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which, however, in about ten days, abated, and in a short time seemed entirely gone ; but for the particulars of this case, together with the method of treatment, we are referred to the first part of the account, as mentioned in the title of this article. The sequel of this account is communicated in a second letter from Dr. Mounsey to Mr. Baker ; from which it appears that Mr. Butler's nerves continued for a long time in a very irritable condition, and that not only by the smell of paints, but even on handling metallic inodorous substances he was frequently attacked with faintings, tremblings, and uncommon anxiety. The Doctor tried various remedies with very little effect, till at length a milk diet and exercise restored the patient to a tolerable state of health. We cannot close this article without transcribing one short passage. On the 20th, says the Doctor, I gave him a dose of Epsom falt, which he had been used to take: it purged very well; but immediately on its leaving off to work, his body struck out with great numbers of small red spots.'- The fal catharticum amarum came from England ; and whether some vitriolic acid had been used in making it, I do not know; but it is likely there had.' It is indeed more than likely : fal catharticus amarus, or Epsom salt, being always composed of the vitriolic acid and magnefia. We are sorry the Doctor's want of chemical knowledge should stand thus upon record in the Philofophical Transactions. Art. 9. An Account of a Hernia of the Urinary Bladder including a

Stone. By Mr. Percival Pott, Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and F. R. S.

The patient of whom this extraordinary case is related, was about thirteen years old when he was brought to Mr. Pott, and his disease had the appearance of a schirrous testicle, which, however, from the hardness and insensibility of the tumour, appeared not to be the case. Mr. Pott, though in doubt what it really was, being of opinion that it ought to be extirpated, performed the operation with his usual care, dexterity, and success; and on laying open the scrotum, discovered the case to be a bernia ciflica, including a calculus of the fame nature with those usually found in the bladder. He extirpated the cif, and at the end of a month the patient was perfectly cured. Art. 32. Observations and Experiments of different Extracts of

Hemlock. By Michael Morris, M.D. F.R.S. Dr. Wade of Lisbon having lately communicated to the London Medical Society a number of cases, in which the extract of hemlock; prepared at Coimbra in Portugal, had been given with great success, Dr. Morris was induced to make experiments upon the different extracts prepared at Coimbra, Viana and London, in order to discover their respective component parts.


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The result of this enquiry is, that the Coimbra extract contains
a much greater quantity (to use the Author's own words) of an
essential oily falt and resin, than the others; and hence," he is of
opinion, the extraordinary effects of the Coimära extract may be
rationally accounted for.'.
Art. 33. Essay on the Use of the Ganglions of the Nerves. By James

Johnstone, M. D. communicated by the Right Rev. Charles Lord
Bishop of Carlisle.

It is well known that physiology has not yet been able to pro-
duce even a probable conjecture concerning the use of the gana
glions of the nerves. The ingenious Author of this paper re-
flecting, that ganglions are almost peculiar to those nerves which
are diftributed to parts whose motions are involuntary, imagines,
that their use in the animal oeconomy is to intercept the
infuence of the mind upon those parts; and that they are
also the instruments by which the motions of the heart and in-
testines are rendered uniformly involuntary. The only objection
to this theory is, that the observation on which it is founded is
not universally true.
Art. 43. An Account of what appeared on opening the Body of an

Afthmatic Perfon. By W. Watson, M. D. F. R. S. The preternatural phenomena in the body of this asthmatic person were, an enormous diftention of the lungs with extravafated air, and numberless varices in the pulmonary vein; which together fufficiently account for the symptoms of the disease. From the history of the case it appears, that the patient, about two months before his death, was seized with violent and long continued vomiting, to which the Doctor, very rationally, ascribes the phenomena above mentioned. Art. 58. An Account of an extraordinary Disease among the Indians

in the Ifand of Nantucket and Marthu's Vineyard, in New England. In a Letter from Andrew Oliver Efq; Secretary of his Majesty's Province of Masachusett's Bay, to Israel Mauduit, Eja; F. R. S. Our readers will hardly believe us when we assure them that allt we learn from this pompous account of this extraordinary discase, is, that it attacked none but Indians; that it was a violent inflammatory fever; that, out of 258, only 36 recovered ; and that the patients generally died in about five days. As this arcicle contains not the least medical instruction, we apprehend it might with more propriety have filled the column of a news paper.

B-t. The MATHEMATICAL, MECHANICAL, and ASTRONOWICAL Papers, are deferred to another Opportunity.




For JANUARY, 1766.

Art. 13. A Defence of the New-England Charters. By Jer..

Dummer. 8vo. I s. 6 d. Almon.

HIS valuable performance, being only a new edition, without any

alterations, does not properly come under our cognizance ; yet, as it is a work of some importance, and hath long been scarce, we thought it might be useful to many of our Readers, at this junkture, in which the charters of our colonies are become so much the objects of public attention, to be informed, that Mr. Dummer's tract is reprinted, and may be had as above,

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Art. 14. The Importance of the Colonies of North-America, and the

Interest of Great Britain with Regard to them, considered. Together with Remarks on the Stamp-duty. 4to.

IS. Peat. Chiefly intended to thew how impolitic, as well as unreasonable, it would be, in our present dispute with the colonies, to have recourse to any improper exertion of power. The Author's main argumentis founded on this position,' • That it is the true interest of Great Britain, to acquire and retain, not to alienate the affections of her colonies ;—which can only be done by kind usage, and always considering them, as they molt cera tainly are, in all respects, on the fame footing with ourselves, and of right entitled to every privilege that we in England enjoy.'- He inliits, in common with most of the writers in behalf of the colonies, on their right of representation in whatever legislative body assumes and exercises the power of taxing them; but on this head, as well as on moft, cther points touched upon in this tract, he offers little that can be called new: his performance being, indeed, to be chiefly regarded as a recapitulation of the arguments advanced by those who have appeared before him in this debate.


Art. 15. An Examination of the Rights of the Colonies, upon Prin

ciples of Law. By a Gentleman at the Bar. 8vo. Dymot.

This Lawyer, after a very flight hearing, has determined against the colonies ; but we imagine they will hardly abide by his adjudication. Without entering into the merits of this cause, upon the principles of law, we cannot help reflecting, on this occasion, how happy it is for this country that her liberties have not always been left to the arguments and decisions of lawyers. Would their jargon ever have procured us our ineftimable Vagna Charta? or would the glorious Rezolution ever have taken place, if our gallant grandfathers had submitted to argue the point with K. James in Weltminiter-ball ? It is true, we have lately seen our liberties nobly asserted by an English Lord Chief Jullice; but have we not too much reason to regard that honefi lawyer as a phænomenon ? And how many J Briisis, &c. have we had, for one Pratt !

Art. 16.


Art. 16. Confiderations on the American Stamp-act, and on the Cone

duet of the Minister who planned it. 8vo. Nicoll. The right of Great Britain to tax her colonies internally, is not here enquired into. The Author thinks it pity that ever such a question thould have been started. He seems to admit the right, in speculation; buc he thinks it ought to be seldom or never exercised; in which case, he says, our parliament may tafely affert it, and the American assemblies will not deny it : but the point he chiefly infiiis upon, is the inexpediency, injuftice, and absurdity of the Stamp-act. Having endeavoured to prove this, aod bestowed some chartisement op Mr. G. G-, as the contriver and promoter of the act, he proceeds to state the bad effeas that, in his opinion, will result from our attempting to enforce this act

, amounting (if we are successful in employing force) to no less than the ruin of the colonies, and the destruction of our trade with them: while, on the other hand, a bare suspension only of the act may servo to bring matters about, in an amicable way; but an entire repeal is what he would recommend, as the only means to reconcile the colonies to their mother country, and to restore peace, plenty, and cordiality to every part of the British empire. Art

. 17. Confiderations on the Propriety of imposing Taxes in the Britif Colonies, for the Purpose of raising a Revenue, by A&t of Parliament. 8vo. Is64. North-America printedLon

. ; * Me. ausher don re-printed, for Almon. A This is a more ftrenuous champion for the colonies, than the preceding Considerer. He denies the parliament's right of taxing the colonists, internally; and he enters pretty deeply into the argument. The zeal of this patriotic North-American sometimes carries him rather too far in his reflections on the mother country ; but we think fuch warmth the more excusable, as it may be an indication of the Writer's bonelly, whatever may be said of his prudence. Io his preface he fencibly apologizes for the plainness, fimplicity, and freedom of his manner; and, indeed, we think with him, that a decent firmness, in a good cause, is to be preferred to a softer and more delicate ityle, which sometimes may serve only to enervate the argument, Er want of urging it with its full force. On the whole, there are many important contiderations in this tract; which, therefore, mutt be ranked among the most material of those pieces which have appeared in behalf of our American brethren. Art. 18. Confideratiors on the Points lately brought into Question, as

to the Parliament's Right of toxing the Colonies, and of the Meafures necessary to be taken at this Crisis. Being an Appendix, Scction III. to The Administration of the Colonies. 8vo. IS. Dodsley.

In our thirtieth vol. p. 441, feq. we gave an account of the first edition of Governor Pownaise maiterly performance, entitled. The Admi. piltration of the Colonies. Since that time, we have mentioned a second

* Ms. Pownal was governor of Massachusett's Bay, &c. Rev. Jan, 1766. F


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edition of this work ; and now appears a third, with the addition of the

Appendix, which is the subject of the present little article : the Appendix being to be had separately.

Mr. Pownal is a much cooler and more moderate advocate for the colonies, than the last-mentioned Considerer. He admits the right of taxation, but strongly contends for the loyal intentions, in general, of the colonists ; (and appealing to every man of interest or business in those countries) . that for an hundred years to this time, there has not been an American to whom, in the genuine feelings of his heart, the interest, welfare, and happiness of Great Britain was not as dear as that of his own colony, having no other idea but that they were always one and the same." . I do not believe, adds he, that the idea of Great Britain ever heretofore arose in an American breast, without the idea of its being Home. If of late they have learned to call the British produce and manufactures foreign, and Britons foreigners, it is not from an American idea they have learnt it; it is from an idea that is foreign also.'

: After this general assertion, he enters on a serious discussion of the pro. pofitiors lately brought into question, whether the supreme legislature Great Britain should or should not, agreeably to the actual present state of the British conftitution, exercise the power of laying taxes on the colonies ; and whether, consistent with the rights of Englishmen, and the supposed spirit of the English conftitution, the colonists can be taxed, unless by their own respective legislatures; or unless the colonies have, by their proper representatives, a share in the legislature of Great Britain ? He affirms that the reasoning which states these propofitions, as matters under question and doubt, never did or could arise from the principles of an American politician. 'The fundamental maxim, says he, of the laws of those countries is, first, That the common law of England together with such statutes or acts of parliament (the ecclefiaftical laws excepted) as were paffed before the colonies had a legislature of their own, fecondly, That their own laws together with such acts of parliament as by a special clause are extended to America fince that time, are the laws of that country. The jurisdiction and power of every court established in that country; the duty of every civil officer; the process of every transaction in law and business there, is regulated on this principle. There is not a man of business in the colonies that ever held an office who does not know this, and who hath not always acted on this principle: there never was a man that ever acquired a lead or interest in the politics of those free countries, who did not defend this principle as the palladium of their liberty, that they were to be ruled and governed only by acts of parliament, together with their own laws not contrary to the laws of Great Britain ; and as a friend to the colcnies I would venture to add, that it is under this principle that every act of parliament paffed since the establishment of the colonies, which reSpeãs the general police of the realm, and the rights and liberties of the fubject of the realm is, without the intervention of their own consent by their respective legislatures or representatives, considered, and, I think I may venture to say, adopted as part of the law and conftitution of those countries. Ti is under this principle, without the intervention of their own consent, that they may best and most fafely claim all the rights and privileges of English men confirmed in the bill of rights. It is under this principle that I lhould hope, could an American ever have need to


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