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XII. The Bulgarians distinguished, who had before been known only under the general name of Scythians.
XIII. First appearance of the flaves or Sclavonians on this side the Danube.
XIV. The Huns employed by Justin II. in his expedition against the Persians. Geographical observations on Colchis and Lazica.
XV. New account of the situation of the Sclavonians. First appearance of the eastern Turks, under the name of Cha
XVI. Contests of the emperors with the Bulgarians and Sclavonians. Divers remarks on the Chersonites and Bosphorians, Geographical observations on the Taurica Chersonesus.
XVII. Origin of the Athingans or Bohemians. Conversion of the king of the Bulgarians, which gives rise to the schism of Photius: Various remarks on the Sclavonian language, being adopted by the Bulgarians.
XVIII. First incurfions of the Ruffians towards the South. Invasion of great Moravia by the Turks.
XIX. The war between Conftantine Porphyrogenetes and Simeon king of the Bulgarians. · Geographical observatioris on the navigation of the Russians, and on several parts near the Borysthenes.
XX. Continuation of the history of the Turks, Bulgarians, and Russians. Incursion of the Patzinacites into Hungary. Destruction of the Bulgarian monarchy by the emperor Balilius.
XXI. Revolt of the Bulgarians. War between Constantine Monomacus and the Patzinacites. Invasion of Bulgaria, Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece, by the Uzes. War in Croatia under Michael Duc. Parap.
XXII. Continuation of the history of Croatia and Dalmatia; under Alexis and John Comnenius. War between John and the Patzinacites. Revolt of the Servians. War between John and the Hungarians.
XXIII. Continuation of the history of Servia, Croatia, and Dalmatia. First appearance of the Comanians. Geographical observations on the countries inhabited by those barbarians in Asia. War between Manuel Comnenius and the Hungarians. Rise of Genghis Kan. . XXIV: Origin of the Walachians. Several incursions of the Walachians and Comanians, on the territories of the em pire, until the death of Baldwin. Irruption of the Tartars into Europe, under their prince Batou Kan. Conversion of the Comanians,
XXV. Walachia divided from the kingdom of Bulgaria, and formed into a separate state. Establishment of the principality of Moldavia. Succellion of princes till Stephen the great. APP. vol. xxxiv.
Such are the principal subjects of these historical observations, in which the author hath, as far as might be consistent with his plan, generally conducted himself by the succession of empefors. The limited nature of his argument, prevented him from proceeding systematically; so that his observations are generally topical, and while he was confined to one tract of country, he could not pursue his inhabitants to the extent of their migra-, tions, or enter into the interests of their new settlements : yet the more regular historian may from hence receive important lights and uletul intimations ; for such works as these may be considered as a kind of common-place-books, or treasuries of historical anecdotes and instructions, useful to be referred to on every occafion.
In the latter part of his work, Mr. Peyssonnel entertains us with an account of his travels to Magnesia, Thyatira, Sardis, &c. and relates whatever he met with worthy of curiosity in antique monuments, and variety of fignificant inscriptions, molt of which have hitherto been unobferved : with historical and geographical remarks.—These he addresses to the members of the royal academy of inscriptions and belles lettres. They are really a valuable collection, and, as they are accompanied with plates, they must afford the most exquisite entertainment to the lovers of high antiquity.
De la Prédication. i.e. On Preaching. 2mo. A Londres,
(à Paris) 1766. HE design of this performance is to shew that preaching
has contributed very little, in any age of the world, to the reformation of mankind, and that it is in the
power of vernment alone to produce this happy effect. The author appears to be a man of sense and genius, a friend to virtue, and a lover of mankind; his manner of writing is sprightly and agreeable, and though many will, no doubt, look upon every thing that is said in regard to improving the manners and morals of mankind, as idle and visionary, yet the discerning reader, who is acquainted with the nature and history of man, will be convinced of the weight and importance of many things which he advances.
He sets out with observing that men, ever since they have formed themselves into societies, have been preaching to one another, though with little success. He thews briefly from the history of the Old Testament, that the preachers both before and after the food made few converts. When he comes to the time of our Saviour, he sayš,- It is not for us, worms of the earch, the children of darkness, blind in the book of life, ta asks, why the light of the world did not purify the world by the fire of his word; why, after his death, both Jews and Gentiles continued what they were before? We know that he sent his apostles to preach to the nations; but we know likewise that the nations, instead of attending to the apostles, put them to death, and that, till the days of Conftantine, preaching made few proselytes.'
• Here we must carefully distinguish between the conversion of the understanding, and that of the heart; the establishment of a new worship, and the establishment of manners. This is an important distinction, and I shall have occasion to return to it by and bye.'
· Constantine spread christianity over those extensive countries that were subject to the Roman empire. Clovis introduced it into Gaul, Charlemagne into Germany, Ethelbert into Great Britain, &c. A fine triumph for the ecclefiaftical historians ! Methinks I hear. Gregory of Tour say to me-Cast your eye over Gaul, and behold in the temples which are rising every where in honour of the true God, those altars, that crois, that sacrifice, those facraments, those public prayers, those humiliations, those marks of penitence, that hierarchy of pastors to preserve the sacred depositum of the faith.'
I see them, but I see at the same time kings and queens with crosses on their foreheads, and crimes in their hearts. I see a Clovis, with the cross on his face, shedding the blood of five princes, his own relations, in order to invade their little territories; I fee &c. &c.'
· The number of preachers, since the early ages of chriftianity, is prodigiously increased, together with the number of the faithful. At a certain hour of a certain day of the week, fifty thousand preachers, in the different countries of Europe, assemble the people, and say to them whatever they please; and to these preachers sovereigns trust the important business of manners. In reading the Roman history, it is observable, that the magiftrate alone fpoke to the people jure regali. In the
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Our author goes on to observe, that the present manner of preaching is ill calculated to warm the imagination, or reach the heart ; that the preachers of other religions have been as unsuccessful as those of the true; and that preaching, in every age and country, has been more successful in recommending evil than good. He then proceeds thus :
• But there have been preachers of another fort, who, without attending at the altar, have preached good morals; let us see what success they have had. I begin with the poets, the f:1 inftructors of mankind, who have the best claim to the ato Nn 2
tention of their hearers, as they always speak a divine language, os divina fonans. We have nothing left of the works of Orpheus, who sung his morals before the days of the prophets. But if fable, in order to give us a high idea of them tells us, that he tamed the fiercest animals, and even softened the heart of Pluto; it tells us at the same time, that he could not calm the amorous rage of the women of Thrace, who tore him in pieces on account of his indifference: a bad omen for thofe poets who were to preach virtue after him.'
Among the poets we are acquainted with, fome have preached in heroics, such as Homer, Virgil, Lucan, Tasso, Camoëns, Milton, and the author of the Henriad. When the Iliad appeared, Greece was divided into as many parties, as there were states in it. They were continually attacking each other, and intestine convulsions shook the general constitution. Homer forefaw the fatal consequences of their divifions, and employed the voice of reason, the force of exainple, the majesty of stile, the pomp of words, the charms of poetry, to thew them the danger of discord; but union no where appeared. Never perhaps was the Iliad more read, or more admired, than in the days of Pericles; because at that period, the talle and genius of the Greeks were at their height; even the vulgar were struck with the beauties of poetry and eloquence. It is not necessary to cite the passages, where Homer, always attentive to the great point he had in view, paints Discord in the form of a famished monftes, feeding on blood and carnage. Ir is sufficient for my purpose to observe, that the Greeks, whilf they were singing the verses of Homer, extolling his poetry and the moral he inculcated to the skies, were tearing one another in pieces.'
i The wise Virgil, whilft he Aattered the Romans in his Æneid, proposed to himself, no doubt, to rekindle expiring virtue in the breasts of his countrymen. Aecordingly he fing3 of a hero ever juft, ever patient, ever brave, ever full of piety towards the gods. This is the principal character with which he marks him ; pius Æneas, &c. and in order to inspire the greater horror of irreligion, and those other vices which were haftening the ruin of Rome, even under her own triumphal arches, with what dreadful noite, with what horrid apparatus, does he open the infernal regions to their view? In that abyss of tortures, nine times deeper than the distance between earth and heaven, he ihews profane mortals those mifers, who accumulated wealth without fharing it with the indigent; brothers who lived in enmity with brothers ; subjects who took up arms against their rightful sovereigns ; traitors who fold their couns ty for money; magistrates who enacted or abolithed laws front
views of interest; fathers guilty of incest, and chil're i of parricide.'
Was Auguftus, was Tiberius, was Caligula, was Nero, -were the grandees of their courts, was that multitude of corrupt wretches who disgraced all the different orders of the empire, frighted at the fight of this picture of Tartarus? Did they change their conduct ? alas, no! Was Virgil himself struck with the picture ke drew? Three lines in his Georgics incline (me to doubt of it,
• Felix qui potuit rerum cognrfiere caufas ; Atque metus omnes, es inexorabile fum, Subjecit pedibus, ftrepitumque A herontis avari.' • I might say a great deal upon the Henriad; what a sermon! name to me a fingle moral virtue; a virtue beneficial to lociety; a real virtue which is not there placed in its strongest
Jight. Valour, justice, humanity, generosity, obedience to the laws, loyalty to the prince, appear in their most beautiful and affecting forms; the same true and frong pencil draws, in the most terrible colours, chofe follics which ruined our fathers; that fanaticism, for example, that blind and stupid fury which reason never tamed.--This poem has now been preaching to us for the space of forty years; what impreslion has it made? Our theological disputes, wherein our divines pelt one another with the stones of the sanctuary; what has lately happened in a great city *, where public clamour, surprising the attention of justice, made an innocent old man be put to death ; the annual thankıgivinge that are offered up to Almighty God in the same city for a religious massacre, thew that fanaticism is still cherith
ed in our breasts, and that this monster would ftill commit dreadful ravages, if the wisdom of government did not chain it .down.'
But of all the epic poets, Milton has chosen the grandest Subject, and the fittest for a preacher : His plan is immenfe! it comprehends the counsels of the Almighty, and the whole creation; those torrents of light and pleasure which flowed for the angels, whilst they continued in their allegiance; that sea of fire into which their rebellion hurled them; their rage againft man when innocent and happy in the garden of Eden! It comprehends their efforts to ruin him, and their fatal success; the terrible consequences of his transgression, the air covered with black clouds, winds let loose, storms, tempefts, volcano's ; earth refusing her fruits, war preparing her scourges, force, tyranny, famine, with numberless plagues; and this horrid scene not even terminated by death itself: heaven shut and hell opened for the miserable, who are born only to fuffer, and to suffer, because descended from a guilty progenitor.' * Tholouse,