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lib' ral for lib er al. ding rous for dàn

66 min al. won d'ring won der ing. min’ ral “ of fer ing

mem o ry: av' rice

bois t'rous

« bois ter ous.

ger ous. er

of' ring

mem' ry


ay a rice.

tòk en

év en

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2. From uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as, driv en for driv'n.

for tók’n.
shak en

heav en
heav'n. driv el


grov'l. sick'n.

brok en

brok'n. shov el shov'l.

shriv el shriv’l.
sniv el



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tåk en sick en

grov el
rav el



sev en

soft en



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3. From substituting one element for another; as, set for sit.

cårse for course (còrs) sence 66 since.

re pårt

re pòrt. shet 66 shůt.

tróf fy

( trồ phy. git get.

på rent pår ent. for git“ for gêt. 66 gět

bůn net ( bÖn net. hẹrth 66 hearth (hårth).

chil drun 66 chil dren. ben 66 been (bỉn).

sůl lar 66 cel lar. a gån a gain (agèn). mel ler 66 mel low. a gånst“ a gainst (agenst). pil ler cåre, clre.

wil ler 66 wil low. dånce « dånce. påst påst.

mo munt mo ment. åsk 66 åsk.

treat munt “ treat ment. låst 66 låst.

harm liss 66 harm less. gråss gråss.

home liss 66 home less. dråft 5 dråft.

kind niss

16 kind ness. ståff 66 ståff.

harsh niss 6 harsh ness.

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pil lòw.

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EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION. For a further exercise in ARTICULATION, let the pupils, separately and in concert, read each of the following sentences several times, uttering the Elements in italics with force and distinctness.

1. He accepts the office, and attempts by his acts to conceal his faults.

2. The bold, blustering boys broke bolts and bars. 3. He trod boldly the halls of his ancestors.

4. These acts of government will result in a general and great increase of crime.

5. There are rags, figs, and drugs in these bags.

6. He was attacked with spasms and died miserably by the road side.

7. He longs to sling the tongs with all his strength.

8. Regardless of troubl's and wrõngs, he curb’d the anger o? that disturb'd rabble.

9. He reads the acts of the government, and expects to learr the facts in the case.

10. If he reflect, he will take prompt means to secure their clubs and save his ribs.

11. Death ravaged for months throughout the whole length and breadth of the land.

12. For the hundredth time, he spoke of lengths, breadths, widths, and depths.

13. Whispers of revenge passed silently around among the troops.

14. He laughs, and quaffs his ale, knowing that the rafts and skiffs are on the reefs near the cliffs.

15. What thou wouldst highly that thou wouldst holily.

16. Your false friends aim, by stealth, to secure the wealth for which you delv’d, and lost


health. 17. As the water gush'd forth, he wish'd he had push'd the dog from the path, and hush'd the child.

18. Her faults were aggravated, and held up to universal scorn and reproach.

19. The ragged madman, in his ramble, did madly ransack every pantry in the parish.




20. Directly after these accidents, numerous attempts were made to emigrate.

21. The peevish, feeble freeman feebly fought for freedom.

22. It will pain nobody, if the sad dangler regain neither rope.

23. Fame, fortune, and friends favor the fair.

24. Theodore Thickthõng thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb.

25. Beneath the booth, I found baths, lafhs, cloths, moths, paths, sheaths, and wreaths.

26. Prithee, blīthe youth, do not mouth your words when you wreathe


face with smiles. 27. The best defenders of liberty do not commonly vociferate most loudly in its praise.

28. That fellow shot a minnow on a willow, in the nărrow meadow, near the yěllow house.

29. The rival robbers rode round and round the rough and rugged rocks that rear their hoary heads high in the air.

30. Amidst the mists and coldest frosts, with barest wrists and stoutest boasts, he thrusts his fists against (agěnst) the posts, and still insists he sees the ghosts.

31. The thoughtless, helpless, homeless girl did not resent his rudeness and harshness.

32. That blessed and learned says that that winged thing is striped or streaked.

33. For thee are the chaplets of chainless charity and the chalice of childlike cheerfulness. . Change can not change thee: from childhood to the charnel-house, from our first childish chirpings to the chills of the church-yard, thou art our cheery, changeless chieftainess.

34. What whim led White Whitney to whittle, whistle, whisper, and whimper near the wharf, where a floundering whale might wheel and whirl ?

35. With horrid howls, he heaved the heavens above.

36. He has prints of an ice-house, an ocean, and wastes and deserts.

37. Thou laid'st down and slept'st. 38. As thou found'st, so thou keep'st me. :39. He said craseth, approacheth, rejoiceth; falln, hurl'st,


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curv'st , barb’dst, swerv’dst, muzzldst; hard'n'dst, black'n'dst, mangl'dst.

40. She authoritatively led us, and disinterestedly labored for us, and we unhesitatingly admitted her reasonableness.

41. A storm ariseth on the sea. A model vessel is struggling amidst the war of elements, quivering and shivering, shrinking and battling like a thinking being. The merciless, racking whirlwinds, like frightful fiends, howl, and moan, and send sharp, shrill, shrieks through the creaking cordage, snapping the sheets and masts. The sturdy sailors stand to their tasks, and weather the severest storm of the season.

SECTION II. SYLLABICATION. 1. A SYLLABLE is a word, or part of a word, uttered by a single impulse of the voice.

2. A MONOSYLLABLE is a word of one syllable; as, home.

3. A DISSYLLABLE is a word of two syllables; as, home-less.

4. A TRISYLLABLE is a word of three syllables; as, con-fine-ment.

5. A POLYSYLLABLE is a word of four or more syllables; as, in-no-cen-cy, un-in-tel-li-gi-bil-i-ty.

6. THE ULTIMATE is the last syllable of a word; as ful, in peace-ful.

7. THE PENULT, or penultimate, is the last syllable but one of a word, as māk, in peace-mak-er.

8. THE ANTEPENULT, or antepenultimate, is the last syllable but two of a word; as peace, in peace-mak-er.

9. THE PREANTEPENULT, or preantepenultimate, is the last syllable but three of a word; as mat, in mat-ri-mo-ny.

FORMATION OF SYLLABLES. In combining the oral elements into syllables, the following rules should be carefully observed :



1st. The elements of consonants that commence words should be uttered distinctly, but should not be much prolonged.'

2d. Elements that are represented by final consonants should be dwelt upon, and uttered with great distinctness.

3d. In uttering the elements that are represented by the final consonants b, P, d, t, 9, and k, the organs of speech should not remain closed at the several pauses of discourse, but should be smartly separated by a kind of echo; as, I took down my hat-t, and put it upon my head-d.

4th. Unaccented syllables should be pronounced as distinctly as those which are accented : they should merely have less force of voice and less prolongation.

Very many of the prevailing faults of articulation result from a neglect of these rules, especially the second and the last. He who gives a full and definite sound to final consonants and to unaccented vowels, if he does it without stiffness or formality, can hardly fail to articulate well.

In the following lesson, let the pupils give the number and names of the syllables, in words of more than one syllable, and tell what rule for the formation of syllables each letter that appears in italics is designed to illustrate.


1. In a little village a few kind-hearted citizens once went round from house to house, to procure contributions for a number of the

poor inhabitants. 2. Early one morning, they came to the estate of a wealthy farmer. They found him standing before the stable, and heard, as they drew near, that he was scolding one of his men,

because he had left the ropes, with which they tied their horses, in the rain all night, instead of putting them away in a dry place.

3. “Ah! we shall gět věry little here," said one to the other;

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"On this point, Dr. Rush mentions the error of a distinguished actor, who, in order to give force to his articulation, dwelt on the initial let ters, as marked in the following lines :

“ Canst thou not m-inister to a m-ind diseased,

Pl-uck from the m-emory a r-ooted sorrow?" Such mouthing defeats its object.

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