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which forbid to confound this kind of pulse with the others.' Here we confess ourselves at a loss how to discover the difference between this fimple pectoral and the general critical pulse above de scribed. The one is ditated, developed, softened, equal, extended the other, sost, full, dilated, equal. If, in this chapter, Mr. Bora deu bas no just accusation against his translator, we are of opinion that no finger but his own will be able to distinguish one pulse from the other. In justice bowever to Mr. Bordeu, we muft observe, that in the histories of cases, which he subjoins, by way of illuftration, to his description of the simple pectoral, the pulse was conftantly reduplicated with suppleness ; so that we are apt to suspect that our Translator, in the words there may be, has misunderstood his Author.

• The fimple guttural pulse, or that which indicates fimply the excretions of the glands of the throat, is developed, strong, with a reduplication in each stroke, less füll, and oftentimes more frequent than the pectoral pulse: it seems to be intermediate between the peftoral and the nafal.

• The fimple nasal pulse is commonly the forerunner of a bleeding at the nose: it is reduplicated as well as the guttural pulse, but it is more full, more hard, it has much more force and celerity.' 'This is the dicrotus of Sofano. We cannot possibly dismiss this pulfe without transcribing Obfervation XX. A young man, of a robust constitution, appearing to be pretty near his usual good stare of health, defired me to feel his pulse; having found it to be an absolutely nasal one, I told him that if he had been in a state of illness, I thould believe him on the point of having a bleeding at the nose: he anfwered me with an air of aftonishment, that he had bled at the nose the evening before, and that very day. Was not this an Irish pulse, by its prediction? From the cases (which are here called observations) it appears, that the term rebounding particularly diftinguishes this palfe.

We come now to the 2d division of simple critical pulses, viz, the inferior, or that which precedes any critical evacuation below the diaphragm. Its principal characteristic is to be irre- . gular.' Query, does the word irregular regard pulfe or charac. teristic? If we allow the natural construction, we must refer it to the latter ; but the Translator thus explains himfelf-that is to say, that the pulsations are unequal among themselves, and have unequal intervals. These intervals are sometimes fo considerable that they form real intermittences, according to the species of the inferior pulse, and according as this fpecies is more or less declared." We feel also pretty often, a kind of saliency in the artery, which ferves greatly to characterize the inferior pulse. This pulse is never as much developed, as supple, as equal, as the superior pulse,' It were to be wilhed that the

Translator

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Translator had expressed himself with more grammatical pro. priety.

· The simple pomachal pulse is the least developed of all the critical pulses, it is less unequal than all the other kinds of inferior pulses; the artery seems to stiffen and to quiver under the finger; it is often pretty salient, the pulsations are frequenta and with intervals pretty equal."

We cannot proceed to the next simple pulse without taking notice of the word stomach instead of belly or intestines in the title of Chap. XI. This cannot be a typographical blunder. “The nature of state of the critical intestinal pulse is as follows: it is hard, much more developed, than that which indicates vomiting; its pulsations are pretty strong, as it were rounded, and especially unequal, as well in their force, as in their intervals, which is a thing very difficult to distinguish, since it happens almost always, that after two or three pulsations pretty equal and high, there appears two or three which are less developed, never quick, more close, and as it were subentrant hence results a kind of saliency or explosion (did he mean to write expansion ?) of the artery, or less regular; to the irregularities of this pulse are joined frequently very remarkable intermittances (why not intermifions ?) It is never ås full nor as developped (constantly with a double p) as the superior pulse: it has not necessarily any fixed order in its intermittances; it is, on the contrary, by its diforder (instead of irregularity) that it makes itself diftinguishable.'

• The simple pulse of the matrix is commonly raised to a higher degree, inore developed than in a natural state, its pulsations are unequal; it is accompanied with reboundings, but to say the truth, less constant, less frequent, or, at least, less remark: able than the nasal pulse, yet fufficiently perceivable.'

By the hepatic pulse, our Author means that which portends a, jaundice. This pulse, he informs us, is evidently inferior : after the stomachal, there is no critical pulse so concentrated; it has neįther hardness nor fiiffness, it is unequal, and said inequality consists in this, that two or three pulsations unequal in themselves, succeed to two or three pulsations perfectly equal, and which often feem natural. It is less strong, less alert than that of the matrix ; is also less brisk, less irregular than the intestinal, and rot rebounding.'

Thé simple hemorrhoidal pulse is thus distinguished. “To three or four pulsations somewhat concentrated, brisk, renitent, and almost equal, fucceed two or three pulsations somewhat dilated, as it were rounded and less equal; the three or four following pulsations are rebounding; but these different púlsations have this in common, that we feel in them a kind of tremor pretty 3

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constant, and that they are more frequent and close than in the other kinds of inferior puises.'

The vesical pulse, or that which portends a critical discharge of urine, 'when it is thoroughly critical, is found to have a great relation with the intestinal pulse, 'tis known that its pulsations are unequal; but it appears that in the very inequality there is a sort of regularity which the intestinal pulse has not: the urinary pulse has many pulsations lifler the one than the other, and which proceed diminishing till they are lost in a manner under the finger ; it is in the same order that they return from time to time; the pulsations that are performed during these intervals are more developed, pretty equal, and somewhat salient.'

We come lastly to the pulse which indicates a critical sweat. • When the pulse is full, supple, developed, strong, and that to its modifications there is joined an inequality, in which some pulsations rise above the ordinary pulsations, and rise gradually until the last, which makes itself distinguished by a dilation, and at the same time a suppleness more marked than in the other pul. sations, we must always expect a critical sweat.'

Thus far our Author, with regard to what he calls the sample pulfes. The remainder of his work treats of these pulses combined with each other. With what difficulty they are to be comprehended may be easily supposed by what we have already transcribed. Whatever may be the opinion of physicians in general concerning the reality of the Author's system, it were certainly unjust to suppose it merely the produce of an inventive genius, especially when we find, by the cases annexed to his description of each particular pulle, that his prognostics, founded on this theory, were generally verified by the event. Either there is more truth in these observations than is generally supposed, or the histories of cases by which they are illustrated are fiétitious. We must observe, however, that the Author is extremely deficient for want of an accurate explanation of his terms, without which a work of this nature is in a great measure unintelligible. As to the translation, we must say, that it is very far from being elegant.

B.

*Hy ameeland

IS.

TH

Physiological Reveries. 4to. Becket and De Hondt,

A 'HE Author of this pamphlet has in fome degree prevented

criticism by the title of his performance, and by his advertence, that we are to receive his refle&tions rather as crude beginnings of ideas, than as clear and authenticated conceptions.'

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But that crude beginnings of ideas, and obscure conceptions deferve little attention from the public, cannot be doubted: nevertheless, as the subjects proposed, viz. respiration, salivary secretion, and fevers, are in themselves important, we shall briefly lay this Author's Reveries before our Readers.

With regard to the first of these subjects, he chufes to imagine, that animals breathe not only by the lungs, but by every pore on the surface of the body, which thus, as he expresses it, becomes ' one great pneumatic engine.' In support of this opi. nion, he urges the general fimplicity of nature, whose charac, ter is that of performing her work by the fewest instruments pofsible :' for, according to his hypotheses, there will be no need of inhaling ducts on the surface of the body; inhalation and exhalation being performed by the same pores. But this proves nothing with regard to their admission of air, which is the sole point in question. As to the general fimplicity of nature, it is the strongest argument which the Author could posfibly have advanced against his own reverie, Naturalists have discovered that insects breathe through pores on the external surface of their bodies, poris lateralibus refpirantia; but for this there is an evident neceflity, because they are not provided with lungs.

Our Author's idea concerning the salivary secretion is, that its principal use in the animal oeconomy is to repair and nourish the body, for which purpose he thinks it better adapted than the crude aliment received into the stomach,

That the saliva is a necessary ingredient in the formation of chyle is evident; that the waste of blood, by the various secretions from it, is constantly supplied by chyle poured into the left fubclavian, is also universally known; nor is it less certain, that from the blood are made the various secretions in the animal body. The saliva therefore is secreted from the blood, which blood, according to our Author, is again formed of the saliva. Who does not perceive the absurdity of this circle ? Can the Author be ignorant of the very inconsiderable quantity of the faliva compared with the other fecretions from the blood? which faliva he nevertheless imagines to be the principal ingredieng in the formation of that blood. In short we cannot help observing, that this second (no less than the first) reverie, shews the Author to be no very great adept in physiology.

As to his third reverie, if it is any thing at all, it is pathological, and not physiological, as the Author has thought fit to call it. Here he vents his indignation against the ignorance of those who mistake a fever for a disease ; who suppose that any man, since the creation of the world, ever died of a fever ; who be. lieve that fevers are not always symptomatical.

That

That a fever frequently proves a remedy to a disease, is afferted by Hippocrates in varinus parts of his works : quibus bepar circumcirca dolet, his febris fuperveniens dolorem solvit. Aph. vii, $2. Lippitudine affecto fuborta febre, folutionem affert. Coac. 222, &c. So that, a fever's being often a remedy rather than a dircase, is a very old opinion. Ner is our Author by any means fingular in his belief, that a fever is generally an effort of nature to effect some falutary purpose; but it does not therefore follow that no man ever died of a fever. Suppose, for instance, a person receives a wound, which, from the part injured, is by no means mortal : yet a fever fupervenes, and the patient dies. In this case, the wound was the cause of the fever, but the fever was the immediate cause of death. So in innumerable other inItances, though a fever may be excited by nature with a salutary intention, yet, if noc properly restrained by the physician, it often destroys the patient. In support of his assertion, that fevers are always fymptomatic, our Author proves nothing more, than that no effect is produceil without a cause; an axiom which we are not in the least inclined to contest.

B.

A large Collection of antient Jewish and Heathen Teftimonies to the

Truth of the Chriftian Religion, with Notes and Observations. Vol. II. Containing the Testimonies of Heathen Writers of the second Century. By Nathaniel Lardner, D.D. 419. 105, 6d, Buckland, &c.

W

E have here a fresh opportunity of doing justice to the

great learning, and uncommon industry of the worthy Author of this work, whose judicious writings in defence of Christianity do him great honour, and have done eminent fervice to the cause which he supports.

This second volume of his Collection * is introduced with a Preface, containing fome farther observations upon the paragraph, in the works of Jofephus, concerning our blessed Saviour. In his first volume, the Doctor took no notice of an anonymous Dissertation, printed at Oxford in the year 1749, and generally ascribed to Dr. N. Forster ; wherein the Author endeavours to faew, that the celebrated passage in question, some Bight corruptions only excepted, may reasonably be esteemed genuine. As great regard has been shewn to this Differtation by some learned men, our Author thinks proper to consider the merits of it,

The Author of the Dissertation looks upon the account in Josephus as a mere simple narrative, in which there is not a • For our account of the firf volume, fee Rev. Vol. XXXII. p. I.

sentence,

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