and 39 per the imports into Free Trade England cent. respectively.
are annually increasing. That is, But, under Free Trade, the com while each year those countries named merce of England has inoreased 21 per are learning to manufacture what they cent. in ten years !
need for themselves, instead of imUnder Protection, America is accu porting them from England, they learn mulating annually £165,000,000 ster also to manufacture more than wbat ling ; under Protection, France is ac they need for themselves, and export cumulating annually £75,000,000 their surplus, among other places, to sterling; while, under Free Trade, England. Thus, while the foreign England is accumulating annually market is closing against the English £65,000,000 sterling. Indeed, ex manufacturer, his own market is disperts say, since 1875 she has been puted with him by the foreign manulosing money instead of accumulat facturer. “If we are to be damned, ing it.
let us be damned for a good cause,' is Under Protection, America now what the English Free Traders say. 'If exports more than she imports ; un bankruptcy is to come, it cannot come der Protection, France annually ex for a more noble doctrine than Free ports £4,000,000 more than she im Trade.' The vendor of the shodports; while Free Trade England im diest of goods comes from every point PORTS annually £130,000,000 sterling of the compass to sell his wares in EngMORE than she exports !
land. The English workman must During the past ten years, in Eng compete with the shoddies or go to land, over a million acres have gone the wall. What takes place ? An out of wheat cultivation. During the able writer in one of the magazines same period, the capital of the agri. says: cultural classes has depreciated by £500,000,000, and their income by
Thirty years of “Freedom of Trade' £21,000,000; and the process is going
| have in many cases ruined the quality of
English products. Too frequently we hear on. A million acres will supply wheat ! complaints of inferior quality, of adultera.
tion, of slovenly work. It is a fact that it is more difficult to buy good silk, good cot. ton, and good steel in England now than it was twenty years ago. This is the result of unrestricted foreign competition. Eng. land has been made the market for the shoddy of all nations, goods made at the lowest possible cost, and sold at the lowest possible price. Every influx of these goods drives the English manufacturer to lower prices. In order to lower his price he must lower his cost, must employ cheaper material and cheaper labour, is obliged to
scamp' both labour and material, and produce au inferior article.
Beside the large number of British operators out of work, a large, the larger, proportion of the rest have not an average of more than four days work per week. For seven years they have been consuming their savings, and one rich trade society alone in the past six years has paid out in relief and aid over £200,000. It has less than £100,000 remaining. So much for Free Trade in England.
If the capital, labour, and skill of | England need protection, how much
England need protection how my more so does not Canada need it? But I am not one of those who believe in protecting a full-grown extensive and powerful State by legislation against competition by foreign States. If the manufacturers in the State full-grown cannot stand in the contest with the foreign manufacturers, then let them fall. I believe that Protection can only serve a certain terminable term of usefulness, as the parent protects its offspring till it is able to take care of itself. In a given time, after enterprise and capital shall have established manufacture solidly in Canada, then let the tariff be abolished. If our cotton lords' and sugar kings' cannot then maintain themselves let them go to the wall.
Wer ?- Adam's erste Frau. --Faust.
BY E. T. F., QUEBEC.
GES ago, when Adam lived on earth,
- First man, first monarch, strong in limb and mind, In whom a glorious beauty was combined With thoughts of fire; when sin had not gone forth As a wide pestilence among mankind, Dulling the senses to the healing worth Of woods and waves, and sunshine unconfined, Lilith bad being. She was one of those Shadowy spirits, from that twilight bred Wherewith, at first, the world was overspread : But, three great periods past, the sun arose, And one by one her sister-spirits fled, And she remained, hid in a cavern close.
There was a broad, still lake near Paradise,
And on, and on, with broad untiring breast
He entered in. How dim ! how wonderful !
Till all the place was teeming with its flow.
And this was Lilith. And she came to him,