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are beginning to prevail. There are by fraud, quite another. The habits, pure-hearted, simple souls even amid | training and acquirements of the crithe fore-ranks of Orthodoxy' itself, minal, and the class of work to which whose whole hearts cry out against the he has been accustomed, if any, should infliction of arbitrary penalty. These be considered, although it is a well only tolerate it in silence, because their known fact that the vast majority of intellectual faculties have been so long our criminals spring from those classes and carefully trained to see in such which, unfortunately, have never been penalty the only method of preserving enured to any regular form of labour. liberty. They are taught that it is a For these a potent part of the cure necessity ; but they hate it. For such will be achieved by remedying this the clouds of error which have so long defect. For brutal criminals so senobscured the clear shining of the ‘Sun sualized that their passions and appeof Righteousness' are breaking ; the tites have at length sought gratificawarmth of heart within them is spring- tion, even at the cost of brutal vioing up to welcome the new light of lence towards others, the natural truth, that the brotherhood of huma- | remedy is, necessitated obedience to nity is not divided into two classes natural laws, so strict that even their the criminal and the non-criminal, the hunger for food can only be satisfied
saved' and the 'unsaved,'— but that through the doing of actual work. each is to some extent the sharer in This is to respect the natural liberty and the partial cause of the other's of the captive, by bringing bim only guilt. Therefore as one man we must under the direct operation of natural seek cure, not repression, reformation laws; for if he wills not to work and and new life, not penalty. Our laws so use his brute strength in useful as framed at present are framed by service, he is free to starve. Nor need men only. When Herbert Spencer's he be deprived of the hope of that review, as to the equal right of woman | ward which should ever follow labour. to the franchise, is carried out into Every prisoner of whatever rank or practice, we may probably see law class should be charged a certain fixed more thoroughly tempered with that sum per diem for · board and lodging,' justice which is always mercy.
and whatever more than that he To this end abusive, or what cannot chooses to earn should be his own, but seem to the victim vengeful, penal stored up for him against his release, ties must be wholly abolished. Impri or, if he have others dependent on him sonment with varied degrees of res for support, paid over to them. Still triction of liberty, proportioned to the it may be a question whether he should extent to which the criminal has not have the absolute disposal of any abused his liberty to the injury of surplus he earns, thus preserving to others, is the only just and needful him his personal liberty and personal penalty. Therefore our gaols should rights, that he may in freedom be led be classified, and our criminal code re to know the blessed privilege, the adjusted, so as to grade crime by the right, the joy of labouring for others, standard of infringement of mutual which he can never know if he be comliberty, and not merely according to pelled to it. The work to which crithe abhorrence of each special kind of minals are put should invariably be evil which society may, at each stage productive and useful labour, and this of its progress, choose to entertain or for two reasons, viz., that the prisoner desire to express. For crimes of phy may wake to some interest, other than sical violence or brutal trampling upon selfish, in his work, and that it may fit the rights and liberties of others, one him to be of use and value to society kind of reformatory or gaol is needed; after he is free. This principle is for subtle thefts, frauds, or seductions | already recognised in most prisons. Those abortions, the treadmill, the the criminal as any longer our fellowcrank, and the carrying of weights creature-our brother man—and so from one end of a courtyard to the fails by trust and confidence to beget other, for the sake of carrying them and foster in him faith or fidelity. back again, were killed out, finally, by! So far only crimes which infringe the pen of Charles Reade, the novelist. i liberty have been discussed. For these
Further, it is right and requisite physical restraint is alas ! a necessity that liberty be gradually regained, as, and a kindness. But there are, unhapthe criminal shows himself fit for it; 1 pily, among us a far larger number of that he be gradually trusted with more moral and social sins and evils—sins and more of liberty, subject to depri which do not directly, if at all, infringe vation if it be abused, till he learn / physical liberty--sins which tempt the somewhat of the true use of his free- will, the affections and the thoughts dom. It is simply cruel to expect from of others, win their free consent to a man subjected to the most rigorous evil, and so gradually pervert and lead prison discipline, till the very hour his them astray, until, if no check be sentence expires, anything else but a applied, they break out inevitably sudden revulsion to his old ways, the into crimes against the law of mutual moment the strain is taken off. A freedom and proceed not alone by • spree,' a fall, and another crime are | enticement, but by fraud or violence the all but inevitable result; and then to infringe upon physical freedom. we dub him a hardened criminal, and These precede the crimes with whose forget that it is we who have laid upon treatment we have already dealt. Un him suddenly a burden of liberty hesitatingly we assert that such do not greater than be could bear.
come under the province of law. The Such methods of treatment require man who gambles and is fleeced is as skilled and highly trained men to carry devoid of innocent intent as the man out successfully-men at least as high, who fleeces him. His cupidity was in moral and mental worth as any aroused to seek for illegitimate gain occupant of a pulpit. Who shall say from the other. His defeat is his own it is a less noble work?
affair, and it should have no legal But society has a harder task than remedy. Similarly with the man who this before it. Even after we have is tempted by the courtezan. His thus trained the faculties of the pri free consent is given, and he is equally soner, gradually initiated him into to blame. Here also a just law which the use of liberty, and partially fitted preserves mutual freedom, has no him to be a more or less useful mem standing ground; although it is equally ber of society, the non-criminal world certain that if such sin be long conmust not withhold from him the oppor tinued by either sex, it will inevitably tunity to exercise his new born powers i lead to crimes which necessitate and by meeting him at the threshold of his justify legal interference. Dishonesty, re-entrance into free life, with dis drunkenness and riot follow its indultrust and suspicion. Just think of it! gence, and sooner or later cause that Society to day actually doubts and dis | interference with the liberty of others trusts the reformation of a man or which compels legal interference. That woman fresh from a Reformatory, for these moral crimes, while as yet which has had him or her in hand for only moral i.e. sins of two wills mutuyears! What a commentary this is ally consenting to deeds which are upon our whole reformatory system! only an injury to each other, and canPossibly such distrust may not be the not go further without the free confault of our reformatory systems, butin- sent of others, there are other moral here rather in that state of heart and forces fully competent to control and mind which leads us to cease to regard | prevent, if fully and freely exercised. These are moral weapons, and moral of revealed religion, right reason, weapons only. Light is the cure for and scientific truth; and thus, debardarkness. Good is the antidote to evil. red from all true knowledge, we marTruth is the best possible preventative vel that so many should annually of error. Good affections filling the yield to the tempter; or gratify the heart and moulding the aims in life natural thirst for hidden lore by apleave no room for the entrance of evil. propriating the garbage which those Yet, some there are who hope by cal- | vile enough to trade upon this vacuum ling that a civil crime which infringes of ignorance, we leave unfilled, supply no principle of liberty, and treating it stealthily for their own evil purposes. as such, to 'stamp out' moral evil : | Never will we cope successfully with which means simply that by injustice this central moral evil until we fearwe can instil principles of justice, or lessly apply the natural remedythat by doing evil, good will ensue. Truth in its purity. Then, and then To pour light upon these at present only, will the spread of "moral insadark places of our human nature, is nity' and its outbreak into legal the natural cure for such moral and crimes, be kept in check and gradually social evils. They cannot bear the overcome. It is a slow process, but a light. They cannot exist in the light. sure one. Aught else will but hinder, And yet this is precisely the remedy instead of affording aid. For blinded we will not and do not apply. We justice substitute clear sighted truth ; refuse to educate our youth of either and the path from evil towards good sex on this matter.' We withhold will grow bright before us. from them as impure, alike the light
HOR. BOOK I., ODE 9, FIRST THREE VERSES.
BY R. S. KNIGHT, DUNHAM, P.Q.
EEST thou how Soracte stands all pale
With heavy snow, nor can the loaded trees
Whilst sharp chills check the rivers, and they freeze.
Dispel the cold, and bountifully throw
The logs, O Thaliarchus, on the hearth,
Full four years stored in jar of Sabine earth.
Leave other matters, let the gods allay
The winds that battle with the boiling deep,
Nor aged ashes bend with fitful sweep.
BY REV. W. D. ARMSTRONG, M. A., OTTAWA.
T the close of a long, bright, sum- ' He has allowed nothing unworthy A mer's day, who has not watched to come from his pen, nothing but with subdued feeling, and a tinge of what is pure and good, and beautiful, not unpleasant sadness, the sun as he and true. Not a line that dying he sinks slowly below the western hori would wish to blot. . zon, touching the evening clouds with Age came kindly upon him, and golden glory, and though out of sight brought with it honour and respect still sending his bright rays upward and troops of friends. Death found to the very zenith ?
him in the bosom of his family, sur. With similar feelings do the lovers rounded by those he loved, and assured of Longfellow and his poetry now con by many a token that he was leaving template the poet's departure from this the world amidst the homage of the earthly scene, where, during the long good, and the tears of the grateful. summer-day of his poetic career, he His life had its changes and its sorhas gladdened their hearts with his rows, but withal it is one of the most bright shafts of song. In the early perfectly rounded lives that we know morning of his manhood he gave to of among literary men ;-a life of althe world those verses which have most uninterrupted literary success, become the watch word of noble ambi one might say, from boyhood to old tion to many pure and ardent souls : age. Lives of great men all remind us,
• Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, We can make our lives sublime,
born February 27th, 1807, died March And departing leave behind us,
24th, 1882,' is the inscription on the Footprints on the sands of time.
coffin so recently borne to Mount AuHe has followed in the path to which burn Cemetery. We shall lay our he pointed, and has been himself the | tribute of respect upon the poet's grave example of the precepts he inculcated. by giving in these pages a brief review Fifty years later an old man standing l of the life and work of these years— with silvered locks in the vale of years
These folios bound and set he calls to his companions in age, not
nis companions in age, not | By Time the great transcriber on his shelves, to falter in duty because of enfeebled powers.
Portland, Maine, has the honour of
being the poet's birthplace, and, on the But why, you ask me, should this tale be told To men grown old or who are growing old?
27th of February last, showed her ap. It is too late! Ah! nothing is too late
preciation of the honour by a magniTill the tired heart shall cease to palpitate. ficent demonstration in celebration of -Morituri Salutamus.
the poet's seventy-fifth birthday. It is not to be wondered at that a man In the poem entitled My Lost who throughout his long life acted on Youth,' we see how his heart turned this noble motive, with a sincere and to the place of his nativity, and that earnest desire to benefit mankind, amidst all the experiences of after-life should be honoured while living and he never forgot that old town by the lamented when dead.
Often I think of the beautiful town
poet's seventy-fifth birthday, the venThat is seated by the sea ;
erable Professor Packard, of Bowdoin, Often in thought go up and down The pleasant streets of that dear old town, gave some interesting reminiscences of And my youth comes back to me.
the poet's college days. He says : ‘I And a verse of a Lapland song Is haunting my memory still :
cannot testify concerning him whose "A boy's will is the wind's will,'
name we, and I may add the civilized And the thoughts of youth are long, long
world, fondly cherish, any more than thoughts.
a general statement of his unblemished I can see the shadowy lines of its trees, character as, a pupil, and a true gentleAnd catch in sudden gleams,
man in all his relations to the college The sheen of the far-surrounding seas, And islands that were the Hesperides
and its teachers. He describes him Of all my boyish dreams.
as 'an attractive youth with auburn And the burden of that old song,
locks just entering the last half of his It murmurs and whispers still : "A boy's will is the wind's will,'
fifteenth year, with clear, fresh, bloomAnd the thoughts of youth are long, long ing complexion, well-bred manners, thoughts.
and sedate bearing.' I remember the gleams and glooms that dart Longfellow graduated in 1825, and
Across the schoolboy's brain;
immediately entered upon the study That in part are prophecies, and in part of law in his father's office. From this, Are longings wild and vain.
to him somewhat uncongenial occupaAnd the voice of that fitful song Sings on, and is never still :
tion, he was speedily relieved by the 'A boy's will is the wind's will,'
offer of the Professorship of Modern And the thoughts of youth are long, long Languages in his Alma Mater, which thoughts.
he accepted. And Deering's Woods are fresh and fair,
There is a Bowdoin tradition, to the And with joy that is almost pain,
effect that, at one of the annual examiMy heart goes back to wander there, And among the dreams of days that were
nations of the College, bis translation I find my lost youth again.
of an Ode of Horace so impressed the And the strange and beautiful song The groves are repeating it still :
Hon. Benjamin Orr, one of the ex'A boy's will is the wind's will,'
aminers, by its taste and scholarship, And the thoughts of youth are long, long that when the opportunity came he thoughts.
proposed that the Professorship should The poet's father, Stephen Long be offered to the cultured and scholarly fellow, was a graduate of Harvard young graduate. He did not enter College, and a lawyer of considerable immediately on the duties of his office, ability. His mother was of good Puri. but wisely spent the next three years tan stock, and a lineal descendant of and a half as a travelling-scholar on the John Alden, who figures as a promi continent,-in France, Spain, Italy, nent character in the poem “The Court Germany, Holland, and England. ship of Miles Standish.' In addition Subsequently, upon his appointment to such favourable home influences, to the Professorship of Belles-lettres Longfellow, in his early youth, received in Harvard University, he made a the best training that the schools of second trip to the continent, for the Portland could then afford, so that at special purpose of study, and visited the age of fourteen he was prepared Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Germany, to enter college. He was entered as a Tyrol, and Switzerland. It was thus student of Bowdoin College, of which that in their native homes, and amidst his father was a trustee, and during their associations, he mastered the his college course had for his class languages and literatures of Europe, mates and companions such men as and fitted himself so thoroughly for Nathaniel Hawthorne, G. B. Cheever, 1 the work of teaching and translation. .John S. Abbott, and Franklin Pierce. No one can fail to see the advantage
At the recent celebration of the l of these years of travel and study,