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to deliver up to fortune whatever other part of his body she had a mind to deprive bim of, provided with the remainder he could live with glory and in the esteem of mankind.”-Demosthenes, in drawing this picture of Pbilip, little thougbt that he was drawing that of the greatest of our kings. We see Henry in every feature of it, with this difference only, that he had the good fortune never to be wounded but once, though he often exposed himself to the greatest dangers.
No princes ever carried clemency and moderation a greater length than Henry and Philip. The first pardoned his greatest enemies, without reserve; those seditious preachers of the league, who, converting the chair of truth into a school of sedition, uttered the most horrid invectives, spread the most infamous and atrocious libels against him, and kept the people fo long in rebellion. Though he had it several times in his power to take the city of Paris by assault, he would never do it, for fear of exposing it to rapine and plunder. · After the battles of Argues and Ivry, he dismissed a great number of prisoners without ransom, even those of the first çank, and who had been his greatest enemies.
Philip tos, after the vi&ories he obtained over the Greeks, often dismissed his prisoners, and granted them peace upon terms the most advantageous for them. „Their ambassadors being with him one day, in order to assist at the ratification of a treaty, which he had made with them, he declared he would forget every ground of complaint he had against them. When he took his leave of them, be alked them in a very obliging manner, if he çould do them any service? Yes, replied Demochares, who was one of them, you'll do us an excellent piece of service, if you'll hang yourself. Philip, without any emotion, casting a look of contempt at this infolent wretch, said to the other embassadors ; tell your masters, that those who dare to make use of such language, are far less disposed to peace than those who can para don it.Being preffed, after the battle of Cheronæa to march against Athens ; the gods forbid, replied he, that a prince, wha has fought only for glory, should destroy the temple and thcatro of glory...
Both our princes were equally fortunate in generals interest ministers. Sully and Biron were men who may well be com, pared with Antipater and Parmenio. This is Maríhal Biron, Laid Henry one day to Cardinal Aldobrandin, introduce him chearfully both to my friends and enemies.- I declare to you, said he once to the Dutchess of Beaufort, if I was reduced to the alternatire of thing you or Sully, I had rather lose ten mistresses like you, than one servant like him.-His life abounda. with instances of the esteem and regard he had for them, and all the other captains who served him faithfully; he took pleaLure in commending them upon every occasion.
The Athenians are very happy, said Philip, in being able
to choose ten generals every year; for my part, I have never been able to find but one, and that is Parmenio. We may give ourselves up to pleasure, said he one day to his friends, with whom he was taking his glass a little too freely ; it is enough that Antipater does not drink. Another time, having fept longer than usual, as soon as he rose he found Antipater in his antechamber with the emballadors of the different nations of Greece ;-I might well, sleep, faid he, addressing himself to the ambassadors, fince Antipater was awake.
The friends and ministers of both these princes might carry their fincerity to the utmost extravagance, if I may use the expression; they were never offended with the firmness of their pcmonftrances. We have seen that Henry, far from being offended with Rosny for tearing the promise of marriage, which he had made to Madam d'Entragues, made him, not long after Grand Master of the Ordnance. The memoirs of this mi. nister are full of instances of the firmness wherewith he spoke to his master. Marthal Biron too spoke his sentiments with the utmost freedom, without ever giving any offence,
Demarathus, one of the most illustrious citizens of Corinth, coming to see Philip, this prince asked him the news of Greece, and if the several states lived in harmony with each Other?--Why, Sir, replied Demarathus, should you concern yourfelf about the union of the Greek cities, whilft your own family is filled with dissension and discord ? -- Philip, charmed with his freedom, begged his friend to assist himn in restoring the peace of his family, which he did by prevailing upon Olympias and Alexander to return to court, which they had left through some discontent.
The day after the battle of Cheronæa, Demades, one of the firit orators of Athens, who had been made prisoner, being on the field of battle, when Philip, heated with wine, was dancing and singing for joy of the victory, said to him, with the freedom of a republican ;-is it possible, Sir, that you can act the part of Therfites, when fortune puts it in your power to act that of Agamemnon !- These words restored Philip to himself; he gave Demades his liberty upon the spot, and loaded him afterwards with marks of his esteem and friendlbip.might relate many more instances of the generosity and affability of both these princes; but I shall content myself with referring my Readers to what I have said upon this head in the life of Henry and that of Philip.
There is a great resemblance in these princes in regard to their attachment to the fair fex. This paffion which they ind'ulged with too much ardor, was the occasion of much domestic vexation and uneasiness to both; but it never made them commit an action contrary to their interest or their glory. They always entertained those sentiments of love and respect for their wives, with which virtuous women never fail to inspire good men. Their wives were never exposed to any bad treatment from them. It is true that Philip seemed to put away Olympias when he married Cleopatra. It is thought, however, that he did not put this Princess away, as the remained at court after the marriage. The Kings of Macedonia were probably allowed to have several wives, though this seldom happened.
Henry had always the greatest respect for Mary de Me. dicis, notwithstanding the uneasiness she gave him. He even named her regent to govem the state whilft he was engaged in war. We have seen, in the life of this prince, what pains he took to footh the Queen under all her vexations, though he well knew that they were generally occasioned by her favorite Galigai, whom he could not prevail upon himself to dismiss, for fear of making the Queen uneasy; and what shews that he never entirely forsook her, is, that during the nine years they were married, he had fix children by her. Though he had many reafons to complain of Margaret his first wife, yet he always preserved that respect for her which was due to her birth, and he has never been reproached for parting with her.
If there was so great a resemblance between Philip and Henry, there was no less between Olympias and Mary de Me. đicis.' They were both haughty and imperious; they were both too impatient on account of the occasional gallantries of their husbands; they reproached them with all the severity and bitterness of the most violent jealousy, without considering that this conduct had no other effect than to alienate those affectionis which they might have fecured the entire pofleffion of by gentleness, good humour and complaisance; they filled their families and their courts with quarrels and dissenfions, the bad effects of which their fovereigns had the wisdom to prevent. Olympias, ambitious of governing, occasioned great disturbances in Macedonia after the death of her son Alexander, and ruled there with the utmost cruelty; the sacrificed to her resentment the whole family of her husband; the behaved herself in so tyrannical á manner, that she was even detested by those very persons to whom the owed her authority; they abandoned her, and delivered her into the hands of Cassander, the usurper of Macedonia, who put her to death.
Mary de Medicis had neither the vices nor the malignity of Olympias; her faults were jealousy and a love of power. The errors the committed during her regency were owing to incapacity; she had not extent of genius sufficient to support the weight of so difficult and laborious a government as that of the kingdom of France, nor to keep in awe the restless, discona tented, and ambitious fpirits of the generality of the Catholic Lords and Huguenots, as the King her husband had done. When Lewis the thirteenth was of age, he was obliged to re
move her from the management of affairs, which she had too indiscreetly trufted to insolent and audacious favourites, who oc, casioned fuch disturbances in the state as could no otherwise be quieted, than by the punishment of Marshal D'Ancre and Galigat.
The deaths of Philip and that of Henry were equally unfortunate, and accompanied with the same circumstances. They were both assassinated, each by a single perfon, in the midt of their courts, and of preparations for the celebration of magnificent feasts, and at a time when they were upon the point of putting themselves at the head of their armies, in order to execute those grand projects they had formed. But their deaths had different causes. That of Philip was occasioned by his refusal to do justice to Pausanias, a young nobleman of his court, who had been cruelly. insulted by Attalus. Philip did every thing in his power to footh-this young man ; begged him to forget the injury, and loaded him with favours in order to prevail upon him to pardon Attalus; but Pausanias, infenfible of his master's kindness, facrificed him to bis resentment: Olympias and her son Alexander were suspected, and even accused, of having been concerned in this wicked attempt; but historians have not given us suficient proofs of it.
Henry was affailinated, amidst the preparations that were inaking for the Queen's entry, by a single man; a great many persons have been accused of having been engaged with him in the faine horrid design, but there is no clear evidence for it. This prince was the victim of his own clemency, and of a horrid fanaticism, which continued too long in France, and which nothing but time could cure. The enemies of France, frighted at the preparations Henry was making to punish them for those disorders which they had committed in his kingdom, may, as I have had occasion to obferve, be accused upon this occafion; in the same, manner as Alexander accused Darius for having been an accomplice in the conspiracy which hastened the death of Philip.
We shall conclude with comparing the ambition of Henry and Philip, which was equal, though the charailer of it was different.-Ambition is a disposition of the soul, which makes a man with himself superiour to others in glory, in command, in riches, and in the possession of all those advantages which he considers as real blessings; it is praise-worthy or the contrary, according to the virtues or the vices that infuence it, and the good or bad actions which a man does in order to gratify it.
Men of all ranks ought to have ambition ; but I am now Speaking of that noble ambition which prompts a man to a faithful discharge of all the duties of that ftation wherein providence has placed him, to employ his abilities in promoting the happiaess of his inferiors or equals, and to haya no oher views in
- the whole of his conduct but justice and equity.--Such was the ambition of Henry and Philip, if we may judge of it by their conduct till they were in a condition to execute those grand projects they had formed in order to gratify it. ,
Philip's project was to destroy the power of the kings of Persia, who had been enemies to the Greeks, and in order to succeed in it, he had taken the wiseft and best, concerted meafures. Like Henry, he begun with, securing to himself the peaceable possession of his own kingdom, by vanquishing those who invaded it. He put an end to civil dillenfions, and made his subjects the best soldiers in Europe. When he had made trial of the bravery of his troops in several engagements wherein they were victorious, not thinking himself as yet powerful enough to attack the empire of Persia, he falls upon the Greeks, and subdues them, not so much with a view to make them his subjects, but rather the companions of those victories which he propoled to gain over their inveterate enemies. He granted the Tepublics their liberty, but obliged them to join their troops to his, by which means he formed an army capable of subduing the whole world,
At a time when he might have flattered himself with seeing the accomplishment of his designs, he was assassinated, in the forty-eighth year of his age, but his measures were taken with so much skill and accuracy, and Alexander executed the designs of his father with so much courage, that he pushed his conquests as far as India. Death, however, put a stop to his career in the thirty-third year of his age, and he left nothing to his subjects, or the nations which he conquered, but the seeds of wars and dissensions, which they engaged in with great fury till they became subject to the Roman empire.
Such was the project of Philip; that of Henry was much more noble and moderate ; he did not desire to invade the pof
sessions of his neighbours, nor aim at the glory of conquest; satisfied with gaining the affections of his subjects, and rendering them happy, he only wanted to make other nations enjoy the same blessing. He took for his model the council of the Amphyctions once fo famous in Greece. The glorious victories gained by the Greeks over Darius and his son Xerxes, kings of Persia, and the defeat of the powerful armies which were sent to invade their country, convinced all the states of Greece of the advantages which they derived from their union. Being firmly persuaded that the preservation of this union was the only means of defending their liberties against the ambition of their enemies, they formed a council, composed of the deputies of all the states of Greece. Whatever concerned the general intereft was brought before this council; it was the arbiter of peace and war; determined the disputes that arose between the several ftates; regulated the quota of troops which