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cach ftate was to send in case of a war; pronounced sentence of

condemnation upon those who refused to submit to their decrees, .: and obliged them to yield by force of arms. This tribunal was

of the greatest service to all the states of Greece ; it rendered their power sa formidable, that the King of Persia, not daring any longer to attack them openty, endeavoured to make them quarrel with each other.

It was upon the model of this council that Henry intended to form a kind of republic of the different kingdoms of Europe. I shall not enter here into a circumstantial detail of the mese fures he designed to take, in order to accomplishi his scheme;

they may be feen in Sully's Memoirs. I thall only speak of . Some of the principlt articles, which will sufficiently show the extent of this prince's genius, whose thoughts were wholly employed in making the several kingdom's of Europe happy: be "might perhaps have succeeded, if Providence, the fecrets of which are impenetrable, had lengthened 'his days. If we reflect upon the events which followed his death, we shall see that all the powers of Europe acknowledged the advantages which would have arisen to each of them, from the accomplishment of foch a scheme, which they have, in some measure, adopted, by endeavouring to establish among themselves such a balance of power, as should be sufficient to preserve à lasting peace,

Our author now proceeds to give his readers a short view of -the principal articles of this famous project, and of the fentiments of some celebrated writers in regard to it. Some have contidered it, he tells us, as absurd and chimerical; but the geineral opinion is, that, if Henry had lived, it would have been carried into execution, at least, in a great measure. The princes of Europe, who were in the secret, and who were capable of forming a better judgment of the design than we are, at this distance of time, entertained no doubt of it. Henry's whole conduct after he came to the throne, had inspired them with fo high an idea of his valour, of his conduct in war, of his prudence and political wisdom, that they were convinced he was able to change the face of affairs in Europë, and to procure them an advantageous and lasting peace ; especially as he shewed the greatest disinterestedness in the whole of his behaviour, and feemed to aim at nothing but the glory of contributing to the happiness of all the nations around him. - Qur author goes on to observe, that Henry's plan was executed in part"; that there are évident traces of it in the whole of Richelieu's conduct ; that Mazarin never departed from it ; that it contributed more than any of the plenipotentiaries to the perfection of those famous treaties in 1648, which have been looked upon ever finct, as the polítical code of Europe, and which have served as a basis to all thofe treaties, which have been made fince, between the same powers.


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Those, continues he, who are conversant in history, and who have reflected upon what has happened's fince the reign of Louis the eleventh will readily allow, that it was .Henry the fourth who changed the political system of Europe. He destroyed that false policy, founded upon chicane and treachery, which was introduced by the Italians, and the detestable doctrines of which, had been taught by Machiavel. Louis the eleventh, instructed by his friend the Duke of Milan, had put these doctrines in practice, during the whole of his life. Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Spain, had made them the principal rule of his conduct, during a reign of forty-two years, falsifying his faith (fauffant fa foi), according to the language of those times, as often as he found his interest in so doing. Charles the fifth, his grandson, made no scruple of doing the fame, Catherine of Medicis, brought up in the fame maxims, occasioned the greatest calamities to France, and brought it to the brink of ruin. Philip the second, King of Spain, passed the whole of his life in refining upon this science, from which he derived no other advantage than the loss of the Low Countries, the ruin of his kingdom, and a disadvantageous peace, which he was obliged to make with France.

Henry, who had made serious reflections upon the false policy of these princes, upon the equivocal conduct of Catherine of Medicis, upon the great number of captious treaties The made, and which were no sooner concluded than they were broken, upon her constant violations of faith, which had greajy alienated the affections of both Catholics and Huguenots, was convinced, when he came to the throne, that justice alone could remedy the disorders, which Catherine had occalioned in the kingdom. He despised all the little artifices of this policy: He took good faith for the rule of his conduct, and never de parted from it in any of his treaties, always executing them with the utmoft fidelity. This good faith made him triumph over the policy of Philip the second, in the treaty of Vervines ; dirconcerted all the Italian tricks, on the accommodation between Pope Paul the fifth, and the Venetians, of which he was the arbiter; furmounted all the oppofition made by the Spaniards and Dutch, when he forced them to accept of that famous truce of twelve years, by which the United Provinces were acknowledged as a fovereign state ; and procured him the friendfhip and alliance of the greatest part of the electors of the Empire, together with the kings of England, Denmark, and Sweden: such is the power of justice over the hearts of meng when it is fupported by wisdom and prudence !

We have now given a full view of the comparison, which our author draws between Philip of Macedon, and Henry the fourth: how far the comparison is a just one, our learned readers muft determine,


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1 2mo.


Milloire naturelle des Fraisers, contenant les vues d'Economie reu

nies a la Botanique, & fuives de Remarques particulieres sur
plufieurs Points qui ont rapport a l'Histoire naturelle generale.

Paris. 1766.
The natural History of Strawberries; in which the subject is

economically as well as botanically considered, together
with particular Remarks on various Points relative to natural
History in general. By M. Duchesne, junior,

É learn by the advertisement prefixed to this ingenious

performance, that the curiosity of raising from seed a plant which hath been so feldom cultivated in that manner, proved the accidental means of producing an entire new race of strawberries, at Versailles, in the year 1761. This unexpected phenomenon excited the Author's attention to a particular examination of this plant; and the treatise before us is the sefult of his enquiries.

Naturalists are far from agreeing in the application of the terms genera, species, varieties, &c. The moderns, however, seem generally satisfied with the definition and use of these words as adopted by the celebrated Linnæus; who divides the vegetable kingdom into as many species as he supposes were originally created diftinct by the great Author of nature; signifying by the term Variety, such as are produced by the accidental mixture of one species with another. But Monsieur Duchesne, finding that the new, strawberry at Versailles continued to propagate without variation, calls it a new race, introducing the term as intermediate between species and variety.

Qur ancient countryman Parkinson has four species of straw, berry, viz. fragaria minor hispido folio, small strawberry with hard leaves; fragaria alpina fructu compreso, fiat ftrawberry ; fragaria helvetiana, dwarf strawberry, and fragaria minime vejca, barren strawberry, Ray makes but tbrce species, viz. wulgaris, common strawberry; frustu hispido, rough strawberry, and Perilis, barren. Tournefort splits this genus into no less than 23 species. Boerhaave makes two genera, viz. fragaria vulgaris, and ferilis; dividing the first into fix fpecies, viz. vulgaris, fructu albo, fruclu parvi pruni magnitudine, fructu rotunds, virginiana, craffis flore & lemine carens. Linnæus has but three fpecies, viz. vesca, muricata, and fterilis. Miller counts five {pecies,, viz. wood (trawberry, white strawberry, haụiboy, scarlet, and Chili; naturally, as a gardener, taking his fpeçific characters from the fruit. Scopoli, in his Flora Carniolica, denies the fragaria the honour of constituting a genus, conlis dering it only as a species of the potentilla, or cinquefoil. Lin. næus had indeed before observed in his Flora Laponica, quod fraa geria, comarum, potentilla, tormentilla fere nullas alias caraclia risticas notas pro distinctione admitiant, præterquam gradu differunt.



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The Author of this book, according to the arrangement of Monf. Jusieu, in the botanical garden at Trianon, fixes the strawberry as a species of the first section of the family of the rofaceous : that is, of those plants whose flowers resemble a rose. Pf this species he distinguishes ten races, viz. fragaria femperflorens, Sylvestris, hortensis, eflagellis, monophylla, viridis

, mofchata, chiloensis, ananassa, & virginiana ; all' which, together with several varieties, particularly of the wood strawberry, are minute. Jy described in this volume. Among the varieties of the fragaria sylvestris, we find le fraisier de Plimouth, a strawberry mentioned by most of the botanists of the last century, and from them copied into the works of the modeļns, though it seems at present not to exist. Linnæus makes it a distinct species, Hudson only a variety. Ray, after Gerard, calls it fragaria fructu hispido, rough Atrawberry, and adds, found by Jo. Tradescant the elder in a woman's garden at Plymouth, whose daughter gathered it abroad, and planted it there : pro lufu potius naturæ hanc habeo, quam pro specie diffinita.' Gerard seems to have been the first who mentioned this species or variety 3 but the most minute description of it is that of Zanoni, published in 1675. Our countryman Parkinson, in his Paradisus Terrefiris, tells us, that this strawberry differs principally from the common fort in bearing a green Mower, and its fruit being covered with prickles, which do not however wound the tongue ; that its taste is not agreeable, but that it is pleafant to look upon; and that a hardsome woman may very well, out of caprice, carry it in her hand instead of a flower. An ordinary lady, we fuppose, would not look well with it.

We shall now translate from our Author's remarques particulieres, the history of the birth of the strawberry of Versailles, above mentioned. In a little garden, fays be, which my father had bought, for the sake of experiments, having in the years 1760, and 1761, sowed some feeds of the fragaria mer chata, we also fowed seeds of the conmon wood Itrawberry, which had, for several years together, been cultivated in that garden. Our only intention was to try whether red strawberries often produce white. But these having been transplanted too early, and afterwards neglected, moft of them died. Having failed in our experiment, the few that escaped contia nued unregarded till 1763, about their time of flowering, which in most of them was retarded till the year following. It was not till the 7th of July 1763, that we observed, among these straw. Berries, one, of which all the leaves were fingle, instead of being palmated in three divisions. From that instant we preserved, wish the utmolt care, all the offsets it produced, and in the fpring of the next year we were pale[ed of no less than Sixty roots.'

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This little volume contains a more minute and accurate history and description of all the species and varieties of ftraws berries, known in Europe, than is to be found in any other author; and also many curious remarks relative to some other subjects of natural history.



Di&tionaire raisonné d'Anatomie de Physiologie, c.
A Dictionary of Anatomy and Physiology, containing imo, an

accurate description of all the Parts of the human Body;
2do. the etymology of many difficult Terms; 3tio. patho-
logical and therapeutical Reflections on the Parts described ;
4to, the Manner of making all kinds of anatomical Prepa-
rations, and the art of preserving them; sto, the physical
and mechanical Explication of all the human Functions,
with pathological and therapeutical Reflections on the Dif-
orders to which they are liable. 8vo. 2 Vols. Paris, 1766.
UR Readers will observe, that, in translating the title, we

have omitted the word raisonné, for want of a term in our language to express it precisely in the sense here intended. In its common acceptation, it means, rational, or rather argumentative, or reasoning, none of which our idiom will permit us to apply, in this instance, with propriety. The French are so fond of this term, that, as all science is congefted into dictionaries, so all their dictionaries are raisonnés. Concerning that which now. lies before us, we must first observe, that it is without ån Author; a circumstance which will not prejudice the Reader much in its favour, naturally concluding, that the writer, or rather compiler, would have put his name in the title, if he had not been conscious, that it would be of no ada vantage to his book. This, we say, is a natural conclusion, and in general a just one.

From the title of these volumes it is easy to conceive the impossibility of conveying an adequate idea of their contents, we shall therefore select an article which may serve not only as a specimen of the Author's manner, but at the same time be of uțility to fome of our anatomical Readers. The art of preparing different parts of animal bodies by injection, though of late considerably improved, and diffused, is nevertheless far from being universally known: we shall therefore tranfate the following article.

• INJECTION, injectio, as a term of anatomy, is the preparation made with a liquos, hot or cold, differently. coloured, and destined to fill the vcffels of a dead body, whether of man or bruté.

• With regard to the confilicuce of the liquor injected, there are two forts, viz. firie, which is made of some spiritous liquos,


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