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court to Pope, on a subject which he either did not understand or willingly misrepresented; and is little more than an improvement, or rather expansion, of a fragment which Pope printed in a Mis. cellany' long before he engrafted it into a regular poem. There is in this piece more pertness than wit, and more confidence than knowledge? The versification is tolerable, nor can criticism

allow it a higher praise. 8

His first tragedy was Eurydice, acted at Drury-Lane in 1731 ; of which I know not the reception nor the merit, but have heard it mentioned as a mean performance ?. He was not then too high to accept a Prologue and Epilogue from Aaron Hill', neither of

which can be much commended. 9 Having cleared his tongue from his native pronunciation so as

to be no longer distinguished as a Scot”, he seems inclined to disencumber himself from all adherences of his original, and took upon him to change his name from Scotch Malloch to English Mallet, without any imaginable reason of preference which the eye or ear can discover 6. What other proofs he gave of dis

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delight.' Pope's Works (Elwin and presentation on Feb. 22, 1731. Hill's Courthope), X. 86. He mentions it Works, 1754, i. 97. See also Gent. also in a letter to Richardson, written, Mag. 1731, p. 135. 'It was brought I believe, in the same month, but out with alterations at Drury Lane in dated Nov. 2, 1732. Ib. ix. 498. For 1760. The success of it was never a quotation from it see John. Misc. great.' Biog. Dram. ii. 207. i. 358.

* Hill's Works, iii. 334, iv. 74; (The 'fragment' of which Verbal ante, SAVAGE, 55; POPE, 154. Criticism is an 'expansion' was in- JOHNSON. I never catched serted by Pope in his Miscellany of

Mallet in a Scotch accent; and yet 1727 under the title of Fragment of Mallet, I suppose, was past five-anda Satire. The 'regular poem into twenty before he came to London.' which Pope engrafted it is The Epistle Boswell's Johnson, ii. 159. to Dr. Arbuthnot, being the Prologue Hume got Mallet to help him in to the Satires, published in 1735. clearing his History from Scotticisms. The Fragment of a Satire, consisting Burton's Hume, ií. 3, 142. of sixty-eight lines, contains the cele- [Mallet's residence in Oxford may brated attack on Addison, preceded have helped him to get rid of his by some lines in disparagement of accent. Together with his pupil Mr. critics and commentators which, like Newsham, he matriculated from St. Mallet's Verbal Criticism, are aimed Mary Hall on Nov. 2, 1733, proceedespecially at Bentley and Theobald. ing B.A. on March 15, 1734, and Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), M.A. on April 6 of the same year. iii. 236. For the Fragment of a Alumni Oxonienses, 1715-1886, iü. Satire from the Miscellany see ib. 906, and Mallet's Ballads and Songs,

ed. Dinsdale, 1857, p. 25.] · Dr. Warton describes it as stuffed • Johnson, in his Dictionary, dewith illiberal cant about pedantry and fines alias as 'a Latin word, signifying collators of manuscripts. Essay on otherwise ; often used in the trials of Pope, ii. 299.

criminals whose danger has obliged Hill was present at the first re- them to change their names, as

538.]

respect to his native country I know not; but it was remarked of him that he was the only Scot whom Scotchmen did not commend'.

About this time Pope, whom he visited familiarly, published 10 his Essay on Man, but concealed the author'; and when Mallet entered one day, Pope asked him slightly what there was new. Mallet told him that the newest piece was something called an Essay on Man, which he had inspected idly; and seeing the utter inability of the author, who had neither skill in writing nor knowledge of his subject, had tossed it away. Pope, to punish his self-conceit, told him the secret 3.

A new edition of the works of Bacon being prepared (1740) 11

Simpson, alias Smith, alias Baker.' considers the rest of it improbable. In his Abridged Dictionary (published Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), not long after Byng's execution, post, ii. 262. MALLET, 21) he defines it as 'a Latin After the sixth verse in the Epistle word, signifying otherwise; as Mallet to Dr. Arbuthnot Pope had inserted alias Malloch; that is otherwise the following: Malloch.' See ante, THOMSON, 13. “Yet worse, vile poets rise before 'tis

In the lines prefixed to Thomson's light, Winter, 3rd ed. 1726 (ante, THOM- And walk, like Marg'ret's ghost, at SON, 13), Mallet signs himself 'D. dead of night.' Ma ch.

'This,' writes Mr. Courthope, 'ap• The change of name occurred in pears to be an allusion to Mallet. 1726. “My Cousin Paton," he says Pope may have intended to punish to Ker in 1724, would have me him for his depreciation of the Essay write my name Mallet, for there is on Man.' 1b. iii. 241. Mr. Elwin not one Englishman that can pro- says that Warburton 'had appended nounce it.” Johnson was ignorant a bitter note upon Mallet ; but the of the proper pronunciation. To a leaf was cancelled.'16.i. Introd. p. 17. Scottish ear there is a considerable For the cancelled leaf see ib. iii. 534-5, difference between Mallock and Mal- where it is shown that, 'to fill the loch.' Cunningham's Lives of the hiatus,' Warburton invented the title Poets, iii. 365.

of Prologue to the Satires.' In an entry in the Register of 'Mallet, thinking Warburton inLaureations in the University of tended to write Pope's life, told him Edinburgh, dated April 16, 1734, he he had an anecdote which he believed is described as 'David Malloch alias nobody knew but himself. “I was Mallet, olim alumnus noster. N. Sowe sitting one day with Mr. Pope in his l. 7 S. xii. 265.

last illness. Mr. Mallet,” said he, Johnson, contrasting the Irish “I have had an odd kind of a vision; with the Scotch, said :-'The Irish methought I saw my own head open, are not in a conspiracy to cheat the and Apollo come out of it; then I world by false representations of the

saw your

head open, and Apollo went merits of their countrymen. No, into it ; after which our heads closed Sir, the Irish are a fair people; they up again.” Warburton replied :never speak well of one another.' “Why, Sir, if I had an intention of Boswell's Johnson, ii. 307.

writing your life this might, perhaps, * In 1733. Ante, POPE, 176. be a proper anecdote ; but I do not

3 Johnson's authority is Ayre's see that in Mr. Pope's it will be of Pope, ii. 215. See also Ruffhead's

any consequence whatever.' RufPope, p. 261. Mr. Elwin, who shows head, p. 532. that one part of Ayre's story is false,

for the press, Mallet was employed to prefix a Life, which he has written with elegance, perhaps with some affectation"; but with so much more knowledge of history than of science, that when he afterwards undertook the Life of Marlborough, Warburton remarked that he might perhaps forget that Marlborough was a general, as he had forgotten that Bacon was a philo

sopher ? 12 When the Prince of Wales was driven from the palace, and,

setting himself at the head of the opposition, kept a separate Court, he endeavoured to increase his popularity by the patronage of literature, and made Mallet his under-secretary, with a salary of two hundred pounds a year. Thomson likewise had a pension *; and they were associated in the composition of the masque of Alfred, which in its original state was played at Cliefden in 1740 5; it was afterwards almost wholly changed by Mallet, and brought upon the stage at Drury-Lane in 1751, but

with no great success 6. 13 Mallet, in a familiar conversation with Garrick, discoursing of

the diligence which he was then exerting upon the Life of Marl

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* Fielding, in Joseph Andrews the pangs of child-birth, hurried her (1742), says to the Muse who presides from Hampton Court, where the Royal over biography :- Thou who hast Family was staying, to St. James's. carefully guided the judgment, whilst The King ordered him to leave that thou hast exalted the nervous manly palace with his family, as soon as it style of thy Mallet.' Bk. iji. ch. 6. was safe for her to move. He also

Gibbon, in 1762, referring to this forbade all persons who paid court to Life, speaks of the vigorous sense them to be admitted into bis presence. of Mallet.' Memoirs, p. 146. Nearly The correspondence that passed was thirty years later he said the Life published by his order. Coxe's Walhad 'rated above its value.' Autos. pole, i. 533, 543. P. 300n.

For the Duchess of Marlborough's * Warburton, in the cancelled note defence of the Princess see Walpole's [ante, MALLET, 10 n. 3), says of Letters, Preface, p. 149. See also Marg'ret's Ghost :-'Written by one ante, POPE, 217; THOMSON, 28; Malloch. Since risen by due de post, LYTTELTON, 6. grees from a maker of Ballads to Ante, THOMSON, 28. a maker of Lives. He made L. B.'s Ante, THOMSON, 33. In the list life, and by ill-hap forgot he was a of books in Gent. Mag. March, 1745, Philosopher; he is now about making p. 168, is 'Alfred, An Opera altered the D. of M.'s. Be not surprised, from the play. By Mr. Thomson and therefore, gentle reader, if he should Mr. Mallet. Price is.' forget that his Grace was a General.' o Garrick, who played the part of Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), Alfred, thought that by his acting,

the splendid scenery and fine music, 3 In July, 1737, the Prince, 'who 'the play would have been crowned considered himself a state prisoner with brilliant success. He was much in the palace of his father,' under the disappointed.' Murphy's Garrick, plea of the Princess being seized with p. 132.

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jii. 534.

borough, let him know that in the series of great men, quickly to be exhibited, he should find a nich' for the hero of the theatre. Garrick professed to wonder by what artifice he could be introduced, but Mallet let him know that, by a dexterous anticipation, he should fix him in a conspicuous place. Mr. Mallet,' says Garrick in his gratitude of exultation, 'have you left off to write for the stage?' Mallet then confessed that he had a drama in his hands. Garrick promised to act it; and Alfred was produced .

The long retardation of the Life of the Duke of Marlborough 14 shews, with strong conviction, how little confidence can be placed in posthumous renown. When he died it was soon determined that his story should be delivered to posterity; and the papers supposed to contain the necessary information were delivered to the lord Molesworth, who had been his favourite in Flanders. When Molesworth died the same papers were transferred with the same design to Sir Richard Steele, who in some of his exigences put them in pawn. They then remained with the old dutchess, who in her will assigned the task to Glover3 and Mallet, with a reward of a thousand pounds, and a prohibition to insert any verses *. Glover rejected, I suppose, with disdain the legacy 5, and devolved the whole work upon Mallet, who had from the late duke of Marlborough a pension to promote his industry, and who talked of the discoveries which he made; but left not, when he died, any historical labours behind him.

· Davies, in his Garrick, ii. 57, tells this story of Mallet's Elvira. Post, MALLET, 20.

2 Richard Molesworth, third Viscount. He saved the Duke's life at Ramillies. He died in 1758. Dict. Nat. Biog. Johnson seems to confuse him with Robert Molesworth, first Viscount, who died in 1725, to whom Swift addressed the fifth Drapier's Letter Works, vi. 467. See also ante, KING, 4.

For the poet, Richard Glover, Leonidas' Glover, see Boswell's Johnson, v. 116.

In Gent. Mag. 1744, p. 588, is an abstract of her will. She desires that no part of the history be in verse, and that it may begin only from the Revolution. Before it is printed it shall have the approbation of Lord

Chesterfield and all her executors. She gives to Mr. Glover and Mr. Mallet £ 500 each, to be paid when it is finished to the satisfaction as aforesaid.' She gave them also the copyright. Horace Walpole (Letters, ii. 160) admired her humour in the limitation about verses.

5 [Glover says in his Memoirs (ed. 1814, p. 57), 'I cannot at intervals refrain from regret that the capricious restrictions in the Duchess of Marlborough's will appointing me to write the life of her illustrious husband compelled me to reject the undertaking.')

• Johnson said that from Mallet's way of talking he saw, and always said, that he had not written any part of the Life, though perhaps he intended to do it at some time, in which

3

15 While he was in the Prince's service he published Mustapha,

with a Prologue by Thomson, not mean, but far inferior to that which he had received from Mallet for Agamemnon'. The Epilogue, said to be written by a friend, was composed in haste by Mallet”, in the place of one promised, which was never given. This tragedy was dedicated to the Prince his master. It was acted at Drury-Lane in 1739, and was well received, but was

never revived. 16 In 1740 he produced, as has been already mentioned, the

masque of Alfred, in conjunction with Thomson 3. 17 For some time afterwards he lay at rest. After a long in

terval his next work was Amyntor and Theodora (1747)*, a long story in blank verse; in which it cannot be denied that there is copiousness and elegance of language, vigour of sentiment, and imagery well adapted to take possession of the fancy. But it is blank verse.

This he sold to Vaillant for one hundred and twenty pounds. The first sale was not great, and it is now lost in forgetfulness.

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case he was not culpable in taking the Ib. lxiii. 24; ante, THOMSON, 29. pension.' Boswell's Johnson, v. 175. · The Epilogue, with the Dedica

Johnson perhaps had in mind his tion, is given in Gent. Mag. Feb. own treatment of the subscribers to 1739, p. 95. The play was printed in his Shakespeare. 16. i. 319,496. He the same month. Ib. p. 108. Pope added:—'Mallet groped for materials, wrote to Mallet :- I heartily rejoice and thought of it, till he had exhausted in the success you so justly merit, and his mind. Thus it sometimes happens so fortunately have met with, conthat men entangle themselves in their sidering what a stage, and what a own schemes. 16. iii. 386. See post, people you have to do with. Pope's GRAY, 19.

Works (Elwin and Courthope), x. 93. Hume wrote to Millar, the book- See also Aaron Hill's Works, ii. 67. seller, on April 21,1763:-'Mr. Mallet Ante, THOMSON, 33. complains much of a report that I Eng. Poets, lxiii. 77. It is in was writing the English History since the May list of books in Gent. Mag. the Revolution; which, he says, he 1747, p. 252, quarto, price 35. 6d. cannot believe, because it would be Mallet's Poems apparently were a very invidious task to him. I worth pirating, for there is added to answered him that I had not wrote the advertisement the following most a line; that as he was near twenty rare announcement:- This poem is years advanced before me, it was entered in the hall-book of the comridiculous to fear that I could overtake pany of stationers, and whoever pirates him.' Burton's Hume, ii. 143. On it will be prosecuted.' Mallet's death the Marlborough papers 5 of this poem Dr. Warton wrote were offered to Hume, with the view in 1756:-'The nauseous affectation of his continuing his own History. of expressing everything pompously Ib. p. 392

and poetically is nowhere more visible In 1762 Mallet had the impudence, than in a poem lately published, enin a Dedication to the third Duke, to titled Amyntor and Theodora." Essay hold out hopes of a speedy publica- on Pope, i. 145. tion. Eng. Poets, lxiii. 131.

6 This sentence is not in the first

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