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produced this paper enclosed,* which I most the adverse party shall attempt to bring it now humbly pray your majesty to excuse, being that back again into your lordship’s court, you would which, in my judgment, I think to be good both not retain it there, but let it rest in the place where de vero, and ad populum. Of other things, I have now it is, that, without more vexation unto him written to my Lord of Buckingham. God for- in posting him from one to another, he may have ever preserve and prosper your majesty.

a final hearing and determination thereof. And Your majesty's humble servant,

so I rest
most devoted and most bounden,

Your lordship’s ever at command,
FR. Bacon.

G. BUCKINGHAM. March 23, 1616.

My lord, this is a business wherein I spake to Endorsed,

my lord chancellor, whereupon he dismissed the My lord keeper to his majesty, with some addi

suit. tional instructions for Sir John Digby.

Lincoln, the 4th of April, 1617.



Whereas, the late lord chancellor thought it fit

GooD NIECE,--Amongst your other virtues, I to dismiss out of the chancery a cause touching know there wanteth not in you a mind to hearken Henry Skip with, to the common law, where he to the advice of your friends. And, therefore, you desireth it should be decided ; these are to entreat will give me leave to move you again more seriyour lordship# in the gentleman's favour, that if ously than before in the match with Mr. Comp

troller. * The state wherein you now are is to be * Additional instructions to Sir John Digby,-[ambassador to

preferred before marriage, or changed for marriage, the court of Spain:]

Besides your instructions directory to the substance of the not simply the one or the other, but according as, main errand, we would have you in the whole carriage and by God's providence, the offers of marriage are passages of the negotiation, as well with the king himself, as

more or less fit to be embraced. This gentleman the Duke of Lerma, and council there, intermix discourse upon fit occasions, that may express ourselves to the effect is religious, a person of honour, being counsellor following:

of state, a great officer, and in very good favour That you doubt not, but that both kings, for that which with his majesty. He is of years and health fit concerns religion, will proceed sincerely, both being entire and perfect in their own belief and way. But that there are to be comfortable to you, and to free you of burso many noble and excellent effects, which are equally ac-densome cares. He is of good means, and a wise ceptable to both religions, and for the good and happiness of and provident man, and of a loving and excellent the Christian world, which may arise of this conjunction, as the union of both kings in actions of state, as may make the good nature; and, I find, hath set his affections difference in religion as laid aside, and almost forgotten. As, first

, that it will be a means utterly to extinguish and upon you; so as I foresee you may sooner change extirpate pirates, which are the common enemies of mankind, your mind, which, as you told me, is not yet toand do so much infest Europe at this time.

wards marriage, than find so happy a choice. I Also, that it may be a beginning and seed (for the like ac- hear he is willing to visit you before his going tions heretofore have had less beginnings) of a holy war against the Turk; whereunto it seems the events of time do into France, which, by the king's commandment, invite Christian kings, in respect of the great corruption and is to be within some ten days : and I could wish relaxation of discipline of war in that empire ; and much more in respect of the utter ruin and enervation of the Grana you used him kindly, and with respect. His reSignor's navy and forces by sea; which openeth a way

turn out of France is intended before Michaelmas. (with congregating vast armies by land) to suffocate and God direct you, and be with you. I rest starve Constantinople, and thereby to put those provinces

Your very loving uncle and assured friend, into mutiny and insurrection.

Fr. Bacon. Also, that by the same conjunction there will be erected a tribunal or prætorian power, to decide the controversies which

Dorset IIouse, this 28th of April, 1617. may arise amongst the princes and estates of Christendom, without effusion of Christian blood; for so much as any had causes depending in, or likely to come into the court of estate of Christendom will hardly recede from that which the Chancery. And it is not improbable that such recommendatwo kings shall mediate and determine.

tions were considered in that age as less extraordinary and Also, that whereas there doth, as it were, creep upon the irregular than they would appear now. The marquis made ground, a disposition, in some places, to make popular estates the same kind of applications to Lord Bacon's successor, the and leagues to the disadvantage of monarchies, the conjunc- Lord Keeper Williams, in whose life, by Bishop Hacket, part tion of the two kings will be able to stop and impedite the i. p. 107, we are informed, that "there was not a cause of growth of any such evil.

moment, but, as soon as it came to publication, one of the These discourses you shall do well frequently to treat upon, parties brought letters from this mighty peer, and the Lord and therewithal to fill up the spaces of the active part of your Keeper's patron. negotiation; representing that it stands well with the great- * Sir Thomas Edmondes, who had been appointed to that ness and majesty of the two kings to extend their cogitations office, December 21, 1616, and January 19, 1617-8, was made and the influence of their government, not only to their own treasurer of the household. He had been married to Mag. subjects, but to the state of the whole world besides, specially dalen, one of the daughters and coheirs of Sir John Wood, the Christian portion thereof.

knight, clerk of the signet, which lady died at Paris, De + Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

cember 31, 1614. † This is the first of many letters which the Marquis of The proposal for a second marriage between him and the Buckingham wrote to Lord Bacon in favour of persons who lord keeper's niece does not appear to have had success.



he can receive no assurance from your lordship MY HONOURABLE Lord,

of any precedent in that kind, his majesty intendI have acquainted his majesty with your letters, eth not so to precipitate the business, as to who liked all your proceedings well, saving only expose that dignity to censure and contempt, in the point, for which you have since made amends, omitting the solemnities required, and usually in obeying his pleasure touching the proclama- belonging unto it. tion. His majesty would have your lordship go His majesty, though he were a while troubled thoroughly abcut the business of Ireland, where- with a little pain in his back, which hindered his into you are so well entered, especially at this hunting, is now, God be thanked, very well, and time, that the chief justicef is come over, who as merry as ever he was; and we have all held hath delivered his opinion thereof to his majesty, out well. and hath understood what his majesty conceived I showed his majesty your letter, who taketh of the same; wherewith he will acquaint your very well your care and desire to hear of his lordship, and with his own observation and judg- health. So I commit you to God, and rest ment of the businesses of that country.

Your lordship’s most assured friend I give your lordship hearty thanks for your care

to do you service, to satisfy my Lady of Rutland'sť desire; and will

G. BUCKINGHAM. be as careful, when I come to York, of recom- Aukland, the 18th of April, 1617. mending your suit to the bishop.s So I rest Since the writing of this letter I have had some Your lordship's ever at command, farther speech with his majesty, touching my

G. BUCKINGHAM. Lord Brackley; and find, that if, in your lordNewark, the 5th of April, 1617.

ship's information in the course, you write any thing that may tend to the furthering of the despatch of it in that kind, he desireth it may be


I spake at York with the archbishop, T touching the house, which he hath wholly put into your My HONOURABLE LORD, hands to do with it what your lordship shall be

I send your lordship the warrant for the queen, pleased.

signed by his majesty, to whom I have likewise I have heretofore, since we were in this journey, delivered your lordship’s letter. And, touching moved his majesty for a despatch of my Lord the matter of the pirates, his majesty cannot yet Brackley's** business : but, because his majesty resolve; but within a day or two your lordship never having heard of any precedent in the like shall see a despatch, which he purposeth to send case, was of opinion, that this would be of ill con- to the lords of his council in general, what his sequence in making that dignity as easy as the

opinion and pleasure is in that point. pulling out of a sword to make a man a knight,

I would not omit this opportunity to let your and so make it of little esteem, he was desirous lordship know, that his majesty, God be thanked, to be assured, first, that it was no new course, is in very good health, and so well pleased with before he would do it in that fashion. But since his journey, that I never saw him better nor

merrier. So I rest * Ilarl. MSS. vol. 1006. † Sir John Denham, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland

Your lordship’s ever at command, in 1616. He was made one of the Barons of the Exchequer

G. BUCKINGHAM. in England, May 2, 1617. He died, January 6, 1638, in the

From Newcastle, the 23d of April, 1617.
eightieth year of his age. He was the first who set up cus-
toms in Ireland, (not but there were laws for the same be-
fore ;) of which the first year's revenue amounted but to
5001:; but before his death, which was about twenty-two
years after, they were let for 54,0001. per annum.- Borlase's

Reduction of Ireland to the Crown of England, p. 200. Edit.
London, 1675.

MY HONOURABLE LORD, # Frances, Countess of Rutland, first wife of Francis, Earl

I understand that Sir Lewis Tresham hath a of Rutland, and daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Knevet, of Charleton, in Wiltshire, knight. She had by the earl an only suit depending in the Chancery before your lorddaughter and heir, Catharine, first married to George Marquis, ship; and, therefore, out of my love and respect and afterwards Duke of Buckingham; and secondly to Ran- toward him, I have thought fit to recommend him dolph Macdonald, Earl, and afterwards Marquis, of Antrim, in Ireland.

unto your favour so far only as may stand with Relating to York House.

justice and equity, which is all he desireth, Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

Dr. Tobie Matthew.

having to encounter a strong party. And, because ** Who desired to be created earl in an unusual manner, by letters patents, without the delivering of the patent by the king's own hand, or without the ordinary solennities of crea- Harl. MSS. vol. 7006. tion. He was accordingly created Earl of Bridgewater, May + Relating to her house. See the lord keeper's letter of 27, 1617 ,

April 7, 1617, printed in his works.


he is shortly to go into Spain about some other When I had written this letter, I received your business of his own, I farther desire your lordship lordship's letter of the third of this present, whereto give him what expedition you can, that he may in your lordship showeth your solicitous care of receive no prejudice by his journey.

my health, which did wonderfully comfort me. Your lordship's ever at command, And it is true, that at this present I am very well,

G. BUCKINGHAM. and my supposed gout quite vanished. Endorsed-May 6, 1616,

I humbly pray you to commend my service, infinite in desire, howsoever limited in ability, to his majesty, to hear of whose health and good disposition is to me the greatest beatitude which

I can receive in this world. And I humbly beMY HONOURABLE LORD,

I have, by reports, heard that which doth much seech his majesty to pardon me, that I do not now grieve and trouble me, that your lordship hath, send him my account of council business, and through a pain in one of your legs, been forced to other his royal commands, till within these four keep your chamber. And, being desirous to un-days; because the flood of business of justice did derstand the true estate of your health, which hitherto wholly possess me; which, I know, reports do not always bring, I entreat your lord-worketh this effect, as it contenteth his subjects, ship to favour me with a word or two from your- and knitteth their hearts more and more to his self, which, I hope, will bring me the comfort I majesty, though, I must confess, my mind is

upon desire, who cannot but be very sensible of what- other matters, as his majesty shall know, by the soever happeneth to your lordship, as being

grace of God, at his return. God ever bless and Your lordship's most affectionate

prosper you. to do you service,

Your lordship's true and most

devoted friend and servant, G. BUCKINGHAM.

Fr. Bacon. From Edinburgh, the 3d of June, 1617.

Whitehall, this 8th of June, 1617.
His majesty, God be thanked, is very well, and
safely returned from his hunting journey.


Your lordship will understand, by Sir Thomas

Lake's letter, his majesty's directions touching MY VERY GOOD LORD,

the surveyor's deputy of the Court of Wards. This day I have made even with the business And though I assure myself of your lordship’s of the kingdom for common justice; not one care of the business, which his majesty maketh cause unheard; the lawyers drawn dry of all the his own: yet, my respect to Sir Robert Naunton* motions they were to make; not one petition maketh me add my recommendation thereof to unanswered. And this, I think, could not be your lordship, whom I desire to give all the fursaid in our age before. This I speak, not out of therance and assistance you can to the business, ostentation, but out of gladness, when I have that no prejudice or imputation may light upon done my duty. I know men think I cannot continue Sir Robert Naunton, through his zealous affection if I should thus oppress myself with business: but to attend his majesty in this journey. that account is made. The duties of life are inore

I will not omit to let you know, that his majesty than life; and if I die now, I shall die before the is very well, and receiveth much contentment in world be weary of me, which, in our times, is his journey. And with this conclusion I rest somewhat rare. And all this while I have been

Your lordship's most affectionate a little unperfect in my foot. But I have taken

to do you service, pains more like the beast with four legs than like

G. BUCKINGHAM. a man with scarce two legs. But if it be a gout, Edinburgh, the 11th of June, 1617. which I do neither acknowledge, nor much disclaim, it is a good-natured gout; for I have no rage of it, and it goeth away quickly. I have hope it is but an accident of changing from a field

TO THE LORD VISCOUNT FENTON. airt to a Thames air;£ or rather, I think, it is the MY VERY GOOD LORD, distance of the king and your lordship from me, I thank your lordship for your courteous letter; that doth congeal my humours and spirits. and, if I were asked the question, I would always * Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.


* Surveyor of the Court of Wards. + Gray's Inn.

+ Sir Thomas Erskine, who, for his service to the king, in $ Dorset House, originally belonging to the Bishops of the attempt of the Earl of Gowry, was, upon his majesty's Salisbury, afterwards the house of Sir Richard Sackville, accession to the throne of England, made captain of his guard and then of his son, Sir Thomas, Earl of Dorset, and lord in the room of Sir Walter Ralegh. He was afterwards

created Earl of Kelly.



choose rather to have a letter of no news; for ( to take tobacco, and to speak neither Scottish nor news imports alteration; but letters of kindness English. Many such diseases of the times his and respect bring that which, though it be no majesty was pleased to enumerate, not fit for my news amongst friends, is more welcome.

pen to remember, and graciously to recognise I am exceedingly glad to hear, that this journey how much he was beholden to the English nation of his majesty, which I never esteemed more than for their love and conformity to his desires. The a long progress, save that it had reason of state king did personally and infallibly sit amongst joined with pleasure, doth sort to be so joyful and them of the Parliament every day; so that there so comfortable.

fell not a word amongst them but his majesty was For your Parliament, God speed it well: and of council with it. for ours, you know the sea would be calm, if it The whole assembly, after the wonted manner, were not for the winds: and I hope the king, was abstracted into eight bishops, eight lords, whensoever that shall be, will find those winds eight gentlemen, knights of the shires, and eight reasonably well laid. Now that the sun is got lay burgesses for towns. And this epitome of up a little higher, God ordains all things to the the whole Parliament did meet every day in one happiness of his majesty and his monarchy. room to treat and debate of the great affairs of the

My health, I thank God, is good; and I hope kingdom. There was exception taken against this supposed gout was but an incomer. I ever some of the Lower House, which were returned

by the country, being pointed at as men averse in Your lordship’s affectionate

their appetites and humours to the business of the and assured friend,

Parliament, who were deposed of their attendance

FR. Bacon. by the king's power, and others, better affected, Whitehall, June 18, 1617.

by the king's election, placed in their room.

The greatest and weightiest articles, agitated

in this Parliament, were specially touching the TO THE LORD KEEPER, WRITTEN FROM SCOT- government of the kirk and kirkmen, and for the LAND, JUNE 28, 1618.*

abolishing of hereditary sheriffs to an annual I will begin to speak of the business of this charge; and to enable justices of the peace to day; opus hujus diei in die suo, which is of the have as well the real execution as the title of their Parliament. It began on the 7th of this month, places. For now the sheriff doth hold jura regaand ended this day, being the 28th of June. His lia in his circuit, without check or controlment; majesty, as I perceived by relation, rode thither and the justices of the peace do want the staff of in great state the first day. These eyes are wit- their authority. For the church and commonnesses that he rode in an honourable fashion, as I wealth, his majesty doth strive to shape the frame have seen him in England, this day. All the of this kingdom to the method and degrees of the lords rode in English robes; not an English lord government of England, as by reading of the on horseback, though all the Parliament House at several acts it may appear. The king's desire his majesty's elbow, but my Lord of Bucking- and travail herein, though he did suffer a momenham, who waited upon the king's stirrup in his tary opposition, (for his countrymen will speak collar, but not in his robes. His majesty, the first boldly to him,) hath in part been profitable. For, day, by way of preparation to the subject of the though he hath not fully and complementally Parliament, made a declaratory speech, wherein prevailed in all things, yet, he hath won ground he expressed himself what he would not do, but in most things, and hath gained acts of parliament what he would do. The relation is too prolix for to authorize particular commissioners, to set down a sheet of paper ; and I am promised a copy of it, orders for the church and churchmen, and to treat which I will bring myself unto your lordship with with sheriffs for their offices, by way of pecuniary all the speed I may. But I may not be so reserved composition. But all these proceedings are to as not to tell your lordship, that in that speech have an inseparable reference to his majesty. If his majesty was pleased to do England and any prove unreasonably and undutifully refractory, Englishmen much honour and grace; and that he his majesty hath declared himself, that he will prostudied nothing so much, sleeping and waking, ceed against him by the warrant of the law, and by as to reduce the barbarity (I have warrant to use the strength of his royal power. the king's own word) of this country unto the

His majesty's speech this day had a necessary sweet civility of ours; adding, farther, that if the connexion with his former discourse. He was Scottish nation would be as docible to learn the pleased to declare what was done and determined goodness of England, as they are teachable to in the progress of this Parliament; his reasons limp after their ill, he might with facility prevail for it; and that nothing was gotten by shoulderin his desire: for they had learned of the English ing or wrestling, but by debate, judgment, and to drink healths, to wear coaches and gay clothes, reason, without any interposition of his royal

power in any thing. He commanded the lords * From a copy in the paper-office.

in state of judicature to give life, by a careful Vol. III.-14


execution unto the law, which otherwise was but My Lord of Pembroke, my Lord of Arundel, anortuum cadaver et bona peritura.

my Lord Zouch, and Mr. Secretary Lake, were Thus much touching the legal part of my ad- new sworn of the council here. vertisement unto you. I will give your lordship an account in two lines of the complement of the country, time, and place.

The country affords more profit and better contentment than I could ever promise myself by my reading of it.

MY VERY GOOD LORD, The king was never more cheerful in body and I have sent enclosed a letter to his majesty conmind, never so well pleased : and so are the Eng- cerning the strangers ; in which business I had lish of all conditions.

formerly written to your lordship a joint letter The entertainment very honourable, very gene- with my Lord of Canterbury, and my lord ral, and very full: every day feasts and invita- privy seal,* and Mr. Secretary Winwood. tions. I know not who paid for it. They strive, I am, I thank God, much relieved with my by direction, to give us all fair contentment, that being in the country air, and the order I keep; so we may know that the country is not so contempt- that, of late" years, I have not found my health ible, but that it is worth the cherishing.

better. The lord provost of this town, who in Eng- Your lordship writeth seldomer than you were lish is the mayor, did feast the king and all the wont; but when you are once gotten into Englords this week; and another day all the gentle- land you will be more at leisure. God bless and men. And, I confess, it was performed with prosper you. state, with abundance, and with a general content. Your lordship's true and devoted There is a general and a bold expectation, that

friend and servant, Mr. John Murray shall be created a baron of this

FR. BACON. country, and some do chat, that my Lord of Gorhambury, July 29, 1617. Buckingham's Mr. Wray shall be a groom of the bed-chamber in his place.

There hath been yet no creation of lords since his majesty did touch Scotland; but of knights

TO THE LORD KEEPER. many, yet not so many as we heard in England; MY HONOURABLE LORD, but it is thought all the pensioners will be knights to-morrow. Neither are there any more English who, in this business of Sir John Bennet's,

I have acquainted his majesty with your letter, lords sworn of the privy council here, save my hath altogether followed your lordship’s direction. Lord of Buckingham.

His majesty hath at length been pleased to The Earl of Southampton, Montgomery, and

despatch Mr. Lowder, according to your lordHay, are already gone for England.

I have made good profit of my journey hither; ship's desire, for the place in Ireland. What the for I have gotten a transcript of the speech which cause of the stay was, I shall impart to your

lordship when I see you, being now too long to your lordship did deliver at your first and happy relate. sitting in Chancery, which I could not gain in

His majesty hath not yet had leisure to read the England. It hath been showed to the king, and

little book you sent me to present unto him; but, received due approbation. The God of heaven, all-wise and all-sufficient, guard and assist your it to him again.

as soon as I see the fittest opportunity, I will offer lordship in all your actions : for I can read here

His majesty, God be thanked, is very well; whatsoever your lordship doth act there; and your courses be such as you need not to fear to that you are of so good terni proof, which is the

and I am exceeding glad to hear of your health, give copies of them. But the king's ears be best of it, being you are in those businesses put wide and long, and he seeth with many eyes, most to the trial, which I wish may long continue All this works for your honour and comfort. I

in that strength, that you may still do his majesty pray God nothing be soiled, heated, or cooled in

and your country that good service, whereof we the carriage. Envy sometimes attends virtues, and not for good; and these bore certain proprieties and circumstances inherent to your lordship’s

* Edward, Earl of Worcester. mind; which men may admire, I cannot express. Of Godstow, in Oxfordshire, who was sent to Brussels to But I will wade no farther time herein, lest I should the archduke, to expostulate with him concerning a libel on seem eloquent. I have been too saucy with your Casauboni Corona Regia.

the king, imputed to Erycius Puteanus, and entitled, Isaaci lordship, and held you too long with my idleness.

He had been solicitor to the queen, but finding her dislike He that takes time from your lordship robs the to him, he was willing to part with his place for that of one

of the barons of the exchequer in Ireland; for which he public. God give your body health, and your

was recommended by the lord keeper to the Earl of Bucking soul heaven.

ham, in a letter dated at Whitehall, May 25, 1617.

+ Harl. MSS. vol. 7006.

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