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volume there are many national themes | So Kant had found that the doctrine of treated which should be more widely all our knowledge being traceable to exknown by Canadians of the present day, perience, does not account fur the phenand whose hearty, patriotic ring we have omena of human thought. He was much need, in this matter-of-fact-age, to thence led to his Critical Examination stop and listen to. Would that the na of the Reason,'which he considered made tional ear was more fain to catch their three aspects, each determined by the rhythmic sounds, and to respond to the ideas w ich are its subject matter : The heart-beats which gave them birth! Sense-Faculty (he called it the æsthetic), There is a charming local colour also the Understanding which takes cognizance about many of Mrs. Leprohon's poems, of the ideas supplied by the sense faculty, which must endear them to every Cana and the Pure Reason, which considers dian, and a sweetness of expression and ideas transcending,or going into a higher melodious rhythm which will commend region than these, as God, Immortality them to every attuned ear. In candour, and Duty. In criticising the contents we must add, that there is not a little in of the Sense Faculty and of the Underthe volume which, from a literary point standing, he shewed the existence of of view, had better have been left out. certain necessary forms, such as space But as the collection is a posthumous and time, which are supplied by the one, we suppose this defect must be mind itself, and are not given by expelightly dealt with. Much, however, re rience. These, which he called in his mains to entitle Mrs.Leprohon to favour strange and repellant terminology, 'Synable notice, when the history of Cana thetic Judgments a priori,' were condian poetry comes to be written.
ceived by man as necessary and universally true, and this Kant proved by the self evident truth of the pure ma
thematics. Whether or not we are jusSeneca and Kant ; By Rev. W. T. tified in saying that these judgments,
Jackson, Ph. D., Dayton, Ohio. Uni- true to our reason, are also true to the ted Brethren Publishing Room, 1881. reason of other possibly existent beings,
Kant does not appear to determine : and It is exactly a hundred years since herein, according to many thinkers, is a German Philosophy, led by Emmanuel weak point in his system. But at least Kant, invaded and conquered all previ- i to us, as we reason, and to all our possious forces of European thought. That bilities of thought and science, these philosophy came into the field with 'Synthetic Judgments' a priori are wholly new tactics, strange and compli valid. cated movements, and arms of precision Another weak point in Kant's Philoin the use of metaphysical terms un sophy, according to some recent exponknown before. Eleven years previous ents, notably Dr. Noah Porter, in a luto the publication of Kant's great work, cid and most readable essay on the the Critique of Pure Peason,' that Kantian Centennial (Princeton Review, sensualist materialism which had been Nov. 1881,) is his apparent denial of the developing itself for two centuries in possibility of our cognition of the nouEngland and France, had said its last menon as a 'thing in itself.' By phenoword in the publication of the Système menon are meant the transitory, the unde la Nature of Baron Holbach, of 1770. certain, the contingent, the apparent : Belief in God was henceforth to be ban by noumenon, the permanent, the uniished from the horizon of human versal, the true. In its highest form the thought ; Consciousness and Ideas were noumenon is equivalent to the absolute, as much products of the brain tissues to the idea of God ; and the relation of as bile was of the cells of the liver ! this thought to mere phenomenon is Kant tells us i. w he was led to see the nobly expressed in a passage in St. Aunecessity of a revolution in the methods gustine's Confessions, ' The Unchanging, of Philosophy,iu language whose dignity Thou changest all things ; with Thee of fits the subjec. As Copernicus had all things unstable the stable causes exseen that the phenomena of astronomy ist, and of all things mutable and trancould not be accounted for on the old sitory, the immutable causes abide.' But theory that the sun and stars move Kant was unable to see ground for belief round the earth, and thence was led to in the noumenon as God in the speculaconstruct a new theory of the heavens. I tive reason, although he claimed that we possess such ground in the moral or was in a chaotic state as regards clearpractical reason.
ness of style, which put Kant at a great Noumenon considered as the consci disadvantage. He was at times a forcious soul, it seems strange that Kant ble, clear, and even eloquent writer ; should have denied our right to predi witness his account alluded to above, cate existence. Does not his whole sys of the origin of his Critique of Pure tem pre-suppose our power to judge of Reason ;' also his marvellous anticipaReason as a reality immediately known tion of modern evolution in his Theory to us? The ethical side only of Kant's of the Heavenly Bodies, which, by the philosophy was made known in England way, has been erroneously ascribed to by Coleridge and Carlyle. Its pure and Laplace. But the 'Critique' needs not so lofty tone had a great infuence with the much to be commented on by commenearlier generations of Liberal and Broad tators who have generally pet theories of Churchmen whose leaders were Kingsley their own, as to be re-written before it and Frederic Dennison Maurice. As a can be understood by the English reader. philosophical system, the Kantian me | With the exception of Locke, modern taphysics have been evolved in various philosophical writers in our language directions by Schilling, Fichte, and have enjoyed the advantage of a clear Hegel ; and by Mansel and Hamilton and intelligible style, and this is eminin England. At present there seems to ently true of Mill and Spencer, whose be in England and America a tendency speculations, treating as they do of the to return to and re-interpret Kant, with most recondite questions of Thought, perhaps a leaning to the development of and involving complex detail of illustrahis system known as Absolute Idealism, tion, have a terminology that explains as against the denial of the knowabil itself, and can be readily understood by ity of the Absolute, by Herbert Spencer. any educated reader, even if untrained Of this school, the work on Kant by in Metaphysics. Kant's work should be l’rofessor Watson, of Kingston, lately not simply rendered into boldly literal reviewed in these columns, is an exam English, but translated in the same ple which deserves, and has already | spirit of free yet faithful rendering by commanded, attention.
which the French version of Dumont To the earnest student of Metaphy- made Jeremy Bentham intelligible. sics, the position of Kant among the Kant is pre-eminently a writer whom supreme thinkers of Europe will always modern Thought cannot afford to nefurnish a reason for at least attempting glect. It is very remarkable to what an to form some idea of his system as set extent he anticipated, a century ago, forth, not by commentators, but by him several of the leading ideas of our own self. The translation in Bohn's library age. In his book on ' The Philosophy gives some help in the notes, but it may of the Heavens,' Kant promulgates the be safely maintained to be impossible for theory as to the genesis of the stellar any student to understand the text un- | universe, which, fifty years afterwards, aided by an expert or by ample notes. was preposed in a modified form by LaThe difficulty of understanding Kant is place. In the same work Kant gave the no doubt in part due to the inherent explanation more currently received, of difficulty of the subject. But all recent the rings of Saturn. He also distinctly commentators seem agreed that it is anticipated the Darwinian theory. Mr. still more owing to the strange termin Jackson's little book takes too arbitrary ology which Kant borrowed from Wolf a title when it professes to give an acand his predecessors, who derived it count of the Philosophy of Kant. Mr. from the scholastic writers of the Mid- | Jackson only treats of Kant's System of dle Ages. And to this terminology Kant Ethics '--the simplest and easiest part assigned new meanings of his own, of Kant's system. Of the more difficult which was gradually adopted during the and more important metaphysical investwenty years in which this Sphinx of tigations in the Kantian Metaphysics, Metaphysics meditated over the riddles Mr. Jackson tells us nothing whatever. given to the world in 1781. Again, it is But on the merely ethical question his fully admitted that Kant himself got brochure is well put together, and deat times confused and involved. Also, serves a good word. the German language of a century ago
TO KATE SEYMOUR MACLEAN.* People without tact do a great deal of
mischief. They seem actually merciless BY MRS. A. MAC GILLIS, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA.
at times. They never know what is best Sweet Singer, would I had the power to say or do. They tread nipon people's
To write but one verse worthy thee; toes, and open the closet where family To thy bright garland add one Hower, skeletons are kept so often that they earn To thank thee for thy minstrelsy.
the reputation of being spiteful. They Thy songs are music in the night,
ask over and over again questions which Or earnest thoughts for solemn hours;
are obviously unpleasant to answer, and Or, when our hearts are gay and light, make remarks that are seen at once by
Thy graceful verses seem like flowers all save themselves to be offensive. Of the bright Spring, or sunny June,
An English judge used to say that, in When Nature all an anthem sings;
his opinion, the very best thing ever said So fresh and pure, so sweet the tune, No chiming bell more softly rings.
by a witness to a counsel was the reply
given to Missing, the barrister, at that Like murmur of a summer brook
time leader of his circuit. He was deMelodious winding through the glen, fending a prisoner charged with stealing The rhythmic pages of thy book
a donkey. The prosecutor had left the Flow in sweet numbers from thy pen.
animal tied up to a gate, and when he We cannot choose but weep with thee,
returned it was gone. Missing was very With thee rejoice when thou art glad,
severe in his examination of the witness. Our hearts go out in sympathy,
• Do you mean to say, witness, the donOne moment gay, the next one sad.
key was stolen from the gate ?' 'I mean God bless thee, Singer, give thee grace
to say, sir,' giving the judge and then To warble till He calls thee home,
the jury a sly look, 'the ass was MissThen, may the shining of His face, Light the dark valley's gathering gloom;
A parish in the county of Fife had for And, when earth's sounds grow faint and
a minister a good man, remarkable for Angelic voices greet thine ear,
his benevolent disposition. Meeting And bear a sister seraphim
one of his parishioners one day, he said, To sing in Heaven from singing here.
Jeanie, what way do I never see you in
the kirk?' Weel, sir,' replied Jeanie, Some visitors were going through a 1
'to be plain wi' ye, I haena a pair o” great house recently, and at length
shoon to gang wi.' 'A pair o' shoon, paused before a fine painting repre Jeanie ! Jeanie, I'll no let ye stap at senting a handsome, black-bearded man
hame for that; what would a pair cost?' clad in gorgeous attire. One of them "About four shillings, sir. Putting his inquired of their guide whose portrait
hand into his pocket, he gave Jeanie the it might be. Well, sir,' replied the
money, and went his way. Some time housekeeper, “I don't rightly know; but
after, meeting her again, he said, 'Dear I believe it is the Dowager Venus !'
me, Jeanie, I've never seen ye in the But,' said the visitor, “I scarcely think
kirk yet. What way is that ? ‘Weel, that the Dowager Venus would be re
sir,' replied Jeanie, to be plain wi' ye, presented with a beard. Perhaps you
when the weather is guid, and I hae will be good enough to look in the cata time, I prefer gaun to Dumfarlin' to hear logue ?' She did so, and the Dowager
Mr. Gillespie.' 'Oh, indeed, Jeanie, Venus proved to be the Doge of Venice.
lass, that's the way o't, is't? Ye might
hae gi'en me the first day o' the shoon, Author of The Coming of the Princess, and other Poems.' Toronto : Hunter, Rose & Co. | ony way, d'ye no chink?
FOR SOME ONE.
BY CECIL GWYNNE, MONCTON, NEW BRUNSWICK,
A PASSING THOUGHT,
c. X. M., MONTREAL. Every life has its December,
Full of sad repining,
Hides a silver lining.
May will bring, on some sweet morrow,
Rosy light and laughter;
If not here, hereafter.
Oh heart that is bruised and wounded,
And aching with hopes and fears; Oh hands that are empty and helpless,
Through the barren and dreary years. The years that have brought no blessing,
But are bearing thy youth away, Faded, and withered, and useless,
Like leaves on an autumn day. Sit not by the roadside idle,
Grasp something before it goes by! Better to struggle and suffer
Than helplessly sink down and die. The way has been rough and stony,
And the journey seemed all up-hill; But there's One who is near in the darkness,
Whose hand shall uphold thee still.
Some time in the years to come,
At rest, in thy hard won Home.
Old party-'What d'ye mane by snowballing o' me, yer young wagabones? Ain't yer got a father o yer own to snowball ?'
A well-fed hog rose up in his sty and dropped a regretful tear. The beautiful snow has come,' he said, ' and slaying will soon be here."
* How do I look, doctor ?' asked a painted young lady of the family phy. sician. I can't tell, madam, till yon uncover your face,' was the cutting reply.
Mrs. Maloney—“That's a foine child ov yours, Mrs. Murphy. How vuld is he?' Mrs. Murphy. He'll be two years old to-morrow. He was born on the same day as his father.'
An enterprising American firm, to prevent the destruction of their cheeses by rats in their transit to England, packed them in iron safes. It is stated that the rats eat their way through the safes, but found the cheeses too much for them.
Charity taken in its largest extent is nothing else but the sincere love of God and our neighbour.
Whatever you have to do, do it with all your might. Many a lawyer has made his fortune by simply working with a will.
'Don't stand on ceremony ; come in, said a lady to an old farmer, as she opened the door. Why, my goodness ! Excuse me, ma'am. I thought all along I was standin' on the door mat.'
Two bees—a honey and a dronealighted, towards sunset, upon the trunk of a tree. Muttered the drone to the busy bee, which was laden with honey, 'I have been looking for you all over the place. I am starving, and you might help me with a little of your substance.' Why so ?' asked the other.
I have had the pleasure of toiling all the day for it. Add the virtue of independence to the dignity of labour, and gather for yourself.' Say you go,' rejoined the drone, 'then I must take it by force.' But as the drone had no sting, the struggle was vain ; and he soon lay legs uppermost, a helpless titbit for a watchful robin. Moral. - The lazy and the ‘loafing 'will waste as much time and energy over scheming how not to do it'as would suffice to gain an honest living, and come to a troublesome end for their pains.
I trod the rustling carpet of the earth,
trees; Hushed were the myriad sounds of insect
mirth, That erst had floated on the summer breeze. No voice of bird was heard in warblings sweet,
No pleasant murmur of the growing leaves. * Death, death,' I said, “on every side I meet; And Nature for her buds and blossoms
grieves.' Anon I saw the earth apparelled new; Greenness and growth did everywhere
abound; The skies bent over all the summer blue, And grand old hills with bounteousness
were crowned. The air was stirred with waves of happy
strife. Where'er I turned, I saw the eternal seal. 'Life follows death,' I said: 'through death
to life, Doth nature thus the spirit's law reveal.'
AND NATIONAL REVIEW.
THE ISLAND OF CAPE BRETON : *
THE “LONG WHARF" OF THE DOMINION.
BY JOHN GEORGE BOURINOT, F.S.S., THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
TN choosing as the subject of my | tropical jungles, and search the wide 1 Paper an important island on globe for fresh accessions to the treathe Atlantic coast of Canada, I feel sures of knowledge which have been that I am assisting to carry out the amassed under its auspices. Ours praiseworthy object the Geograph. necessarily must be a more humble ical Society has in view. The second task in the early days of this associaarticle of the Constitution expressly tion ; but while it may be less ambiinforms me, a new member, that the tious, it cannot be said to be less usesociety desires above all things : To ful, from a Canadian point of view. study and make known our country | A country like ours, embracing the in relation to its productive forces; | greater part of a Continent, containespecially to bring into notice its agri ing resources still in the infancy of cultural, forest, maritime, industrial their development, affords a fruitful and commercial resources, with a view field of research for the earnest stuto augment its riches and the well dent desirous of furnishing his quota being of its population.' A great so of geographical lore. Amid the bleak ciety like that in London may appro regions of Hudson's Bay, or the fastpriately, as the parent and prototype nesses of the mountains that bar the of all similar associations elsewhere, road to the Pacific coast, there is yet follow the explorer into Arctic seas or
much to attract the adventurous tra
veller and explorer. Even in the older * A Paper read before the Geographical
sections of this wide Dominion, there Society of Quebec.
I are 'fresh woods and pastures new' to