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churches or build bospitals. He hath no despicable apparatus of mathe-
matical instruments; and possesses a considerable fund of philosophical
knowledge, which he hath acquired solely by the dint of application,
and the habit of patient thinking. I find he hath always been distin-
guished for the probity, integrity, and goodness of his heart. : This is
a possession worth all the science and erudition in the world. Our Lord
faid, The poor have the gospel preached unto them, consequently the poor
are as capable of undertanding its fundamental truths as the profoundelt
scholar that ever lived. There is not one revelation for the poor, another
for the rich; one system of truths for the learned, another for the un-
learned. The gospel indiscriminately opens its divine treasures to all.
The peasant is as much concerned in its great doctrines and discoveries as
the pbilosopher. This worthy conscientious Christian hath gone through
evil report and good report; through honour and dishonour. Some say of
him as they did of our divine Master, that he is a good man: others say
nay, but be deceiveth the people. I find he hath been greatly caressed
by numbers both of the clergy and laity since the publication of this little
tract ; while others have loaded him with odious names; have tried to
incense the rabble against him, threatened him with a prosecution, and
endeavoured to confute him by the invincible arguments of the secular
arm. I only wish I had interest enough in the world to promote a sub-
laiption to this worthy honest creature, to enable him to buy a few more
good books, and a few more useful philosophical instruments.'

The main intention of this preface, is to second and enforce what
Mr. Williams has offered in support of the Unitarian doctrine ; by some
general observations on the absurdity of what is here styled “the Atha-
nalian impiety of ihree Gods.'
Art. 44. Ante-nuptial Fornication considered. In a Letter to a
young Gentleman. Small 8vo.

IS, Becket.
One would not bave imagined that any thing could ever have been
feriously offered in defence of any species of fornication; and consequent-
ly, we might naturally conclude, that a course of learned arguments
againft a criminal indulgence in ante-nuptial intimacies, would be totally
unnecessary :- altho' diffuafives, on religious and prudential motives,
may have become but too requisite, from the indiscretion or frailty of
many individuals. A case, however, is here stated, wherein a young
gentleman, soberly inclined, and in view of a happy matrimonial con-
nexion, was engaged in a debate on the subject of antenuptial fornịca-
tion; wherein he found himself unable to maintain the virtuous cause of
chaftity, against the specious reasonings of a set of able disputants, who
undertook to 'palliate and even vindicate a practice, into which the ju-
venile casuist was by no means inclined to fall. Our Author, therefore,
fends him this long and elaborate epiftle, to enable him the better to
fand his ground, against his subtle and even learned opponents. To
this purpose, he enters on a critical enquiry into the nature of matri.
mony; and quotes a variety of passages from the Old and New Tetta-
ments, both preceptive and historical, relating to this fubje&t. And
having considered how far the idea of the marriage covenant is conform-
able to the di&ates both of reason and scripture; he next fhews in what

manner

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manner these dictates are enforced by our national laws concerning this institution. He then appeals to the law and voice of conscience; and makes a pathetic address to those who are supposed to maintain the argument in favour of that libertinism which is the point here contraverted : concluding the whole with some pious reflections, and judicious observations, well suited to the occasion.--The Author, though a very grave, is by no means a disagreeable or inelegant writer ; expreffing himself, throughout, in a manner becoming the scholar and the gentleman.

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Art. 45. Every true Christian a new Creature. Being a Treatise

on II. Cor. v. 17. By J. Townsend, M. A. Rector of Pewfey in Wilts ; late of Clare-hall, Camb. and Chaplain to Jean Duchess Dowager of Atholl. 12mo. Dilly. Methodistical fanaticism.

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I S.

Art. 46. An Exhortation to Beneficence. By Edward Watkinfon,

M.D. Rector of Chart in Kent. 8vo. York, printed for the Author.

We have affixed no price to this article, as we do not understand that any copies are to be fold; but the Author, we are informed, hath fenc a number of them to his bookseller, Mrs. Richardson, in Pater nofterTOW. It is a Sermon, and thould have been inserted in the list of pulpit discourses ; but as the title-page doth not express it as such, we have placed it here. We entirely agree with the good Doctor himself, that it is a plain honest discourse,' in which he hath nervously recommended the practice of one of the most amiable, moft Christian virtues ; 'without perverting the scripture,' and (we verily believe) without handling the word of God deceitfully.'

N. S.

1. The Infanity of the Sensualift.-Preached to young People, Dec. 25, 1765; in New Broadstreet. By John Palmer. Buckland, &c.

I. On the Death of Miss Eliz. Christian, Daughter of the Rev. Mr. W. Christian, late of Shapftead, Leicestershire, Sept. 29, 1765. By John Martin. Keith, &c.

III. The Lord our Righteousness. At the Chapel in Westftreet, Seven Dials, Nov. 24, 1765. By John Wesley. [For the Benefit of the Poor.] Fletcher, &c.

IV. At St. Thomas's, Jan. 1, 1766, for the Benefit of the Charity-school in Gravel-lane, Southwark. By Richard Price, F.R.S. Millar.

Τ Η Ε

MONTHLY REVIEW,

For FEBRUARY, 1766.

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The Alliance between Church and State : or, the Neceflity and Equity of an established Religion and a Teft-Law demonstrated.

In Three Books. The Fourth Edition, corrected and enlarged. By Dr. W. Warburton, Lord Bithop of Gloucester, 8vo. 65. Millar and Tonson.

A

S this edition of the celebrated Alliance between Church and

State is much enlarged, it will naturally be expected that we Thould give an account of the most considerable additions that are made to it. As to the work itself, any analysis of it would be unnecessary, as few of our Readers can be unacquainted with the merit of so very curious a performance,

In Chap. 5th, Book ift, his Lordship, speaking of the au. thor of The Rights of the Christian Church, makes the following observations in regard to Hobbes : Hobbes, says he, is commonly supposed to be an enemy to all religion, especially the Christian. But it is observable, that in his attacks upon it (if at least be intended his chapter of the Christian Commonwealth in the Leviathan, for an attack) he has taken direct contrary meafures from those of Bayle, Collins, Tyndal, Bolingbroke, and all the other writers against revelation. They endeavoured to few the gospel-system as unreasonable as their extreme malice could make it; he as reasonable as his admirable wit could represent it. The schemes of church discipline likewise, which they and he severally recommended, were by an odd fatality as different as their representations of the doctrine ; but in the reverse, as to their qualities. They, all of them contended for the most une bounded toleration : he, for the most rigorous conformity. He seems, indeed, to have formed his plan of ecclefiaftical government before he turned his thoughts to the Christian doctrine : and therefore as his politics had inforced an abfolute fubmiffion to the civil magistrate in spirituals, he contrived, in order to make Vol. XXXIV. H

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it go down the better, to make the object of this submission as reasonable as possible. Whereas the others, beginning with the Christian dollrine, which they aimed to render as absurd as porsible, very equitably contrived to make it fit easy on their followers, by a licentious kind of toleration destructive of all church discipline.

In chapter third, book second, we have the following note to his Lordihip's second corollary: • When the Quakers first arose, the clergy generally claimed their tyi hes by divine right; and there being nothing in the light within to direct those people up to that original, they regarded the exaction of tythes as an Antichristian rebbery; and rather chose to suffer, what they called, perfecution, than comply with the demand.

• In no long time after, the clergy in general gave up this claim. I think, the priest's divine right to a tenth part, and the king's divine right to the other nine, went out of fashion together. And thenceforward the church and the crown agreed to claim their temporal rights from the laws of the land only.

• One would think therefore, that when churchmen had changed their bad principles for better, the quakers might have done fo too. To be candid, I will not suppose, they wanted this good difpofition. But the smallest change in their religious fyftem would have brought the whole into hazard. For here lay the difference between the church and the conventicle. The reform of the national religion from the corruptions of popery, was made on the principles of human reason guided by common sense. In which, whatever mistakes the reformers had committed (errors incident to humanity) their successors might redress without blushing; and, what is more, without any danger of dishonouring religion. It was not so with the quakers. For This tect being founded in modern inspiration, (which is, by interpretation, fanaticisin) to alter the least article of their creed was giving the lye to the holy spirit, as it came from the mouth of their founder, George Fox.

Payment of tythes, therefore, was still obstinately to be refused. · And to support their perseverance they had recourse to an10ther fetch of principle, " That whoever contributes to the fupport of a thing.finful is partaker of that fin.” And tythez being apparently linful, the desired conclufion was within call. This afforded much consolation to friends. It is true, the expedient was not without its inconvenience : for in the number of things finful, they held war, especially an offensive war to be.

And then an act of parliament, granting an aid for the fupport of such a war, brought on a new distress. What was to be done? The king would be obeyed. This, they well knew, and therefore in dutiful silence paid their quota, and left

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it to their illwillers to detect the prevarication. Thus stands the case at present with these conscientious people.

• But to judge what indulgence is fairly due unto them, we should consider a little the true grounds of that complaisance which free states are always disposed to fhew to tender consciences. Now I apprehend they understand it to extend no further than to opinions which have no evil influence on the true and eflential interests of society. For to carry the indulgence further would be a species of fanaticism, though of a different kind indeed, yet as mad as that which produces the tender consciences in question,

• Of opinions thus injurious, there are various kinds; from that which is least so, the unlawfulness of tythes, up through the rising degrees of the unlawfulness of oaths, -of Self-defence,-of capital punishments ; till we come to a reprobation of civil magiftracy itself, and the renouncing of all kings but King Jesus. It will be allowed, that most of them require suppression, rather than indulgence: and I believe all will own that the last was not unjuftly treated, when, in the memory of our fathers, it was exterminated between the king's guards and the gallows. To the first, the obstinate refusal to pay tyihes, in defiance of the public laws, fome indulgence has been reasonably shewn: and that a wayward conscience might lie as light as poffible on their temporal interests, a justice of peace was authorized to wrest from them, in an easy and expeditious way, what they could not keep, and were scrupulous to restore.

• But now what return did they make for so much favour? Why, from thenceforward they never loft an opportunity of teazing the legislature (of which they have given a recent instance) to exclude the clergy, from every other entrance to juftice. Their endeavours have been hitherto fruitless; and fruit. less, I suppose, they are like to remain : for a more insolent or iniquitous demand was never made on an equal legislature.

These clergy.rights rise upon the same footing with all the lay-rights in the kingdom ; to whom every court of law and equity, as is fit, stands open. Yet these, as a sealed 'fountain, are to be kept fhut up for the solace of the saints; and the clergy to be admitted no higher than to the muddy stream of a country justice.

· Had the quakers confined their demand to an exemption from an ecclefiaftical jurisdiction, some decency of Appearances had been kept, for the spiritual courts inight have been thought too much a party : not to say that the proper object of their power extends no further than reformation of manners. But to attempt a violation, not of this only, but of all civil communities, in which it is the essential right of citizens to have all the courts of

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