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Memorials of a private and personal kind, whics relate deaths, inarriages, and preferments, mu: always be iinperfect by omission, and often erroseous by misinformation; but even in these there shati not be wanting care to avoid mistakes, or to rectiv them whenever they shall be found.
That part of our work, by which it is diftiaguished from all others, is the literary journal, or account of the labours and productions of the learned. This was for a long time among the de. ficiences of English literature ; but as the caprice cí man is always starting from too little to too muco, we have now amongst other disturbers of hum.27 quiet, a numerous body of reviewers and remarkers. · Every art is improved by the emulation of co: petitors; those who make no advances towards cicellence, may stand as warnings against faults. We shall endeavour to avoid chat petulance which creats with contempt whatever has hitherto been repuic3 sacred. We shall repress that elation of malignity, which wantons in the cruelties of criticism, and not only murders reputation, but murders it by torture. Whenever we feel ourselves ignorant we shall ac Ica:. be modest. Our intention is not to pre-occus judgment by praise or centure, but to gratify curiosity by early intelligence, and to tell rather what our authors have attempted, than what they have performed. The titles of books are necesarily fho, and therefore disclose but imperfectly the contents; they are sometimes fraudulent and intended to ra.. falfe expectations. In our account this brevity will be extended, and there frauds whenever they are ce. eccted will be exposed; for though we write wit et
intention to injure, we shall not suffer ourselves to be made parties to deceit.
If any author Thall transmit a summary of his work, we shall willingly receive it; if any literary anecdote, or curious observation, shall be communicated to us, we will carefully insert it. Many facts are known and forgotten, many observations are made and suppressed ; and entertainment and instruction are frequently lost, for want of a repository in which they may be conveniently preserved.
No man can modestly promise what he cannot ascertain: we hope for the praise of knowledge and discernment, but we claim only that of diligence and candour.
WORLD DISPL AYED*.
y Avigation, like other arts, has been perfected
by degrees. It is not easy to conceive that any age or nation was without some vessel, in which rivers might be passed by travellers, or lakes frequented by fishermen; but we have no knowledge of any ship that could endure the violence of the ocean before the ark of Noah.
As the tradition of the deluge has been tranfmitted to almost all the nations of the earth; it must be supposed that the memory of the means by which Noch and his family were preserved, would be continued long among their descendants, and that the posibility of pasing the seas could never be doubted.
What men know to be practicable, a thousand motives will incite them to try; and there is reason to believe, that from the time that the generations of the post-diluvian race spread to the sea shores, there were always navigators that ventured upon the sea, though, perhaps, not willingly beyond the fight of land.
Of the ancient voyages little certain is known, and it is not necessary to lay before the Reader such
* A Cvileâion of Poynges and Travels,seleted from the writers of all nations, in four small pocket volumes, and publislied by Newbiry; to oblige whom, it is conjectured that Johnson drew up this curious and learned paper,
conjectures as learned men have offered to the world. The Romans by conquering Carthage, put a stop to great part of the trade of distant nations with one another, and because they thought only on war and conquest, as their empire increased, commerce was discouraged; till under the latter em. perors, ships seem to have been of little other use than to transport soldiers.
Navigation could not be carried to any great degree of certainty without the compass, which was unknown to the ancients. The wonderful quality by which a needle, or finall bar of steel, touched with a loadstone or magnet, and turning freely by equilibration on a point, always preserves the meridian, and directs its two ends north and south, was dircovered according to the common opinion in 1299, by John Gola of Amalfi, a town in Italy.
From this time it is reasonable to suppose that navigation made continual, though Now improvements, which the confusion and barbarity of the times, and the want of communication between orders of men so distant as failors and monks, hindered from being distinctly and successively recorded.
It seems, however, that the sailors still wanted either knowledge or courage, for they continued for two centuries to creep along the coast, and considered every headland as unpaffable, which ran far into the sea, and against which the waves broke with uncommon agitation.
The first who is known to have formed the design of new discoveries, or the first who had power to execute his purposes, was Don Henry the fifth, son of B 64
John, the first king of Portugal, and Philippina, fister of Henry the fourth of England. Don Henry having attended his father to the conquest of Ceuta, obtained, by conversation with the inhabitants of the continent, foine accounts of the interior kingdoms and southern coast of Africa; which, though rude and indistinct, were sufficient to raise his curiosity, and convince hiin, that there were countries yet unknown and worthy of discovery.
He therefore equipped fome small vessels, and coinmanded that they should pass as far as they could along that coast of Africa which looked upon the great átlantic ocean, the immensity of which struck the gross and unskilful navigators of these times with terror and amazement. He was not able to communicate his own ardour to his seamen, who proceeded very lowly in the new attempt; each was afraid to venture much farther than he that went before him, and ten years were spent before they had advanced beyond cape Bajador, lo called froin its progression into the ocean, and the circuit by which it must be doubled. The opposition of this promontory to the course of the sea, produced a violent current and high waves, into which they durst not venture, and which they had not yet knowledge enough to avoid by standing off from the land into the open sea.
The prince was desirous to know something of the countries that lay beyond this forinidable cape, and sent two commanders, named John Gonzales Zarco, and Tristan Vaz, in 1418, to pass beyond Bajador, and survey the coast behind it. They were caught by a tempest, which drove them out