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the Irish cruelties or powder plot, had been exactly true, (which yet, for the most part, are notoriously mis-related) nevertheless Catholics, as such, ought not to suffer for such offences, any more than, the eleven apostles ought to have suffered for the treachery of Judas.

11. It is a fundamental truth in our religion, that no power on earth can license men to lie, to forswear, or perjure themselves, to mussacre their neighbors, or destroy their native country, on pretence of promoting the Catholic cause or religion: furthermore, all pardons or dispensations granted, or pretended to be granted, in order to any such ends or designs, could have no other validity or effect, than to add sacrilege and blasphemy to the above-inentioned crimes.

12. The doctrine of equivocation or mental reservation, however wrongfully imputed to the church, was never taught, or approved by her, as any part of her belief: On the contrary, simplicity and godly sincerity are constantly inculcated by her as truly Christian virtues necessary to the conservation of justice, truth, and common security.

$. III. Of other points of Catholic Faith. 1. We believe, that there are seven sacraments, or sacred ceremonies, instituted by our Saviour Christ, whereby the merits of his passion are applied to the soul of the worthy receiver.

2. We believe, that when a sinner' repents of his sins from the bottom of his heart, and acknowledges his transgressions to God and bis ministers, the dispensers of the mysteries of Christ, resolving to turp from his evil ways, and bring forth fruits worthy of penance ;' there is then, and no otherwise, an authority left by Christ to absolve such a penitent sinner from his sins : which authority, we believe, Christ gave to his apostles and their successors, the bishops and priests of his church, in those words, when he said ; Receive ye the Holy Ghost ; whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven unto them, &c.

3. Though no creature whatsoever can make condign satisface 1 2 Cor. vii. 10. Acts, xix. 18—1 Cor. iv. 1. 3 Luke, iii. 1. * John, xx. 22. 23~Matt. xviii. 18. No. 12. Imputed to the Catholic religion, was never taught, or approved of by the church.

No. 1. This controverted point is not mentioned in the original edition. It is noticed by Dr. C. in No. 2. Sect. 1.

No. 2. Every Catholic believes-fruits worthy of repentance; there is then and not otherwise.

No. 3. Than as joined to and applied with.-Dr. C.

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tion, - either for the guilt of sin, or the pain eternal due to it; this satisfaction being proper to Christ our Saviour only; yet penitent sinners, redeemed by Christ, may, as members of Christ, in some measure3 satisfy by prayer, fasting, alms-deeds, and other works of piety, for the temporal pain, which in the order of divine justice sometimes remains due, after the guilt of sin and puins eternal have been remitted. Such penitential works are, notwithstanding, no otherwise satisfactory than as joined and applied to that satisfaction, which Jesus made

upon

the
cross,

in virtue of which alone all our good works find a grateful acceptance in the sight of God.*

4. The guilt of sin, or puin eternal due to it, is never remitted by what Catholics call indulgences ; but only such temporal punishmeniss as remain due after the guilt is remitted :—these indulgences being nothing else than a mitigation or relaxuliun, upon just causes, of canomcal penances, enjoined by the pastors of the church on penitent sinners, according to their several degrees demrit. —And if abuses or mistakes have been sometimes committed, in point either of granting or gain ingindulgences, through the remissness or ignorance of particular persons, contrary to the ancient custom and discipline of the church ; such abuses or mistakes cannot rationally be charged on the church, or rendered matters of derision, in prejudice to her faith and discipline.

5. Catholics hold there is a purgatory; that is to say, a place, or state, where souls departing this life, with remission of their sins, as to the eternal guilt or pain, but yet obnoxious to some temporal punishment, of which we have spoken, still remaining due, or not perfectly freed from the blemish of some defects or deordinations, are purged before their admittance into heaven, where nothing that is defiled' can enter. Furthermore,

6. Catholics also hold, that such souls so detained in purgatory, being the living members of Christ Jesus, are relieved by the prayerslo and suffrages of their fellow-members here on earth : but where this place is; of what nature or quality the paius are; how long souls may be there detained; in what manner the suffrages made in their behalf are applied; whether by way of satisfaction or intercession, &c. are questions superfluous and impertinent as to faith.

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Tit. iii. 5. 2 2 Cor. iii. 5. 3 Acts, xxvi. 20—Luke, xi. 41- Acts, x. 4.

1 Peter ji. 5. 51. Cor. v. 3, &c. 6 2 Cor. ii. 10. 7 Matt. xii. 36. $ 1 Cor. iii. 15. 9 Rev. xxi. 27. 2 Maccab, xii. 42, &c.—Luke, v. 16.

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No. 4. Those indulgences-or relaxation of the canonical penances-abuses and mistakes-cannot reasonably be charged. Dr. C.

No. 6. Are questions, which do not appertain to faith. Dr. C.

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7. No man, though just,' can merit either an increase of sanctity in this life, or eternal glory in the next, independently on the merits and passion of Christ Jesus: But the good works of a just mau proceeding from grace and charity, are so far acceptable to God, ihrough his goodness and sacred promises, as to be truly meritorious of eternal life.

8. It is an article of Catholic belief, that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist, there is truly and really contained the body: of Christ, which was delivered for us ; and his blood, which was shed for the remission of sins ; the substance of bread and wine being, by the powerful words of Christ, changed into the substance of his blessed body and blood; the species or appearances of bread and wine, by the will of God, remaining as they were. But,

9. Christ is not present in this sacrament, according to his natural way of existence, or rather as budies naturally exist, but in a manner proper to the character of his exalted and glorified body. His presence then is real and substantial, but sacramental; not exposed to the external senses, or obnoxious to corporal contingencies.

10. Neither is the body of Christ, in this holy sacrament, separated from his blood, or bis blood from his body, or either of them disjoined from his soul and divinity; but all and whole living Jesus is entirely contained under either species : so that whosoever receives under one kind is truly partaker of the whole sacramient; he is not deprived either of the body or the blood of Christ. True it is,

11. Our Saviour left unto us his body and blood, under two distinct species, or kinds ; in doing of which be instituted not only a sacrament, but also a sacrifice;' a commemoratire sacrifice ; distinctly shereing his death and bloody passion, until he come. For as the sacrifice of the cross was performed by a distruct effusion of blood; so is that sacrifice commemorated in that of the altar, by a distinction of the symbols. Jesus therefore is here given, not only to us, but for us; and the church thereby is enriched with a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice, usually termed the mass.

1 John, xv. 5. ? Matt. xvi. 27—2 Cor. v. 10.-2 Tim. iv. 8.

3 Matt. xxvi. 26, &c.—Mark,xiv. 22, &c.—Luke, xxii. 19, &c.—1 Cor. x. 23, &c. 4 John, vi. 48, &c. 5 Luke, xxi. 19, &c. 6 1 Cor. xi. 26.

No. 8. It is an article of the Catholic faith-by the power of Christ, changed or appearances of bread and wine still remaining. Dr. C.

No. 9. Way of existence, that is, with extension of parts, &c. but in a supernatural manner; one and the same in many places : his presence therefore, though real and substantial, is sacramental. Dr. C.

No. 10. Or either of them disunited from—under each species-and no ways deprived. Dr C.

No.11. Effusion of blood from the body. Dr.C.

12. Catholics renounce all divine worship and adoration of images and pictures; God alone we worship and adore ;' nevertheless we place pictures in our churches, to reduce our wandering thoughts, and to enliven our memories towards hearenly things. Further, we show a certain respect to the images of Christ and his saints, beyond what is due to every profane figure ; vot that we can believe any divinity or virtue to reside in them, for which they ought to be honored, but because the honor given to pictures is referred to the prototype, or thing represented. In like manner,

13. There is a kind of honor and respect due to the Bible, to the cross, to the name of Jesus, to churches, to the sacraments, &c. as things peculiarly appertaining to God; and to kings, magistrates, and superiorst on earth; to whom honor is due, honor may be given, without any derogation to the majesty of God, or that dívive worship which is appropriate to him. Moreover,

14. Catholics believe, that the blessed saints in heaven, replenished with charity, pray for us their fellow-members here on earth; that they rejoice at our conversion ; that seeing God, they see and know in him all things suitable to their bappy state : but God may be inclinable to hear their requests made in our behalf, and for their sakes may grant us many favors;8 therefore we believe that it is good and profitable to desire their intercession. Can this manner of invocation be more injurious to Christ our mediator, ihan it is for one Christian to beg ihe prayers of another here on earth? However, Catholics are not taught so to rely on the prayers of others, as to neglect their own" duty to God; in imploring his divine mercy and goodness ; in mortifying the deed of the flesh;" in despising the world;"2 in loving and serving God" and their neighbor; in following the footsteps of Christ our Lord, who is the way, the truth, and the life ;'+ to whom be honor, and glory for ever and ever, Amen.

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Luke, iv. 8. 2 Exod. xxv. 18—Numb. xxi. 8—Luke, iii. 22—Acts v. 15.
3 Exod. xxv. 18-Josh. vii. 6-Phil. ii, 10.--Acts, xix. 12.
1 Pet. i1. 17-Rom. xiii.7.

5 Rev.v.8.
6 Luke, sv. 7.

1 Cor. xiii. 12. 8 Exod. xxxii. 13-2 Chron. vi. 42. 9 Rom. xv. 30.

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19 Jam.ji. 17,&c. 11 Rom. xiii. 14. 12 Rom. xii. 2.

13 Gal. v. 6.

14 John, xiv. 6.

No. 12. And excite our memory—we allow a certain honor to be shown to. the images beyond what is due to profane figures. Not that we believe. Dr. C.

No. 13. Also to the glorious saints in heaven,* as the friends of God; and to kings—without derogating from the majesty. Dr. C.

No. 14. That God may be inclined—and that this manner of invocation is no more injurious--the prayers of another in this world. Notwithstanding which, Catholics are not taught-in mortifying the flesh and its deeds. Dr. C.

• John xi .36.

AND

PRESENT STATE OF MEDICINE..

THE

ANNIVERSARY ORATION,

DELIVERED MARCH 9, 1818,

BEFORE

THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

BY D. UWINS, M. D.

MEMBER OF THE LONDON COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, AND ONE OF THE

SECRETARIES OF THE SOCIETY.

PUBLISHED AT THE REQUEST OF THE SOCIETY.

" Neque addicta alterutri opinioni, neque ab ubtraque nimium abhor-, rentia."-CELSUS.

LONDON:

VOL. XIII.

Pam.

NO. XXV.

G

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