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THAT praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by thofe, who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox; or those, who, being forced by difappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard, which is yet denied by envy, will be at last: bestowed by time.
Antiquity, like every other quality that attracts the notice of mankind, has undoubtedly votaries that reverence it, not from reason, but from prejudice. Some seem to admire indiscriminately whatever has been long preserved, without considering that time has sometimes co operated with chance; all perhaps are more willing to honour
past past than present excellence; and the mind contemplates genius through the shades of age, as the rye surveys the fun through artificial opacity. The great contention of criticism is to find the faults of the moderns, and the beauties of the ancients. 'While an author is yet living, we estimate his powers by his worst persormance; and when he is dead, we rate them by his best.
To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not railed upon principles demonstrative and scientifick, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared; and is they persist to value the possession, it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call s river deep, or a mountain high, without the knowledge of many mountains, and many rivers; so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the fame kind. Demonstration immediately displays its power, and has nothing to hope or sear from the flux of years; but works tentative and experimental must be estimated by their proportion to the general and collective ability of man, as it is discovered in a long succession of endeavours. Of the first building that was raised, it might be with certainty determined that it was round or square; but whether it was spacious or lofty must have been reserred to time. The Pythagorean scale of number*
was at once discovered to be persect; but the poems of" Homer we yet know not to transcend the common limits of human intelligence, but by remarking, that nation aster nation, and century aster cei.tury, has been able to do little more than transpofe his incidents, new-name his characters, and paraphrase his sentiments.
The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises therefore not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood.
The poet, of whofe works I have undertaken the revision, may now begin to assume the dignity of an ancient, and claim the privilege of established fame and prescriptive veneration. He has long outlived his century, the term commonly fixed as the test of literary merit. Whatever advantages he might once derive from personal allusions, local customs, or temporary opinions, have for many years been lost; and eyery topick of merriment, or motive of sorrow, 'which the modes of artificial lise afforded him, now only obscure the scenes which they once illuminated. The effects of favour and competition are at an end; the tradition of his friendships and his enmities has perished; his works support no opinion with arguments, nor supply any faction with invectives; they can neither indulge vanity, nor gratisy malignity; but are read without any other reason than the desire of pleasure, and are therefore praised only as
Vol. IX. R pleasure pleasure is obtained; yet, thus unassisted by intent or passion, they have past through variations of taste and changes of manners, and, as they devolved from one generation to another, have received new honours at every transmission.
But because human judgment, though it be gradually gaining upon certainty, never becomes in/alible; and approbation, though long continued, may yet be only the approbation of prejudice or fashion; it is proper to inquire, by what peculiarities of excellence Shakespeare has gained and kept the favour of his countrymen.
Nothing can please many, and please long, but just representations of general nature. Particular manners can be known to sew, and therefore few only can judge how nearly they are copied. The irregular combinations of fancisul invention may delight awhile, by that novelty of which the common fatiety of lise sends us all in quell; but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted, and the mind can only repofe on the stability of truth.
Shakespeare is, above all writers, at least above xl/ modern writers, the poet of nature $ the poet that holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of lise. His characters are not modified by the customs of particular places, unpractised by the rest of the world; by the peculiarities of studies or proseflions, which can operate but upon small numbers; or by the accidents of transient fashions or temporary opinions: they are the genuine progeny of common humanity, such as the world will always supply, and observation will always rind. His persons act and speak by the influence of thofe general paffions and
principles by which all minds are agitated, and the 'whole system of lise is continued in motion. In the writings of other poets a character is too often an individual; in thofe of Shakespeare it is commonly a species.
It is from this wide extension of design that so much instruction is derived. It is this which fills the plays of Shakespeare with practical axioms and domestick wisdom. It was faid of Euripides, that every verse was a precept; and it may be faid o£ Shakespeare, that from his works may be collected a system of civil and ceconomical prudence. Yet his real power is not shewn in the splendor of particular passages, but by the progress of his fable, and the tenor of bis dialogue; and he that tries to recommend him by select quotations, will succeed like the pedant in literacies, who, when he offered his house to sale, carried a brick in his pocket as a specimen.
It will not easily be imagined how much Shakespeare excels in accommodating his sentiments to real lise, but by comparing him with other authors. It was observed of the ancient schools of declamation, that the more diligently they were frequented, the more was the student disqualified for the world, because he found nothing there which he should ever meet in any other place. The fame remark may be applied to every stage but that of Shakespeare. The theatre, when it is under any other direction, is peopled by such characters as were never seen, conversing in a language which was never heard, upon topicks which will never arise in the commerce of mankind. But the dialogue of this author is often so evidently determined by the incident which
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