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than of the chaplainship to the Factory at Lisbon'; but, being recommended to Lord Capel, he obtained the prebend of Kilroot in Connor of about a hundred pounds a year?.
But the infirmities of Temple made a companion like Swift so 17 necessary, that he invited him back, with a promise to procure him English preferment, in exchange for the prebend which he desired him to resign 3. With this request Swift complied, having perhaps equally repented their separation, and they lived on together with mutual satisfaction *; and, in the four years that passed between his return and Temple's death, it is probable that he wrote The Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books 5.
Swift began early to think, or to hope, that he was a poet, 18 and wrote Pindarick Odes to Temple?, to the King ®, and to the Athenian Society, a knot of obscure men, who published a periodical pamphlet of answers to questions, sent, or supposed to be sent, by Letters. I have been told that Dryden, having perused these verses, said, 'Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet to'; and try know by this time whether I am 1696, and the second in 1697. Ib. worth keeping; and it is easier to X. 14, 210. provide for ten men in the Church Ante, COWLEY, 143. Swift wrote than one in a civil employment.' to his cousin Mr. (afterwards Rev. Works, xv. 420.
Dr.) Swift, of Puttenham, co. Surrey, " Ib. p. 247
on May 3, 1692, from Moor Park:Craik, p. 515. He was ordained 'I esteem the time of studying poetry deacon on Oct. 25, 1694, and priest to be 2 hours in a morning, and that on Jan. 13, 1694-5. 16. p. 48.
onely when the humor fits, which I 3' He returned to England in May, esteem to be the flower of the whole 1696. Works, xv. 251. Swift's sister day,... and yet I seldom write about wrote of Temple in 1699:-He made [? above) 2 stanzaes in a week, I mean my brother give up his living to stay such as are to any Pindarick ode ... I with him, and promised to get him have a sort of vanity or foibless, one in England; but death came in I do not know what to call it. ... It between, and has left him unprovided is ... that I am over fond of my own both of friend and living. 1b. p. 260. writings, I would not have the world
* Swift, in 1700, described Temple think so, and I find when I writt as 'a good master, and the best [? write] what pleases me, I am Cowley friend in the world.' Temple's Works, to myself, and can read a hundred Preface, p. 26. To Stella he wrote times over. Hist. MSS. Com. vii. on April 3, 1711:-'I warned Mr. App. p. 680. [Swift's correspondent Secretary (St. John) never to appear was his 'little parson cousin' Thomas cold to me, for I would not be treated Swift, whoʻaffected to talk suspiciously like a schoolboy; that I had felt too as if he had some share in' The Tale much of that in my life already (mean- of a Tub. Works, xv. 345.] ing Sir William Temple).' Works, ? In 1689. 16. xiv. 13. ii. 214. See also ib. xvii. 26, for Lord
8 lb. p. 21:
It is written in quaPalmerston (a Temple by birth) re- trains-in imitation of Dryden's lines proaching Swift with ingratitude to the on Cromwell. family, and the Dean's rough reply. 9 16. p. 23. For Swift's letter to
that 'the greatest the Society see ib. xv. 242. part' of the first was finished in 10 Malone, in his Dryden, i. 241,
S Swift says
that this denunciation was the motive of Swift's perpetual
malevolence to Dryden'. 19 In 1699 Temple died, and left a legacy with his manuscripts
to Swift?, for whom he had obtained from King William a promise of the first prebend that should be vacant at Westminster
or Canterbury 3. 20 That this promise might not be forgotten, Swift dedicated to
the King the posthumous works with which he was intrusted* ; but neither the dedication, nor tenderness for the man whom he once had treated with confidence and fondness, revived in King William the remembrance of his promise. Swift awhile attended
the Court; but soon found his solicitations hopeless s. 21 He was then invited by the Earl of Berkeley to accompany him
into Ireland as his private secretary; but after having done the business till their arrival at Dublin, he then found that one Bush had persuaded the Earl that a Clergyman was not a proper secretary, and had obtained the office for himself". In a man like Swift such circumvention and inconstancy must have excited
violent indignation. 22 But he had yet more to suffer. Lord Berkeley had the dis
posal of the deanery of Derry, and Swift expected to obtain it, but by the secretary's influence, supposed to have been secured by a bribe, it was bestowed on somebody else?; and Swift was
3 16. p. 515.
referring to this anecdote as related in Deane Swift's Essay, p. 117, says: * It was the first two volumes of -Johnson probably communicated Letters that he dedicated, in 1700. it to his amanuensis, Shiels, who Works, ix. 103; Temple's Works, introduces it (from authentic informa- 225. tion) in the account of Swift in Cibber's s Craik, p. 515. "That frequent Lives (ante, HAMMOND, 1], previous expression, upon the word of a King, to the appearance of the Essay.' I have always despised and detested,
Dr. Warton had the same story for a thousand reasons.' SWIFT, from his father, who had it from Works, xii. 158. Fenton. Essay on Pope, ii. 312. For 6 Craik, p. 516; Works, 1803, i. Johnson's connexion with Fenton 108. Berkeley, in 1699, was made through Lewis see ante, FENTON, 4n. one of the three Lords Justices (ante,
Ante, DRYDEN, 89, 147 n., 286n., TICKELL, 16). Craik, p. 515. For 306 n., 341 n., 349.
The Discovery, satirical lines on him ? Swift writes of him as that and Bush, see Works, xiv. 59. great man, who besides a legacy left Swift says a bribe was given. him the care and trust, and advan- Craik, p. 516. Sheridan adds that tage of publishing his posthumous Bush, with Berkeley's knowledge, writings. Craik, p. 515. In 1709 told Swift that he could still have the Swift signed a receipt for £40 'for Deanery 'if he would lay down the original copy of the third part £1,000. To which he made no other of Temple's Memoirs.' Ib. p. 75 n. answer but this :-“God confound 23
dismissed with the livings of Laracor and Rathbeggin in the diocese of Meath, which together did not equal half the value of the deanery!
At Laracor he increased the parochial duty by reading prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays, and performed all the offices of his
X profession with great decency and exactness ?.
Soon after his settlement at Laracor he invited to Ireland the 24 unfortunate Stella, a young woman whose name was Johnson, the daughter of the steward of Sir William Temple, who, in consideration of her father's virtues, left her a thousand pounds ?. With her came Mrs. Dingley, whose whole fortune was twentyseven pounds a year for her life ". With these Ladies he passed his hours of relaxation, and to them he opened his bosom; but they never resided in the same house, nor did he see either without a witness. They lived at the Parsonage when Swift was away ; and when he returned removed to a lodging or to the house of a neighbouring clergyman.
Swift was not one of those minds which amaze the world with 25 early pregnancy; his first work, except his few poetical Essays,
you both for a couple of scoundrels.". Works, ix. 274. 'She was the daughWorks, 1803, i. 109. Swift describes ter of Temple's steward. Orrery, the Earl as intolerably lazy and
*Temple left her £1,000. indolent, and somewhat covetous.' Deane Swift, p. 85. [Lord Orrery Works, xii. 231.
and Deane Swift were in error. For ' Craik, p. 516. He had more- Temple's bequest and Stella's parentover the rectory of Agher. The three age see Appendix J.] together, he says, were not worth * Deane Swift, p. 86, where it is above a third part of that rich added that she was fifteen years older deanery.' Ib. "Five or six livings,' than Stella. 'Dr. Swift, who allowed he says, "are often joined to make her £52 a year, pretended (not to a revenue of £50.' Works, xv. 361. her, but to others] he was only her His three livings he reckoned at about agent for money that she had in the £230, a year. Works, 1803, i. 110n. funds.' lb. p. 346. See also Works, For Laracor see Swift's Letters to xviii. 237 n. În writing to one of Chetwode, pp. 7, 27, 86.
the Temple family he calls her your Delany, pp. 40, 64; post, SWIFT, cousin.' " Ib. xix. 36. 117
s Post, SWIFT, 70. To Tickell he She was baptized at Richmond wrote from London in 1726:—'I on March 20, 1681, by the name of wonder how you could expect to see 'Hester ye Daughter of Edwd John Mrs. Johnson in a morning, which son. N. & l. 6 S. x. 287. In two 1, her oldest acquaintance, have not deeds she signed her name 'Esther done these dozen years, except once Johnston' (not Johnson). Ib. 8 S. ii. or twice in a journey.' Ib. xix. 283. 302. 'Her father was a younger • Deane Swift, p. 90. “They lived brother of a good family in Notting- always in lodgings; their domestics hamshire; her mother of a lower consisted of two maids and one man.' degree.... Her fortune at that time SWIFT, Works, ix. 281. was in all not above £1,500.' SWIFT,
was The Dissentions in Athens and Rome', published (1701) in his thirty-fourth year'. After its appearance, paying a visit to some bishop, he heard mention made of the new pamphlet that Burnet had written, replete with political knowledge. When he seemed to doubt Burnet's right to the work he was told by the Bishop that he was a young man,' and, still persisting to
doubt, that he was a very positive young man 3.' 26
Three years afterward (1704) was published The Tale of a Tub+: of this book charity may be persuaded to think that it might be written by a man of a peculiar character, without ill intention ; but it is certainly of dangerous example. That Swift was its author, though it be universally believed, was never owned by himselfs, nor very well proved by any evidence ®; but no other claimant can be produced, and he did not deny it when Archbishop Sharpe and the Duchess of Somerset, by shewing it
to the Queen, debarred him from a bishoprick? 27 When this wild work first raised the attention of the publick,
• Works, iii. 193;
threatened by parliament, he says: * He had already written, though * All persons of true genius or knownot published, The Tale of a Tub ledge have an invincible modesty and and The Battle of the Books. Ante, suspicion of themselves, upon their SWIFT, 17.
first sending their thoughts into the 'Goldsmith,' said Johnson, was world. Ib. v. 150. a plant that flowered late.' Boswell's * Ib. x. I; post, SWIFT, III. Johnson, iii. 167. Richardson was 5 Atterbury wrote in 1704 (Corres. fifty-two when he published Pamela, iii. 218):—The author, if it be the and Sterne forty-six when he pub- man I guess, hath reason to conceal lished Tristram Shandy:
himself because of the prophane 3 It was written against the im- stories, which would do his reputapeachment of Somers, Halifax (ante, tion and interest in the world more HALIFAX, 8), and three other peers. harm than the wit can do him 'I sent it,' writes Swift, very pri- good.' vately to the press. Burnet, he adds, 6 'I doubt,' said Johnson, 'if it 'told me afterwards that he was was his; it has so much more thinkforced to disown it in a very public ing, more knowledge, more power, manner, for fear of an impeachment more colour, than any of the works wherewith he
threatened. which are indisputably his. If it Works, iii. 179. According to T. was his, I shall only say he was Sheridan the bishop was William impar sibi. Boswell's Johnson, V. 44. Sheridan, deprived Bishop of Kil- See also ib. i. 452, ii. 318; John.
Then pray," said he, who Misc. ii. 331. writ it?" Swift answered, 'My Swift's correspondence with Tooke Lord, I writ it." :
Swift's Works, the bookseller in 1710 proves that 1803, i. 114. 'Returning next year he was the author. Works, xv. 344. for England,' writes Swift, 'I must For his muttering in the last years confess the vanity of a young man
of his life :-“Good God! what a prevailed with me to let myself be genius I had when I wrote that known for the author.' Works, iii. book !"; see ib. i. 81. 180. Defending anonymous writing, See Appendix C.
Sacheverell', meeting Smalridge, tried to flatter him by seeming to think him the author ; but Smalridge answered with indignation, 'Not all that you and I have in the world, nor all that ever we shall have, should hire me to write The Tale of a Tub 3.'
The digressions relating to Wotton and Bentley must be con- 28 fessed to discover want of knowledge or want of integrity; he did not understand the two controversies, or he willingly misrepresented them. But Wit can stand its ground against Truth only a little while. The honours due to learning have been justly distributed by the decision of posterity.
The Battle of the Books 5 is so like the Combat des Livres, 29 which the same question concerning the Ancients and Moderns had produced in France, that the improbability of such a coincidence of thoughts without communication is not, in my opinion, balanced by the anonymous protestation prefixed, in which all knowledge of the French book is peremptorily disowned 6.
For some time after Swift was probably employed in solitary 30 study, gaining the qualifications requisite for future eminence. How often he visited England, and with what diligence he attended his parishes, I know not?. It was not till about four
* Ante, KING, 13; ADDISON, 14.
* Ante, SMITH, 57. Addison wrote of him in 1718:– He is to me the most candid and agreeable of all bishops. Swift's Works, xvi. 303. Johnson praised his elegant style. Boswell's Johnson, iii. 248.
3 Miss Byron in Sir Charles Grandison had read it. Letter 12.
Ante, KING, 6. Boyle wrote to his tutor Atterbury in 1693:-There is no post in the world I could be better pleased with than a groom of the bedchamber's place.' Atterbury Corres, ii. 19. This was the man who had the impudence to match himself with Bentley in learning. He was long considered the victor. Budgell wrote in 1732 : The world was pleased to see a young man of quality and fortune get the better of an old critic.' Memoirs of the Earl of Orrery, p. 193.
5 Works, X. 205.
• Swift quotes Wotton as saying : -'I have been assured that the battle in St. James's Library is taken out of a French book, entitled Com
bat des Livres, if I misremember not.' Swift replies that he has never seen any such treatise in his life, nor heard of it before. Ib. x. 26.
In the Anecdotes of Pope, quoted in Gent. Mag. 1770, p. 159, it is said that it was taken from a French tract in 12mo, entitled Histoire poétique de la guerre nouvellement déclarée entre les Anciens et les Modernes.' Mr. Craik says that the trilling points of coincidence make it probable that it had passed under Swift's notice, along with a crowd of forgotten authorities.' Craik, p. 71. Of The Tale of a Tub, Voltaire wrote: _Ce fameux Conte du tonneau est une imitation de l'ancien conte des trois anneaux indiscernables qu'un père légua à ses trois enfans. Ces trois anneaux étaient la religion juive, la chrétienne et la mahométane. C'est encore une imitation de l'Histoire de Méro et d'Enegu par Fontenelle.' Euvres, xxiv. 133.
? For his visits to England see Appendix B.