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A Description of BRECKNOCKSHIRE. Jan. by egotism, will give you great advan pidly from the black mountain, and tages in pressing them with consequences forcing a deep channel, parles by Breckdrawn from their supposed principles. nock. Tho' this county be so moun

You may also take away the force of a tainous, provisions are exceeding plenti-
man's argument by concluding from some ful and very good : Nor are these moun-
equivocal expression of his, that he is tains useless even to the city of London;
a Jacobite, a republican, a courtier, a for from hence, and other counties of
methodist, a freethinker, or a Jew. You A Wales they send yearly great herds of
may have a fling at his country or pro black cattle to England, which are known
feffion : He talks like an apothecary, you to fill our fairs and markets, even that of
believe him to be a tooth-drawer, or Smithfield itfelf. About two miles east
know that he is a taylor. And as I of Brecknock is a large lake or meer called
entirely throw out of my system the Brecknock Meer, two or three miles over,
argumentum ad judicium, there will be no concerning which they have a great many
thing in my academy that will have the fables, the best of which is, that a certain
least appearance of a school, and of con river, called Lhewerie, runs thro' it, and
sequence nothing to make a gentleman B keeps its colour in Mid-channel, distin-
either afraid or ashamed of attending it. guithed from the water of the lake, and, as

Enquire for A. B. at the bar of the they say, never mingles withit. According
Bedford coffte-house.

to tradition, a fair city once stood here,

which was swallowed up by an earth-
A DESCRIPTION OF BRECKNOCK-
quake, and is believed by some authors

Bar
SHIRE, in South Wales, wiib an

to be the Loventium of Ptolemy; but such accurate Map of tbe same.

traditions are applied to many other cities the of c in Wales, and seem to be all fable. They loob

take abundance of good fith in this lake,
and north-east; Carmarthenshire, and part so that, like the river Theissa in Hun.
of Cardiganshire, on the west ; Hereford gary, they say it is two thirds water, and
Thire and part of Monmouthshire on the one third filh. Many Roman and other
caft; and Glamorganshire and part of antiquities, are to be seen here ; and in-
Monmouthshire on the South. It is an deed, more marks of this sort appear in
inland county, and by the English jeft Wales than in any part of England, ex-
ingly called Break-neck-shire,

cept Cumberland and Northumberland.
count of its being generally so very moun-D The towns in this county are,
tainous. Some of its hills are exceeding 1. Brecknock, on the river Ulk, 123
high, especially Monuchdenny, which is

computed, and 161 measured miles N.W.
said to exalt itself above the clouds. But from London, the capital of the county,
tho'thus generallyencompassed withmoun in the middle of which it stands, and
tains, yet it is not without many fertile where the aflizes are held. It is very an-
plains and valleys, which yicld plenty cient, well-built, and inhabited, and has
of corn, and feed abundance of cattle.

a good trade in clothing. It has three
The chief rivers are the Ulk, and Wye, è churches, one of which is collegiate ;
which receive those streams that water and is governed by two bailiffs, 15 alder-
the country, and afford the people great men, two chamberlains, two constables,
abundance of filh, especially salmons and a town clerk, and other sub-officers. Its
trouts. This county is about 23 miles markets are on Wednesdays and Saturdays,
long from north to south, and about which are very confiderable, for cattle,
20 broad from east to weft, and 106 in corn, and other provisions.
circumference; containing about 620000 2. Built, about 10 miles N. of Breck-
acres, and 6000 houses. It is divided

nock, plcasantly seated among woods on
into fix hundreds, has 61 parishes, and F the Wye, over which it has a large wooden
four market towns, and sends two mem bridge, which leads into Radnorshire. It
bers to parliament, one for the county, has a trade for stockings, and has two
who at present is Thomas Morgan, Esq; good weekly markets, on Mondays for
and one for the town of Brecknock, viz. cattle, and on Saturdays for corn and
Thomas Morgan, jun. Esq; This county provisions.
lies in the diocese of Llandaff; and 3. Hay, about 12 miles N. E. from
it was awong the mountains here, Brecknock, a town of good note in the
that the famous Glendower, theltered G time of the Romans, being then fortified
himself, and taking arms on the depo with a castic and a wall : It is at present
fing of Richard II. proclaimed himself a pretty good town, and has a market
prince of Wales. As the Wye waters for corn, cattle, and provisions on Mon-
the northern and part of Brecknockmire, days.
to the Uik, a noble river, takes its course 4. Crickhowel, about 10 miles S. of
thro' the middle of it: It falls very ra. Hay, with a market on Thursdays.

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I

1755

9 JOURNAL of the Proceedings and Debates

in the POLITICAL CLUB, continued from p. 545, of our last Year's MAGAZINE,

it was not to be tried by a jury, but Tbe next Debate I am to give you the determined by the records and judges,

Substance of, is one ne had in our whether justice at such a time, and
Club

- upon the Bill pasjid the 'laft in such a place, had her equal course Sillion of laft Parliament, for pu of proceeding, or no. So careful niihing Mutiny and Desertion of were our ancestors' to prevent the 'the Officers and Soldiers in the A exercise of martial law in this kingService of the East India Com dom in time of peace, that in order pany ; and for the Punishment of to prevent as much as possible any

Offences committed in the East pretence for its being necessary, a ? Indies, or at the land of St He law was made in the reign of Hen

lena. Which Debate cevas opened ry VI. by which it was made te ony by. T. Sempronius Gracchus in a for a lo dier, engaged to serve the Speech to the Efelt as follows B king in his wars, not to go with, or

to depart from his captain without a Mr. Prefident,

licence ; and fuch ofences wer: exSIR,

pressly n.ade cognizable by the julA M glad to see the important tices of peace, according to the affair now before'us fo well'ar. course of the common law; which law

tended. I hope it is a lign that became neceffary'to'b: made at that the nation is awakened out of that le. C time, because we were engaged in a thargy and inattention which we have heavy and unfortunate war in France, been plunged into for so many years for the prosecution whereof many fol. past, and which has been the cause diers were daily listed here at home, of the martial law's being now so and many of them, after having re. strongly grafted into our constitution. ceived the listing money, either, reI say ingrafted, Sir ; for cho'our fo. fused to go, or afterwards deserted vereign had always a power to exer- D from the army in France and returccise martial law when necellity re ed home ; for neither of which of. quired, yet until after the Revolusion fences they couid be punished any it was so far from being a part of,

other

way chan by a civil aclion for that it was expressly contrary to, and breach of covenant, therefore a new inconsistent with our constitution ; law for that purpose became necefñor would our ancestors for that

sea

fary ; ' but the legislature took care son ever admit of any written marti- E that the trial and punishment should al law, so that neceflity only could be be according to the course of the pleaded as to the time, the place, or common law. the manner of exercising it.; and in This law, Sir, was revived in the deed of old it was never exercised at r-igns of Hen. VII. and Hen. VIII. any time, or in any place, when or and the benefit of clergy cakin a. where the jurisdiction of our com way 'from deferters, but still the mon law courts' could take place. f trial was to be a cording to the Accordingly all our lawyers agree, course of common liw; for until that martial law was never to be ex. the reign of Fuward VI, no counercised, but when the peaceable tenance was given by any law to the course of justice was Itopt, and that pumihment of any soldier even by 3.- E- of E

the commander in chief, and then it January, 1755.

B

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LUCIEDINGS of the POLITICAL CLUB, &c. Jan. was restrained only to such officers some new sorts of crimes, or Como or soldiers as gave or received li new sets of people, have been made çences without the consent of the liable to be cried and punished by commander in chief, and extended martial law, In the first mutiny act, only to imprisonment at his discreti which, as I have said, was passed in

: Revolution we had no other law A our courtiers were pretty modest, for for the punishment of any military, no crimes were made liable to be offence, nor was martial law ever tried by courts martial but mutiny, exercised in this kingdom in time of sedition, and desertion, and even for peace, that is to say, when the peace, these crimes the courts martial had able course of justice was not stopt power to infia a less severe punishby some invasion or rebellion ; yet ment than that of death ; nor was during the whole time of Charles B any foldier to be deemed guilty of and James Ild. a body of regular o desertion, unless he actually left their troops were kept on foot under pro majefties service, so that if a poor per discipline, and without being fellow, on account of ill usage, left guilty of any irregularities ; for if the company he was in, and listed they could not have been kept under in another, he could not be tried or proper discipline, I am sure, neither punished by a court martial for deof these kings would have been at C tertion, or indeed for any other crime. the expence of keeping them on Then as to the perfons subjected to foot ; and if they had been guilty martial law by this forft mucing act, of any irregularities, I am as fure we they were only officers and soldiers Thould have heard enough of it from muttered and in pay in the army the anticourt writers of those days : within this kingdom only; and likeNay, I am ap: to suspect, that the wisc as to the time of its continuance, irregularities committed by our troops D this first act was very much confined, loon after the Revolution, were un for it was not to continue in force but derhand fomented by the private di from the izth of April to the noch rection of some of our minifters at of November following, so that I chat time, in order to induce the am apt to believe, the chief realon parliament to agree to the first writ. for passing it, or at lealt che chief ten law we ever had for establishing reason made use of for inducing the courts martial in this kingdom, which E parliament to pass it, was in order to was the act passed in the first of the enable his majesty to reduce Ireland, reign of William and Mary, inti which was then almoft entirely under tled, An act for punifhing officers or

the dominion of the abdicated king; Toldiers who fall muliny or deler and this was perhaps one of the reatheir majefties service.

sons why so little was done during How dangerous, Sir, is any pre

that summer towards the reduction cedent that may in the least contri. F of Ireland, or che relief of the disbute towards the ellablishment of are tressed Protestants in tbat kingdom, bitrary power! For this precedent in order that the same prevailing arbeing once mace, we have ever since gument might be made use of for had martial law annually establifhed pasting a new mutiny bill in the next hy parliament with very little inter Cellion of parliament. ruprion, except for about 14 or 15 Before I have done with this act, months during the year 1691, and G Sir, I must further observe, that the part of 1992, and except between king was not thereby enabled to estaThree and four years after the peace blim any articles of war, with severe. of Ryswick; and what is ftill worse, punishments annexed, to be of force the danger has been growing upon forever fioce ; for almost every year,

in this kingdom ; nor was the act of

the

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