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frogs, which abound in Egypt after the inundation of the Nile. « I am inclined, says, the Doctor, to believe this bird to be the Ibis of the ancient Egyptians, rather than any other, because it is : 1. very common in Egypt, and almost peculiar to this country; 2., it cats and destroys ferpents; 3. the urns found in the fepulchres contain a bird of this fize.'
Tetrao COTURNİX. The quail. " It is of the size of a turtle-dove. I have met with it in the wilderness of Palestine, near the shores of the Dead Sea and Jordant, and between Jordan and Jerico; and in the desarts of Arabia Petræa. If the food of the Israelites in the defarts was a bird, this is certainly its being so common in the places through which they passed.
In speaking of the common pigeon, our Author observes, that the builds her nest in the following manner : • 'The male gathers straw, &c. and carries it to the sitting female ; but he gives it to her in a very peculiar manner, leaning his neck over her's, so that she receives the materials from the opposite side, and lays them under her belly, building a round neft.'
Among the third class of animals, viz. AMPHIBIA, the first which claims attention is the Lacerta Chamæleon. I found, says the Doctor, the remains of various insects in its stomach, viz. tipulæ, coccionellæ and butterflies. I saw part of an entire ear of tarley in the excrement, which is very singular. I could not find the vesica urinaria. This animal is very subject to the jaundice, especially if it is made angry. It seldom changes, unless it is made angry, from black to yellow, or greenish colour, that of its gall; which last, being transmitted into its blood, appears very plain, as the muscles of the Chamæleon are very thin, and the skin pellucid. This lizard, of which the ancients have related so many true and fabulous stories, and which is known to all writers of natural history under the compound name of Chamæleo, I procured alive, about the time when the spring had induced it to leave its winter retreat. This elegant creature is frequently found in the neighbourhood of Smyrna : here it climbs the trees and runs among the stones.' After mentioning the common opinions concerning this animal, namely, that it assumes the colour of every object it approaches, and lives entirely upon air, he proceeds thus: I will now reJate what I observed myself, in one I kept alive a confiderable time. I could never observe that it assumed the colour of any painted object presented to its view, though I have made many experiments with all kinds of colours, on different things, Aowers, cloth, paintings, &c.
Its natural colour is irongrey, or black mixed with a little grey. This it sometimes changes, and becomes entirely of a brimstone yellow, which is the colour I have seen it mott frequently affume. I have seen it allume a darker yellow, approaching somewhat to a green;
sometimes a lighter, at which time it rather inclined to a white. I have not oblerved it to aflume any other colours. It changes colour especially on two occasions, viz, on being exposed to the beams of the sun, and when made angry, which l effcéted by pointing" at it with my finger. When it was changing from black to yellow, the foles of its feet, its head, and the bag under its throat, began first to change. I saw it several times ípeckled with large black fpots over its whole body, which gave it an elegant appearance. When it was of an iron-grey colour, it extended its sides, or ribs, and hypochondria, which made the skin fit close to the body, and it appeared plump and handsome; but as soon as it turned yellow, it contracted those parts, appearing thin, empty, lean and ugly; and the nearer it approached to white, the emptier and uglier it seemed; but it appeared worst in regard to shape, when it was fpeckled.' He farther informs us, that it lived 24 days without food, continuing brisk and lively all the time; but that, at length, it became very feeble, and, being bit by a turtle, expired.
In clars the fourth, viz. FISHES, we find nothing very remarkable except the Silurus Clarias. Vide Systema Nature Lin tai, No. Iso. • It lives, says our Author, in the Nile, and is called Schcilan by the Arabians. If it pricks any one with the bone of the breast-fin, it is dangerous, being poisonous. I have seen the cook of a Swedish merchant-fhip die of the prick of this fish.'
The fifth class confifts of INSECTS. Here the Doctor's ob. fervations concerning the Gryllys Arabicus, (Arabian Locust) deferve attention. Those who are acquainted with scripture controversy know that John's feeding upon locusts in the wilderness hath been to many a stumbling block, locusts being supposed unnatural food; and that, in order to render the story probable, they are of opinion that the oubides of John were either fome kind of fruit or fowl. Our Traveller, ever attentive to any thing which mighe tend to illustrate or explain the sacred writings, determined, during his stay in Egypt, to learn, if possible, whether locufts make any part of the food of the present inhabitants of the country where John dwelt. He observes, that, Arabia being inaccesible to Europeans, all that can be learnt concerning this matter must be gathered from the report of others. Accordingly he enquired of Armenians, Grecians, Coptites, and Syrians, who all answered in the affirmative. • But, says tha Doctor, the informations I had from Greeks, who had travelled to Mount Sinai, are those I can most depend on ; for the Grecian church has a noted convent there. The Arabians live in the places adjacent. Froin a learned and ingenious Scheck*,
A kind of magistrate, or chief, or lawyer, among the Arabs.
with y hence
with whom he was acquainted at Cairo, he obtained the follow, ing answers to his question, Whether the Arabs feed on Locuits ? « At Mecca, which is furnished with corn from Egypt, there, frequently rages a famine, when there is a scarcity in Egypt, The people here are then obliged, as in all other places of the world, to support life with unusual food. Locults obtain a place then amongst their victuals: they grind them to flower in their hand-mills, or powder them in stone mortars. They mix this flower with water, to a dough, and make thin cakes of it, which they bake like other bread, on a heated griddle.'-I then asked, continues he, whether the Arabs do not use Locusts without being driven by necessity? He answered, that it is not uncommon to see thein eat Locusts when there is no famine; but then they boil them a good while in water, afterwards stew them with butter, and make a sort of fricassee, which has no bad taste.'- I farther asked, says the Doctor, Whether the Locufts of the Arabians were different from those in Egypt? He answered, No.'
After mentioning the common Bee, Apis mellifera, “The Egyptian Bee-hives, says our Author, are very fingular in their kind. They are made of coal-dust and clay, which being well blended together, they form of the mixture a hollow cylinder of a span diameter, and as long as they please, from six to twelve feet : this is dried in the sun, and becomes so hard that it may be handled at will. I saw some thousands of these hives at a village between Damiata and Mansora; they composed a wall round a house, after having become un serviceable in the use they were firft made for.'
Cancer Cursor. The Running Crab: This infect is thus distinguished by Linnæus: Thorace lævi integerrimo, lateribus poftice marginato, antennis fililibus, cauda refiexa. It is an inhabitant of the fea-coast of Egypt and Syria. It generally issues forth from the sea about fun-fer, and is seen running with great celerity along the sand. It has very singular appendices to its tail, and its eyes are fixed in the aniennee.
The only animals mentioned by Dr. Hafielquist in the fixth class, which (according to the Linnæan system) consists of VERMES, are the Sepia octopodia, the Cuttle-fith, and the Pinna muricata. The Cuttle-fith, says be, is the most inveterate enemy of the latter, rushing in, and devouring it as soon as it opens the shell, unless prevented ; but there being always one or more of the Cancer pinnotheris in the shell, which always keep in the mouth of it, and as the enemy advances, he gives notice of the danger, and the Pinna Muts her shell. He is permitted to live within the shell as a recompence for his trouble.' We come now to the botanical part of this curious work, T3
whence we shall select the Author's account of those plants which are least generally known.
• CORNUCOPIÆ CUCULATUM. I found this plant the 22d of March, in the neighbourhood of Smyrna, towards Barnaba. It is one of those I was very desirous of seeing. It is a grass in appearance quite different from all of its tribe. I was the more rejoiced to find it, as it has been seen and described by very few. botanists in its natural state. It is to be found in the vales round Smyrna, and has not been met with growing wild in any other place; nor has it ever entered any botanical garden.' Those who are desirous of seeing Linnæus's description of this plant, will find it among the Triandria Digynia, N°. 72. in the Genera Plantarum, and page 79. in the Species.. This plant was sent many years ago from Smyrna by Dr. Sherard to Mr. Petiver in England, who, in his Gazophylacium, Vol. I. plate 73. has given a good figure of it. He calls it the Smyrna Club-rulli, with crooked heads.
· Mimosa NiloticA. This plant, and not the Mimosa Se negal, produces the Gummi Araticum. Both species grow together promiscuously: hence it happened that the latter having been by chance brought to Europe, instead of the first, and Alpinus not having distinguished one from the other, the Mimosa Senegal was by all writers in Botany and the Materia Medica, believed to be the true plant which produced the above mentioned gum.'
We shall now pass on to the chapter whích treats of plants, animals, &c. mentioned in scripture.
" Luke xvii. ver. 6. guxojivos. Christ certainly moant the Sycamore of the ancients, and Pharaoh's Fig-tree of the Egyptians, which the Arabians call Guimez, when he pointed to a large tree, he said the disciples might, by faith, remove it into the rea; for such there are now in Judea and Galilee, where Christ then was. Luther, therefore, trandated it very badly in calling it a mulberry-tree, which is neither congruent with scripture nor natural history.'
Luke xix. ver. 4. ouxopoupía. The tree on which little Zachæus climbed near Jericho, to see Christ pass. The Greek text fews it was a Sycamore; therefore the Roman Catholics, Greeks and Armenians, are led into an error, when they visit the holy places, for they are thewn a tree of a different genus.'
Allium cepa. That this was one of the species of onions for which the Ifraelites longed, we may guess by the quantity to this day used in Egypt, and by their goodness there. - Whoever has tasted onions in Egypt, must allow that none can be had better in any part of the universe.
· Leo. The Lion. This is not met with in Syria or Pales tine ; but in great numbers at Babylon, now Bagdad.' It is not
an inhabitant of Egypt, unless it be on the confines of Lybia, coming from the inland parts of Africa. How is this consistent with the Bible, where the Lion is mentioned as an animal common to Palestine and Syria, especially in the history of Sampson? Where did the fight between Sampson and the Lion happen?'
-But it is now time to finish an article which some of our Readers may possibly think much too long. To confess the truth, we dwell with great pleasure on the writings of a trayeller of Dr. Hasselquist's obvious integrity.
A compendious Hebrew Lexicon, adapted to the Englm Language,
and composed upon a new commodious Plan ; to which is annexed a brief Account of the Construction and Rationale of the Hebrety Language. By Samuel Pike. Svo. 5s. Dilly, &c.
EBREW Lexicons are generally formed in the manner
of the Greek Lexicon of Scapula; that is, the primitive words only are placed in alphabetical order; and the derivatives are to be fought, each under its respective primitive. This renders it neceßary for composers of Hebrew grammars to furnish the student with rules, by which he may investigate the root of any word he wants : these rules, however, are so numerous and perplexing, as to be of little service to the young Hebrician : indeed, in many cases, they would be of very little assistance to him were he ever so well versed in the application of them; for, after having rightly discarded the servile letters, there often remaip but two radicals, sometimes only one, and he must be a considerable proficient in the language, who is able to supply the radicals that are wanting, without which, however, the word in question can only be found after repeated tria's. The common remedy for this inconvenience is, for the learner to make use of a literal version, and to find the root in Buxtorf's Lexicon, by means of the Latin index : but this method supposes the person to know the signification of the word before he looks for it, and consequently makes the dictionary of little ule.
The plan Mr. Pike has followed in the work before us obe viates in a great measure these difficulties. He has ranged in one paragraph all those roots which have the same two permaRent radicals; these are, however, feparated from each other by a small black line, to prevent confusion. Where, after rejecting the servile letters, only one radical remains, the learner may find it by supposing it followed by 17. To each root is affixed, first the leading idea in Italics, which is supposed to go through all its various fignifications : then follow the otber senses of the