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Sells more than it buys, whereas it loses by buying more than it fells.
- That a nation can never fell more than it buys, but by a judicious cultivation of its lands, and by observing fuch frugaIity in its manners as necessarily fits bounds to its foreign purchases.
" That any nation that cultivates its lands sufficiently, and yet, at the same time, gives ittelf up to useless and foreign extravagance, does in truth increase its foreign trade, but it is by increaling at the same time its purchases abroad; and from that moment it begins to live upon its capital, and makes great strides towards its ruin.
+ That a nation that pays great interests to foreigners for sums harrowed, ought to be more frugal in its manners than any other, and should fell in proportion, a great deal more than it buys, in order to be able, from its favings, not only to pay the interest-money, but likewise gradually to pay off the capital of its debt; from whence it necelarily follows, that it behoves any nation that is debtor abroad, to contract the extent of its foreign commerce, seeing the ought to contract the extent of ber foreign purchases.
" That England once had a very great balance in her favour, borrowed little, made good the interest of what she did borrow abroad, and also paid off a part of the capital sums borrowed, whilst the was prudent and frugal, and while she had not carried her foreign trade to fo great an extent, as I have made appear was the case, during the epoch of King William's reign.
« That England has had a much less balance in her favour; that she has borrowed great sums of money, that she has hardly been able to make good the interests due to foreigners; and that the has paid off no part of the capital of her debt from the time that she became less frugal, and that her foreign commerce extended itself further and further: the lucrative branches acquired by the treaty of Utrecht, and the increase in the exportation of corn*, not having been fufficient, to counterpoise the want of frugality in manners, and the increase of her purchases abroad.
That at this very time the balance of the foreign trade of England is against her, that she borrows a great deal, that she borrows even to make good the interest due to foreigners; and that this is actually fo, and that this evil goes on, increasing ever since she gave herself up to every kind of triling diffiration, and has been extending her commerce to all quarters of the globe.
* This Writer, elsewhere, files the export corn-trade a capital article to Englan', (p. 74,)--the princisal jource of her riches, (p. 165,)-power asdjfrengeh; p. 203,
That confequently the payment of the interests due abroad, cannot be placed to the account of the extention and profits arising from foreign trade; since, without breaking in upon the main stock, they have only been paid when England did not carry on so much of this fanie trade, but that this payment has arisen solely from oeconomy and the national savings, seeing from that moment, that this oeconomy and these savings no longer took place, the aforesaid payment could no longer be made, any other way, but by breaking in upon the main
1tock, and borrowing in order to pay it, which is always the case with those who spend more than they have coming in.'
What follows, certainly deserves to be noriced :
“The riches of nations, like those of individuals, should be considered both as realities and relatives. An individual who has an income of 100,000 livres 2-year is really richer, than one who has but 50,000 ; but if the latter spends no more than 48,000 livres, and the other spends 102,000; the last* becomes relatively the richest of the two, and is in fact more and more so, till at last he ceafes to be relatively fu, and then becomes really so. This is pretty nearly the case of England, comparing it at different times with itself. Under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and till the revolution of 1688, its lands were much less cultivated, it had much less territorial income, few objects of barter, and but little trade either foreign or domestic; now, without being really rich, at that time, the was however relatively fo, compared with what she has been since, and the actually became really fo, more and more every day. Since that revolution, her lands have been greatly improved, she has made great augmentations in her territorial income, in a variety of objects of barter, and also in her foreign and domestic trade; in short, she has become really rich.-But then, from that very moment, she began to spend, in some fhape or other, more than ihe had coming in, and has become relatively poor, compared with what she was formerly, till at last, by continually increaling her expence, and going such lengths as even to borrow mo. ney, to pay for her luxurious importation of baubles, and the support of her trade, she has become really poor. The grofs of her territorial income, that in the beginning I fixed at 810 millions sterling t, is at present merely nominal, for it is very
far Somewhat inaccurately expressed ;- but, by the inft, we suppose he means him who spends no more than 48,coo livres, though here mentioned before the other.
† Thus it stands at p. 164: but, in the beginning, viz. at p. 10, this same territorial income is really fixed at 810 millions of livres only.-This, we apprehend, is what the Author means; though ihe Translator has, above, changed the fum (a little inadvertently) into poundsjf r.ing.
from being effectively fo; her military expences, the increafe of the national debt, together with the great sums paid for intereft due to foreigners, make a large breach in it, so that, to use a military phrase, there is little more to do, than to order the attack, tó know how to conduct it with spirit, and forthwith to mount the breach.'- Spoke like a true Frenchman.
But though our Author, we hope, is greatly mistaken, in drawing this conclusion ; yet we think many of his premisses worthy of due consideration, from those who have it most in their power to promote the real interests of Great Britain.
The Life of Cardinal Reginald Pole, written originally in Italian,
by Lodovico Beccatelli, Archbishop of Ragusa; and now first translated into English. With Notes critical and historical. To which is added, an appendix, setting forth the Plagiarisms, falfe Translations, and false Grammar in Thomas Phillips's History of the Life of Reginald Pole. By the Reverend Benjamin Pye, L.L.B. 8vo. 35. 6d. Bathurst.
OOR Mr. Phillips really seems to have met with an hard
fate! Ridley first knocked him down; Neale then gave him the coup de grace ; and now comes Pye, to kill him again! But is it not somewhat inhuman, thus to pay the Jain, and barbarously triumph over the dead? Does not this resemble the cruelty of the Roman catholics, who used to harrow up the breathless bodies of the protestant reformers, try them for the herefies of their departed fouls, and hang and burn the poor parfive carcases, with as much zeal as if they were alive, and capable of feeling the edge of such keen arguments ?--at this rate, a popish author stands but a poor chance of making converts by his writings, in this heretical country : and we may conclude, if the Romith faith does, as hath been much asserted of late, gain ground among us, it must be owing to other means.
The zeal of a protestant divine, to counteract the efforts of a Romish priest, may be easily accounted for, and will naturally be approved, in a protestant country ; but that such a divine should be at the pains of translating, and the expence of printing, a panegyrical account of the life of a Romilh cardinal, written by a Romilh ecclefiaftic, is a circumstance that may seem to demand some explanation.--Let Mr. Pye, himself, explain it :
* These curious remains,' says he, in his dedication to the present Bishop of Durham, were lately rescued from the oblivion of almost two hundred years, by one of Pole's zealous admirers, Cardinal Quirini, who professes to have drawn the first
outlines of his character of Pole from this Italian master, though he hath filled up the canvas afterwards with some strange daubing of his own, in which he hath since been followed by a very humbly copyist in our own language.
• It may not therefore, my Lord! be altogether unfeasonable to exhibit a true and simple representation of the original itself; which, though modest in its appearance in comparison with the piece of a late biographer, hath too much of the fictitious cast of panegyric to have been offered to the public, unless it had been contrasted at the same time with the plainness and simplicity of historical truth, that it may be seen at one view, not only what Pole's transcendent merits were in the partial eye of his secretary and dependent Beccatelli; but also what was his true and genuine character in his travels, his retirements, his embassies, his legation, and his primacy.'
The contrast with historical truth, above intimated, will be found in our learned Translator's very large and numerous annotations; in which he hath strictly scrutinized, not only every fact advanced by his Author, but also the subsequent representations of Quirini, and his follower Mr. Phillips : so that all three are here made to undergo such a cross-examination, as none but the plainest and most upright evidence could possibly endure. No wonder then, if the unguarded fallies and falla cious colouring of professed panegyrists should be found unable to stand so severe a test.
It is very well observed, by Mr. Pye in his prefatory discourse, that a biographer seems to be by profesion a writer of panegyric; as it is a strong predilection in favour of some particular character, that generally determines him in the choice of his subject : praise therefore being the fixed object of his plan, he often makes a sacrifice of truth without scruple, to his partiality for a friend, or his gratitude to a benefactor.
Compositions of this kind have therefore their principal merits in their elegant variety of compliment, and delicacy of expresion; and it would be as unreasonable in a reader to complain of want of historical truth, in a work of pure declamation; as it would be absurd in a writer to make such effusions of the fancy, however ingenious, the basis and ground-work of real history. The Italian language, which, from its smoothness and melody, is the very dialect of Aattery, seems also peculiarly suited to this species of composition; and the complexional genius of that nation, prone to admire every thing that is specious, together with the dependent state of the literati among them, bred up either in the libraries of their popes, the palaces of their petty sovereigns, or the colleges of their cardinals, in the learned Tervitude of librarians, and fecretaries, conspire to form the talents of their men of letters to this particular mode of writing.
« This may be a probable reason why writers of this class should be the more prodigal growth of Italy than of any other soil; and they seem to have been at no period so numerous as in the 16th century, when scarce a person of eminence appeared among them, but, soon as ever he left the stage, next to the marble buft, and monumental inscription, succeeded the Panegyric to his Memory, though under the less flattering denomination of The History of his Life.'
As no account hath ever been given of Beccatelli, who wrote the panegyrical history of his friend and patron Cardinal Pole, our Translator hath collected a few anecdotes concerning him, from his own writings, and other memoirs in the collection of Cardinal Quirini : of these we shall give a very concise abstract.
Beccatelli was a native of Bologna, and had his education at Padua ; where he became acquainted with Pole, at a second visit made by the Cardinal to that university. The intimacy and friendship in which they engaged, may be traced, says our Author, through the progress of both their lives, for more than 20 fucceeding years, till Pole’s promotion to the fee of Canterbury, and Beccatelli's settlement in that of Ragusa.
• But this intimacy, continues our Author, was not ćemented by any particular connection till after the death of Cardinal Contarini in 1542, during which interval Beccatelli was his immediate secretary and domestic, and spent the seven last years in which that cardinal lived, chiefly in his family, who expired in his arms at Bologna, August 24, 1542.
• Upon this misfortune, he seems to have passed over immediately into the houshold of C. Pole, carrying with him the grateful and affectionate remembrance of their common friend; and as he had ofcentimes before been his companion and attendant in his journies and his embassies, he became now the chearful partner of his happier hours in his elegant retreat at Viterbo.
• Here he indulged his natural bent to poetry, the most delightful amusement of a disengaged mind, in the society of the gay and lively Flaminius, who has addressed him in an ingenious copy of verses published by Mr. Pope, in the second volume of the Poemata Italorum.
When C. Pole was called away from his repose at Viterbo, in 1545, Beccatelli accompanied him, in character of secretary, to the council of Trent: here we find him extremely busy in the duties of his office, and posting to and fro between Rome and Trent, to receive fresh orders from the pope as new difficulties arole in the council, and to communicate to him minutes of all the business which pafied there.
After this time he seems to have continued a domestic of the English cardinal's; and it bas been laid (though not hy