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6. The language of concession, politeness, admiration, entreaty, and tender emotions, usually requires the rising inflection.


1. Your remark is true': the manners of this country have not all the desirable ease and freedom'. We are improving, however, in this respect.

2. My dear sir', we ought not to be discouraged at the fickleness of fortune'.

3. O noble friend'! Thy self-denial is wonderful ! thy deeds vi charity are innumerable'! Never will I forget thee' ! 4. Then Judah came near unto him, and said', O

my lord', ret thy servant', I pray thee', speak a word in my lord's cars', and let not thine anger burn against thy servant', for thou art even as Pharaoh's

5. O my son Absalom'! my son', my son Absalom'! Would God I had died for thee', Absalom', my son', my son'!

7. The end of a sentence that expresses completeness, conclusion, or result, usually requires the falling slide of termination, which commences on the general pitch and falls below it; as, The rose is beautiful



1. That industrious scholar has finished his task.

2. The great end of society is to give free scope to the exertions of all.

3. The idea of right can never be effaced from the human mind.

8. At each complete termination of thought, before the close of a sentence, the falling inflection is usually required; though, when several pauses occur, the last but one generally has the rising inflection.

EXAMPLES. 1. Every human being has the idea of duty'; and to unfold this idea, is the end for which life was given him.



2. The rocks crumble'; the trees fall'; the leaves fade', and the grass

withers. 3. The tears of the sufferers are already dried', their rage

is hushed', their complaints are silenced', and they no longer claim our pity.

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9. The language of command, rebuke, contempt, exclamation, and terror, usually requires the falling inflection.

EXAMPLES. 1. Go to the ant', thou sluggard, consider her ways, and be wise'.

2. Awake!! ye sons of Spain. Awake!! Advance!!

3. If ye are men, follow me'! Strike down yon guard', -gain the mountain passes',—and then do bloody work'.

4. Thou slave', thou wretch', thou coward'! Away from my sight!

5. Mercy' on me! breathe it not aloud', the wild winds must not hear it,—'tis a foul murder'.

6. What a piece of work is man'! what a subject of contra diction'! how noble'! how mean'! the glory and the scandal of the universe'


10. The last member of a commencing series, and the last but one of a concluding series, usually require the rising inflection; and all others the falling.

EXAMPLES. 1. In eloquence, we see sublimity', beauty, genius', and power', in their noblest exercise!

2. It is this depth', this weight', this elevation of principle', this purity of motive', which makes them the admiration of the world'.

3. But the fruit of the Spirit is love', joy', peace', long-suffering', gentleness', goodness, faith', meekness', temperance.

4. In most armies, the ranks are filled with the depraved', the desperate', the cruel', the bloody', and the rapācious'.

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5. The youth longs to be at age', then to be a man of business', then to make up an estate', then to arrive at honors', and then to retire!

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11. Emphatic repetition, and the pointed enumeration of particulars, require the falling inflecticm.

The stress of voice should be gradually increased on each repetition, or succession of particulars. The preceding rule with regard to a commencing and a concluding series, should be duly observed.

EXAMPLES. 1. If I were an American, while a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay down my armsnever!! NEVER'! NEVER'!

2. His first cry was, God and liberty'. His second cry was, GOD AND LIBERTY'. His third cry was, GOD AND LIBERTY'.

3. He aspired to be the highest'; above the people', above the laws', above his country', above surrounding nations'.

4. They, through faith, subdued kingdoms', wrought righteousness', obtained promises', stopped the mouth of lions', quenched the violence of fire', escaped the edge of the sword', out of weakness were made străng', waxed valiant in fight', turned to flight the armies of the aliens'.

12. THE CIRCUMFLEX is used in language of irony, sarcasm, derision, condition, and contrast.


1. He is a râre pattern of humanity. 2. One may be wise, though he be poor. 3. No doubt yě are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.

4. Thěy follow an adventurer whom they fêar; wê serve a monarch whom we love. 5. “'Tis



assure ye!"
Greěn!” cries the other, in a fury;
“Why, sir, d'ye think I've lost my eyês ?”

sir, I


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SECTION VI.--MODULATION. MODULATION is the act of varying the voice in reading and speaking. Among its more important divisions are PITCH, FORCE, QUALITY, and RATE.

PITCH. 1. PITCH refers to the key-note of the voice—its gen . eral degree of elevation or depression, in reading and speaking. We mark three general distinctions of Pitch: HIGH, MODERATE, and Low.

2. The High Pitch is that which is heard in calling to a person at a distance. It is used in expressing elevated and joyous feelings; as,

Go ring the bells, and fire the guns,

And fling the starry banners out;
Shout “Freedom!" till your lisping ones

Give back their cradle shout. 3. THE MODERATE Pitch is that which is heard in common conversation. It is used in expressing ordinary thought and moderate emotion; as,

The morning itself, few people, inhabitants of cities, know any thing about. Among all our good people, not one in a thousand sees the sun rise once in a year. They know nothing of the morning. Their idea of it is, that it is that part of the day that comes along after a cup of coffee and a beef-steak, or a piece of toast.

4. THE Low Pitch is that which is heard when the voice falls below the common speaking key. It is used in expressing emotions of reverence, awe, and sublimity; as,

'Tis midnight's holy hour, and silence now
Is brooding, like a gentle spirit, o'er
The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the winds
The bells' deep tones are swelling ;—'tis the knell
Of the departed year.



Select a sentence, and deliver it on as low a key as possible; then repeat it, gradually elevating the pitch, until the top of the voice shall have been reached; when the exercise may be reversed. So valuable is this exercise, that it should be repeated as often as possible.

FORCE. 1. FORCE is the volume or loudness of voice, used in the same key or pitch, when reading or speaking.

Though the degrees of force are numerous, varying from a soft whisper to a shout, yet they may be considered as three : Loud, MODERATE, and GENTLE.

2. Loud FORCE is used in strong but suppressed pas. sions, and vehement emotions; as,

How like a fawning publican he looks!
I hate him, for that he is a Christian.
If I but cătch him once upon the hip,

I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. 3. MODERATE FORCE, or a medium degree of loudness, is used in ordinary assertion, narration, and description; as,

A man should never be ashamed to own he has been in the wrõng; which is but saying, in other words, that he is wiser to-day than he was yesterday.

4. GENTLE FORCE, or a slight degree of loudness, is used to express caution, fear, secrecy, and tender emotions; as,

Heard ye the whisper of the breeze,

As sõftly it murmured by,
Amid the shadowy fõrest trees?

It tells, with meaning sigh,
Of the bowers of bliss on that viewless shore,
Where the weary spirit shall sin no more.

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