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430. “ And the shapes of the locusts,” signifies, the form and appearances of those who have confirmed in themselves faith separated from charity. By shapes, is signified their appearances in a representative image ; by locusts, are signified falses in extreme or lowest principles, n. 424; and as falses make one with those who are in falses, they also are signified by locusts. That they who have confirmed themselves in faith alone, or that the falses in which they are principled, are meant by locusts, appeared evident to me from this circumstance, that the presbyters who were in that faith, embraced the locusts that were seen, and kissed them, and were desirous of introducing them into their houses; for the images, which are forms representative of the affections and thoughts of angels and spirits in the spiritual world, appear as if they were alive, in like manner as the animals, birds, and fishes, mentioned above.

431. “Were like unto horses prepared unto battle,” signifies, that because they can reason, they appear to themselves to combat from the understanding of truth from the Word. By a horse, is signified the understanding of the Word, n. 298; by war, is signified spiritual war, which consists in reasonings and argumentations, n. 500, 586; by like, or similitudes, are signified appearances, as above, n. 430.

432. “And on their heads were as it were crowns like gold,” signifies, that they appeared to themselves as conquerors. By crowns on their heads like gold, are signified tokens of victory, because formerly kings wore crowns of gold in battle, n. 300; for it is said that they were seen like horses, that is, on horses prepared for war, n. 431, for they had the faces of men, as follows; and they are in the persuasion that they are invincible.

433. “And their faces were as the faces of men,” signifies, that they appeared to themselves to be wise. By man, in the Word, is signified to be wise and intelligent, n. 243; and by his face, wisdom and intelligence : hence it is, that by their faces being as the faces of men, is signified, that they appeared to themselves to be wise. They are also called wise, learned, and erudite, although

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they are among the foolish virgins, who had no oil in their lamps, Matt. xxv. 1, 2. Oil signifies love and charity; and among the foolish, means among those who hear the Lord, that is, read the Word, and do not do it, Matt. vii. 26.

434. “ And they had hair as the hair of women,' signifies, that they appeared to themselves to be in the affection of truth. By man, in the Word, is signified the understanding of truth; and by woman, the affection of truth, because man by birth is understanding, and woman, affection; on which subject, see The Treatise concerning

Conjugial Love. By hair, in the Word, is signified the ultimate of man's life, which is the sensual principle, see n. 424; this is what gives them the appearance of being in the affection of truth, when yet they are in the affection of falsity; for this they believe to be truth. That a woman signifies the affection of truth, may appear from many passages in the Word ; benee it is, that the church is called a wife, a woman, a daughter, and a virgin, the church being a church by virtue of the love or affection of truth ; for from this comes the understanding of truth. The church is called a woman in these passages :

6. There were two women of one mother, and they committed whoredoms in Egypt, Ahola which is Samaria, and Aholiba which is Jerusalem," Ezek. xxii. 2, 3, 4. “Jehovah hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth,” Isaiah liv. 6, 7. « Jehovah hath created a new thing in the earth, a woman shall compass a man,” Jerem. xxxi. 21, 22. By the woman clothed with the sun, whom the dragon persecuted, Apoc. xii., is signified the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. By women, are signified the affections of truth, by virtue of which the church is a church, in many passages, as in the following: “The women of my people have ye cast out of their pleasant houses,” Micah ii. 9. The families of houses shall mourn apart, and the women apart, Zech. xii. 12, 13. «Rise up, ye women that are at ease, give ear unto my speech," Isaiah xxxii. 9. 66 Wherefore commit ye this great evil to cut off from you man and woman," Jerem. xliv. 7. “I will break in pieces man and woman,” Jerem. li. 22. By man and woman, here and

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elsewhere, is signified, in a spiritual sense, the understanding of truth, and the affection of truth.

435. “And their teeth were as the teeth of lions," signifies, that sensual things, which are the ultimates of the life of the natural man, appeared with them to have power over all things. Teeth signify the ultimates of the life of the natural man, which are called sensual things; concerning which, see above, n. 424. Sensual things are of two kinds, one kind having relation to the will, and the other to the understanding; the sensual things of the will are signified by the hair of women, of which above, n. 434; and the sensual things of the understanding are signified by teeth ; the latter, or what is the same, sensual men who are in falses from confirmation, seeni to themselves to be in power over all things, so as to be altogether invincible; wherefore the teeth of the locusts, by which such sensual things are signified, were as the teeth of lions, for by a lion is signified power, n. 241. That teeth signify the ultimates of man's life, which are called sensual things, and which, when separated from the interiors of the mind are in mere falses, and do violence to truths even to destroying them, may appear from the following passages : “My soul is among lions, whose teeth are spears and arrows,” Psalm lvii. 4. “ Break their teeth, O God, in their mouth, break out the great teeth of the young lions,” Psalm lviii. 6. nation is come up upon my land, strong,—whose teeth are the teeth of a lion, and he hath the cheek-teeth of a great lion," Joel i. 6. “Jehovah hath broken the teeth of the ungodly," Psalm is. 7. There came up out of the sea a beast dreadful and terrible, and exceedingly strong, which had great iron teeth, it devoured and brake in pieces, Dan. vii. 7. “Blessed be Jehovah, who hath not given us a prey to their teeth," Psalm cxxiv. 6. Since sensual men do not see any truth in its own light, but ratiocinate and dispute about every thing, by questioning its identity; and since these disputes in the hells are heard without, as the gnashing of teeth, being in themselves the collisions of falsity and truth, it is evident what is signified by the gnashing of teeth, Matt. viii. 12,

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xiii. 42, 50, xxi. 13, xxiv. 51, xxv. 30, Luke xiii. 28; and partly what by gnashing with the teeth, Psalm iii. 7, Psalm xxxv. 15, 16, Psalm xxxvii. 12, Psalm cxii. 10, Micah iii. 5, Lament. ii. 16.

436. “ And they had breast-plates as it were breastplates of iron,” signifies, argumentations from fallacies, by which they fight and prevail, which appeared to them so powerful that they could not be refuted. By breastplates are signified defences, because they protect the breast; here, defences of falsities, which are effected by argumentations grounded in fallacies, by which a false principle is defended; for from a false principle nothing but faises can flow: if truths are advanced, they are only viewed outwardly or superficially, thus also sensually, and are consequently falsified, and, with such persons, become fallacies. The reason why breast-plates have this signification, is, because wars, in the Word, signify spiritual wars, and thence the implements of war signify the various things relating to such wars; as in Jeremiah: “Harness the horses; and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets ; furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines,xlvi. 4. In Isaiah : “ For he put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head,” lix. 17. In David : “Under his wings shalt thou trust, his truth shall be thy shield and buckler," Psalm xci. 4; besides' other places; as in Ezekiel xxiii. 24, xxxviii. 4, xxxix. 9, Nahum ii. 4, Psalm v. 12, Psalm xxxv. 2, 3. Their breast-plates being as it were of iron, signifies that their argumentations seemed to them so strong that they could not be refuted; for iron, from its hardness, signifies what is strong.

437. “ And the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle,” signifies, their reasonings as if they were from truths of doctrine from the Word fully understood, for which they must ardently fight. The sound of wings' signifies reasonings, . because to fly, signifies to perceive and instruct, n. 245, 415; chariots signify doctrinals, as will be seen presently; horses signify the understanding of the Word, n. 298; and many horses, what is plenary: that running to

battle, signifies ardor for contest, is evident.

That a cbariot signifies doctrine, is plain from these passages : - The chariots of God are twenty thousand thousands of angels, the Lord is among them,” Psalm lxviii. 17. “ Jehovah maketh the clouds his chariot; who walketh upon the wings of the wind,” Psalm civ. 2, 3. “ Thou didst ride, (O Jehovah,) upon thine horses, and thy chariots are salvation," Habak. ii. 8. “For behold, Jehovah will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind,” Isaiah lxvi. 15. “ Thus shall ye be filled at my table with horses and chariots; and I will set my glory among the heathen," Ezek. xxxix. 20. “And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem," Zech. ix. 10. 5 And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them,” Haggai ii. 22. “Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth; and he saw a chariot, with a couple of horsemen, and a chariot of camels, and a chariot of men, and he said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen,” Isaiah xxi. 6, 7, 8. As Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, and thence signified doctrine from the Word, as did all the prophets, n. 8, therefore they were called the chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof; and for the same reason Elijah was seen taken into heaven in a chariot of fire, and there was seen by Elisha's young man chariots and horses of fire round about him, 2 Kings ii. 11, 12, vi. 17, xiii. 14; besides other places where chariots occur ; as in Isaiah xxxi. 1, xxxvii. 24, Ixvi. 20, Jerem. xvii. 25, xxii. 4, xlvi. 2, 3, 8, 9, 1. 37, 38, li. 20, 21, Ezek. xxvi. 7, 8, 10, 11, Dan. xi. 40, Nahum iii. 1, 2, 3, Joel ii. 1, 2,5.

438. " And they had tails like unto scorpions," signi-. fies, the truths of the Word falsified, by means of which they induce stupor. By the tail is signified the ultimate of the head, because the brain is continued through the back-bone to the tail, therefore the head and tail make one, as the first and last; when, therefore, by the head, faith alone justifying and saving is signified, by the tail is signified the sum of all the confirmations thereof, which are from the Word, thus which are the truths of the Word

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