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EXERCISE ON FORCE.
Select a sentence, and deliver it on a given key, with voice just sufficient to be heard: then gradually increase the quantity, until the whole power of the voice is brought into play. Reverse the process, without change of key, ending with a whisper. This exercise is so valuable that it can not be too frequently repeated.
QUALITY. 1. QUALITY has reference to the kind of tone used in reading and speaking. They are the PURE TONE, the OROTUND, the ASPIRATED, and the GUTTURAL.
2. THE PURE TONE is a clear, smooth, round, flowing sound, accompanied with moderate pitch; and is used to express peace, cheerfulness, joy, and love; as,
Methinks I love all common things ;
The common air, the common flower;
From hearts that have no other dower,
No other wealth, no other power,
For all else fortune tears away? 3. THE OROTUND is the pure tone deepened, enlarged, and intensified. It is used in all energetic and vehement forins of expression, and in giving utterance to grand and sublime emotions; as,
Strike, till the last armed foe expires ;
altars and your fires ; STRIKE, for the green graves of your sires;
God and your native land. 4. THE ASPIRATED is an expulsion of the breathi more or less strong, the words being spoken in a whisper. It is used to express amazement, fear, terror, horror, re venge, and remorse; as,
How ill this taper burns !
My blood grows chilly, and I freeze with horror. 5. THE GUTTURAL is a deep under-tone, used to express hatred, contempt, and loathing. It occurs on the emphatic words; as,
Thou slave, thou wretch, thou coward !
RATE. 1. Rate refers to movement, and is Quick, MODER
ATE, or Slow.
2. QUICK RATE is used to express joy, mirth, confusion, violent anger, and sudden fear; as,
Away! away! our fires stream bright
Along the frozen river,
On the forest branches quiver.
The steed, the must'ring squadron, and the clatt’ring car
And swiftly forming in the ranks of war. 3. MODERATE RATE is used in ordinary assertion, narration, and description; in cheerfulness, and the gentler forms of the einotions; as,
When the sun walks upon the blue sea-waters,
pace this shore, I and my brother here,
And then doth my dear brother, who hath worn
The truth reflected which he casts on me. 4. Siow Rate is used to express grandeur, vastness, pathos, solemnity, adoration, horror, and consternation; as,
O thon Eternal One! whose presence bright
All space doth occupy, all motion guide;
Thou only God! There is no God beside!
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea;
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
EXERCISE ON RATE.
Select a sentence, and deliver it as slow as may be possible, without drawling. Repeat the sentence with a slight increase of rate, until you shall have reached a rapidity of utterance at which distinct articulation ceases. Having done this, reverse the process, repeating slower and slower. This exercise will enable pupils to acquire the ability to increase and diminish rate at pleasure, which is one of the most important elements of good reading and speaking.
SECTION VII.PAUSES. Pauses are suspensions of the voice in reading and speaking, used to mark expectation and uncertainty, and to give effect to expression. They are often more eloquent than words.
Pauses differ greatly in their frequency and their length, according to the nature of the subject. In lively conversation, and rapid argument, they are comparatively few and short. In serious, dignified, and pathetic speaking, they are far more numerous and more prolonged. The pause
is marked thus in the following illustrations and exercises.
RULES FOR THE USE OF PAUSES. 1. A pause is required after a compound nominative
. in all cases; and after a nominative consisting of a single word, when it is either emphatic, or is the leading subject of discourse; as,
Joy and sõrrow move him not. No people y can claim him. No country can appropriate him.
2. A pause is required after words which are in apposition with, or opposition to each other; as,
Solomon the son of David y was king of Israel. False delicacy is affectation not politeness.
3. A pause is required after but, hence, and other words denoting a marked transition, when they stand at the beginning of a sentence; as,
But it was reserved for Arnold y to blend all these bad qualities into one. Hence y Solomon calls the fear of the Lord the beginning of wisdom.
4. A pause is required before that, when a conjunction or relative, and the relatives who, which, what; together with when, whence, and other adverbs of time and place, which involve the idea of a relative; as,
He went to school that he might become wise. This is the inany that loves me. We were present
when La Fayette embarked at Havre for New York.
5. A pause is required before the infinitive mood, when governed by another verb, or when separated by
an intervening clause from the word which governs
He has gone to convey the news. He smote me with a rody to please my enemy.
6. In cases of ellipsis, a pause is required where one or more words are omitted; as,
So goes the world; if wealthy, you may call this friend, that y brother.
7. Pauses are used to set off qualifying clauses by themselves; to separate qualifying terms from each other, when a number of them refer to the same word; and when an adjective follows its noun; as,
The rivulet sends forth glad sounds, and tripping o'er its bed of pebbly sands, or leaping down the rocks seems with continuous laughter M to rejoice in its own being. He had a mind deep active well stored with knowledge.
These rules, though important, if properly applied, are by no means complete; nor can any be invented which shall meet all the cases that arise in the complicated relations of thought. A good reader or speaker pauses, on an averaye, at every fifth or sixth word, and in many cases much more frequently. His only guide, in many instances, is a discriminating taste in grouping ideas, and separating by pauses those which are less intimately allied. In doing this, he will often use what may be called
SUSPENSIVE QUANTITY. SUSPENSIVE QUANTITY means prolonging the end of a word, without actually pausing after it; and thus suspending, without wholly interrupting the progress of sound.
The prolongation on the last syllable of a word, or Suspensive Quantity, is indicated thus , in the following examples. It is used chiefly for three purposes :