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4. The exportation of domestic manufactures, from foreign or
colonial materials. In carrying on an advantageous foreign commerce, it is extremely desirable to have a complete assortment of goods; and thence it is of importance to be enabled, not only to supply home consumption, but also to export domestic manufactures, from materials of foreign or colonial growth, as from cotton, the finer sorts of wool, silk, &c. There are few places on the continent where complete assortments can be had ; and even in this country, London, Manchester, Bristol, Liverpool, and Glasgow, are perhaps the only exceptions. Hence, however, arises a most material advantage to British commerce, and to obtain it, not only cotton wool, and sheep's wool of all descriptions from Spain, Saxony, &c. are admitted on moderate duties,' though in the latter case, it has certainly a tendency to check the extension and improvement of British wool.
fisheries. This is a branch of industry that has not received that attention in this country that it ought to have done, considering its importance, as a means of providing food, and a variety of other useful articles, as whale oil, &c., and as a nursery for hardy seamen. Indeed, whilst the duty on salt remains unrepealed, several branches of our fisheries can never be carried on to the extent they ought. If that great obstacle were removed, much might be done by efficient regulations, and above all, by employing our surplus peace establishment, both naval and military, in constructing harbors in those places, where the fishery could be carried on to the best advantage.
6. The carrying trade. This important branch of commerce must, in a great measure, depend on our preserving the warehousing or bonding system unimpaired. If that system were established to its full extent, this country, from its fortunate position, aud its exemption from the risk of invasion, joined to the capital and character of its merchants, would become the emporium of Europe. Every exertion, it is to be hoped, will be made, to place so advantageous a plan on a permanent footing.
On the whole, the following maxims may be drawn from this important inquiry :
i. That a commercial intercourse is beneficial to a nation, even
i Cotton wool imported in British ships, pays 16s. 11d. per 180 lbs.: in 'foreign ships, 11. 55. 60. The proportion of war taxes, which will soon cease, is 8s. 4d. per cwt. Sheep's-wool is subject to a duty of 8s. 4d. per cwt., of which Is. 8d. is a war tax.
when its imports exceed its exports ; as it excites a spirit of industry, furnishes a considerable revenue, and renders articles valuable, that would otherwise be totally neglected.
2. That it is in vain to expect an advantageous commerce where exports are alone looked to, as it lays all the heavy burdens of navigation upon the articles exported.
3. That where these principles are recognised, it is not difficult to arrange an advantageous commercial intercourse between nations, in cases where, if different principles were adopted, it would be impracticable.
It would give me particular pleasure to be favored with the sentiments of intelligent merchants and manufacturers, regarding the points above discussed, and the queries which are subjoined. I have no doubt that, with their assistance, such information might be communicated to his Majesty's government, as would greatly promote the commercial interests of the country, to which it is essentially necessary, at this time, to pay peculiar attention. I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, your faithful and
JOHN SINCLAIR. Ham Common, Richmond, Surrey,
1st December, 1814. N. B. In order that the important subjects alluded to in the preceding address, may be fully explained, the answers of intelligent merchants, and of the most experienced individuals in the enost important branches of our manufactures, are particularly requested to the following particulars :
Queries. 1. Is it your opinion that treaties of commerce, with a view of removing, to a certain extent, the restrictive policy of foreign nations, would be of material advantage to the commercial interests of the country ?
2. What would you consider to be a sufficient protection to domestic industry and manufacture ; for instance, an ad valorem duty of from 101. to 151. or 20l. per cent ?'
• Many articles are admitted free, or on the payment of moderate duties, with which we might supply ourselves. Cheese, for instance, was admitted duty free till the 29th of September last: it is now subjected to a duty of 48., 4}d. per cwt. Marble, which we have in such abundance, pays from 3}d. to 93d. per square foot, as it is polished or otherwise; and thence arises a revenue of about 2000l. per annum.
8. With what countries would commercial treaties be most desirable ?
4. In those treaties, what articles would be the most important to attend to, as the cotton, woollen, linen, iron, stone ware, and glass manufactures ?
5. Do you concur in the doctrine, that a commercial intercourse is beneficial to a country, even where the exports exceed the imports?
6. Are you of opinion, that it is for the commercial prosperity of a country, to endeavour entirely to exclude importation, or to restrict it within very narrow bounds ?
To prove the superiority of an import above au export trade, in point of revenue, it appears from authentic documents, that whilst the net produce of the custoin-house duties on goods exported from Great Britain, Anno 1812, yielded only 587,2791., the revenue produced by the customs and excise, on goods imported, amounted to no less a sum than 16,687,6721. To prevent importation, therefore, would be sacrificing revenue, the real source of national strength, to the ideal advantages of commerce.
HENRY BROUGHAM, ESQ. M. P.
A MASTER OF ARTS OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD,
BEST METHOD OF RESTORING DECAYED GRAMMAR SCHOOLS/
“ If, according to the plan, every boy to be brought to the school was to be taught the learned languages, and the circumstance that these other sciences were to be taught, would induce persons to send boys to the school tu learn Greek and Latin also; that purpose might have a tendency to promote the object of the foundation.”
Lord Eldon, in Attorney General v. Whiteley, % Vesey, 249.
The letter to Sir Samuel Romilly had not appeared when the following pages were written. A Chancery suit to rescue a Grammar school from decay, induced the author to consider the facts he founds his observations upon, many months before the Committee of the House of Commons was appointed. He has a higher aim than to be an imitator; but he cannot fail to be gratified at having happened to coincide with some of the sentiments of Mr. Brougham: perhaps the best apology for the expression of opinions which are felt to be obvious, will be found in the pertinacity with which men in eminent stations are heard to contradict them. The writer is more apprehensive that the style in which his views are set forth will not be thought suitable to the subject; and it seems peculiarly inexcusable that a treatise on Grammar schools should be written incorrectly, or want good taste. He trusts, however, that defects here will be compensated by the value of the conjectures in his letter, which he has persuaded himself will be found worth great consideration. If he be not altogether under mistake, and his attempt do not entirely fail, the consequence of its being made will be so speedy a production of good scholars, capable of better things, that errors of composition will hardly be a ground of reproof.