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to the account of redundance. Upon this point, learned men are divided. Grotius, finding the words omitted “ in Alexandr. et Linc. Vulg. item et Arab.” would exclude it: H. Stephens, Beza, Piscator, Prisacus, and Mills, would substitute gri: Whitby says: “ 6r, agnoscunt cod. plurimi: Arab. reddit profecto, quam interpretationem veram esse existimo; Hebraicum enim chi, quod primario significat nam, et exponitura LXX. per 6ri, alio sensu significat certe, et in versione Anglicana exponitur per voces quae idem valent, surely, certainly, ita Gen. Xliii. 10. si non intercessisset dilatio Chi, 70. jon 29 sane, jam vice altera venissemus, Er. iii. 10. Chi, 70. gri, certo ego ero tecum, 1 Reg. i. 13. Chi, 70. 6ri, Proculdubio Solomon regnabit post me, Josh. ii. 24. Chi, 70. 6 r, profecto tradidit Dominus omnem terram hanc in manus nostras, ita Psal. lxxvii. 12. czii. 6. Ev. iv. 25. Num. xxii. 23. Jud. vi. 16. Ruth. i. 10. Is. vii. 9.” Examen Var. Lect. D. Millii p. 80. Wolfius refers to this explanation of Whitby: he seems to doubt the explanation of Sam. Andreas, who thought-“ Sententiam continuam cohaerere, nihilque adeo esse redundans, hiulcum nihil:” he thus proceeds: “ Non crediderim ro"Ori èùy idem esse quod fray, neque illud probatum esse video: manifestum potius est rà "Ori prius referri debere ad sequentem phrasin, possav èo riv i 6sòg, hoc sensu, quod, si quando condemnat nos cor nostrum, major Deus est corde nostro : Apostolus sc. proxime ante animum sedare, et componere nos posse dixerat: jam ostendit qua de causa et in quo casu id fieri possit, et subjungit, Quia, si quando &c. eadem est ha cloquendi ratio, quae supra 3. 2. exstat, Oi2xusv è bri, èòv tavepooi, uomo abro èo uso2, ibi enim rò ora omnino distinguendum est a sequenti io, et conjungendum cum è dussia: cf. infra v. 14. his ita positis consequetur 3ri posterius abundare: hujus vero particulae pleonasmum non insuetum esse patet ex exemplis a Lamb. Bos p. 23. Exercitatt. et J. H. Majo de Pleonasmus Graecae Dictionis in N. T. p. 68. allatis: cf. nos ad Matth. ix. 18. Marc. i. 37. viii. 16. et alias: speciatim quidem is observatur post verba Aoysiv, sirsiv, et similia: sed et alias occurrere patet ex Act. xxvii. 10. sapd, or uéxxsiv jrsa dai riv rxotiv, cujusmodi loca alia idem Majus affert p. 70, neque vero existimandum est, non dari similem aliorum vocum pleonasmum; talis enim apud Latinos quoque occurrit in vocibus ut, cur, si, &c. : exempla habes apud Thom. Wopkens in Lect. Tullian. p. 30. qui ea ad nostrum locum itidem accommodat : ita Livius 28. Ut quoniam, &c.–ut. Florus ii. 6. Si, quod Paenum &c. si.: in his locis notandum quod ut et si repetitum ad eandem sententiam, sicut h. 1, pertineat.” Cura Philologica et Crit. p. 280. Tom. 5. 2d Ed. The opinion of those, who would interpret or by sane, offender, he shall die.” To the interpretation of certe in these three passages, I am disposed to accede: I should reject the same interpretation of Śri in any profane author; but I hold that great deference is due to the judgment of the 70, when they were interpreting with the original Hebrew before them.' I think too that in the same passages or gives an energy to the sense, which it would not have, if Śri were considered as nearly redundant. Upon this principle we may intelligibly and forcibly, but I do not say necessarily, interpret or in St. John c. i. v. 20. Koi doox3a'sv, x2, oùx #gvárzro: 22) duoxdynasy, "Or oùx sip. Hyo & Xota rāg. %. preceding terms he confessed, he denied not, prepare the mind for something less languid than the word that, and even for something not less emphatical than the word certainly. In the passage from St. John's Epistle, which is under consideration, the meaning of the word will be equally intelligible, whether we translate it by the word that, or by the word certainly: our English Translation slides by the difficulty: “ For, if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart.” I know that 3r, is sometimes equivalent to yog : St. Matt. c. vii. v. 14. 3ri arev) # zón: “Non displicet,” says Keuchenius, “qui rā Śri hic adversative usurpari, et pro y&g poni existimant:” but let us examine how the first passage will run, if we translate the first #r by because, and the second by certainly : “And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him: Because, if our heart condemn us, certainly God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things.” My chief objection to this explanation of the second 3ri is, that in the other passages, where 3ri is translated certainly, #3's) sy, sirey, diploxáynasy precedes 3ri at a greater, or lesser distance, but in this verse of St. John does not : at all events we have in this verse an unusual repetition of 3ri, and they, who, like myself, are struck with the objection, which I have made to the interpretation of the second or by certe, may be justified in supposing it to be merely redundant. I leave the intelligent and candid reader to his own judgment.

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P. P.

* I agree with Palairet in his opposition to Mayerus, and Sraube, who would indiscriminately assign originem Chaldaeo-Syram to or repeated; but it is a very different thing to say that the 70, and the writers of the New Testament, in interpreting Hebrew, or Chaldee, or Syriac words, should sometimes employ 3ri in a different sense to what the word bore, when repeated by profane writors. See Palairet's Obss. Philol. in N. T. p. 36.


When I first read the tragedy of Agamemnon, I was much surprised at meeting with a passage, which, though manifestly corrupted, appears to have escaped the notice not only of preceding editors and commentators, but even of the great critic himself. It is well known that in what is called Professor Porson's Edition of Æschylus, the faulty readings are generally marked with an obelus. The following line, however, is left un-noticed and un-altered, although the correction of it would not have been a task of difficulty to scholars of far more moderate pretensions. At verse 518 we read, "Axi; Tap3 ×xápavopov #x0s; &vápalog. The sense of this passage is perfectly good : but who does not see, after the light which Porson has afforded us, that an Iambic Trimeter, with an Anapest in the fifth place, never could have come from AEschylus 2 To restore it to its pristine purity, we have only to transpose ξ and #x}=e. The verse indeed would run more smoothly, if we were to read "Axi; tapå Skápavopov #3 &vágrios, but, as Porson has declared that transposition is the most safe and certain mode of emendation, I must adhere to my first correction. I cannot close my letter without observing, that in this Traged there are three examples of Mr. Sharpe's rule respecting the Gree article. See vv. 439. 688. 1588. We also meet with an excellent one in the Choēphorae, ver. 253, and with another in the Supplices, ver. 60. H. S. BOYD.

October, 1, 1813.


To THE EDIToR of THE CLAssical Journal.

It is generally admitted that Heliodorus composed his beautiful romance in the flower of his youth, that he was made a bishop in his old age, and promoted to the see of Trica in Thessaly; but whether he was born a Christian, or from Heathenism converted to Christianity, is a question doubtful and controverted. For my own part, I have little hesitation in pronouncing him to have been a Christian from his childhood; the reasons which have induced me to form an opinion so decided, it is now my intention to lay

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