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perhaps to counterbalance all other inconveniences. Without some division of this kind it would be next to impossible to frame a Concordance, and yet of all aids to the right understanding of the Scriptures, none is so important as a Concordance.
$ 2. Language, Mode of Preservation, Incorrupt Integrity, &c., of the
Old Testament Scriptures. The language in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few passages in Chaldee, is the Hebrew, so called, in all probability, from being principally spoken by the Hebrew nation, the descendants, through Abraham, of Heber, the grandson of Shem. (See Note on Gen. 10. 21 and 14. 13). This language belongs to a group or family of languages usually termed the Shemitic, of which the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic are cognate or kindred branches, in each of which ancient versions exist affording very important aids in the interpretation of the Hebrew text. This text has been transmitted to us in the form of manuscripts, written mostly on vellum or parchment, either rolled like a map, or in a book-form, with the contents written in two or three parallel columns. The Jews to this day use no other copies in their synagogues than the rolled manuscripts, which are transcribed with the utmost care and exactness, under regulations superstitiously strict, and often in a chirography of extreme beauty. Of these copies it cannot be affirmed of any one now in existence, that it is absolutely perfect. The lapse of time and the numerous transcriptions through which the sacred writings have passed, would naturally expose them in some degree to the inroads of error; and some instances of this kind have been pointed out. But on the whole the integrity of the Scriptures has been remarkably preserved. The most accurate inquiries have been instituted on this head, and the result of the laborious and critical examination of learned men has shown, that the alterations of the sacred text are extremely slight and trivial, and that in all essential points we have the divine revelation as it came from the hands of the several penmen.
$ 3. Ancient Versions.
The principal Ancient Versions, which illustrate the Scriptures, are the Chaldee Paraphrases, generally called Targums, the Septuagint or Alexandrian Greek Version, and the Vulgate or Latin Version. In a more detailed view of this subject than we now propose, it would be proper to enumerate also the translations of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, together with the Samaritan, Syriac, and Arabic Versions, but as these are comparatively of secondary importance we shall not at present dwell upon them, but refer the reader who is desirous of fuller information to the Introductions of Horne, Jahn, Carpenter, and others who have treated of them in all their particulars. We shall confine ourselves to the following, which, the reader will observe, are made more especially prominent, by frequent quotation, in the ensuing pages.
(a.) THE TARGUMS. --The Chaldee word 796 targum signifies in general any version or explanation ; but the appellation is more particularly restricted to the versions or paraphrases of the Old Testament, executed in the East-Aramæan or Chaldee dialect, as it is usually called. These Targums are termed paraphrases or expositions, because they are rather comments and explications than literal translations of the text. They are written in that dialect, because it became more familiar to the Jews after the time of their captivity in Babylon, than the Hebrew itself; so that when the law was 'read in the synagogue every eabbath-day,' in pure biblical Hebrew, an explanation was subjoined to it in Chaldee, in order to render it intelligible to a people who had in a measure lost their native tongue. This practice originated with Ezra, and it is highly probable that the paraphrases were at first merely oral, but that they were afterwards committed to writing for the benefit of those who wished to study and ponder 'the law of the Lord' at home. Indeed there are yet extant some manuscripts in which the text and the paraphrase are written alternately; first, a verse or two or three in Hebrew, and then a corresponding number of verses in Chaldee. But books of this description were not allowed in the public reading of the Law. -There are at present extant ten of these Chaldee paraphrases on different parts of the Old Testament, three of which, and those by far the most important, comprise the Pentateuch, viz. (1.) The Targum of Onkelos; (2.) That falsely ascribed to Jonathan, and usually cited as the Targum of the Pseudo-Jonathan ; (3.) The Jerusalem Targum. Of the rest it will be unnecessary here to speak.
Targum of Onkelos.—It is not known with certainty at what time Onkelos flourished, nor of what nation he was. The generally received opinion is, that he was a proselyte to Judaism, and a disciple of the celebrated Rabbi Hillel, who flourished about fifty years before the Christian era ; and consequently that Onkelos was cotemporary with the Saviour. But Bauer and Jahn place him in the second century. His Targum, embracing the five books of Moses, is justly preferred to all the others, both on account of the purity of its style and its general freedom from idle legends. It is rather a version than a paraphrase, and renders the Hebrew text word for word and with so much accuracy and exactness, that being set to the same musical notes with the original Hebrew, it could be read or cantillated in the same tone as the latter in the public assemblies of the Jews. The best-known Latin translation of this Targum, which we have generally quoted by the simple designation ‘Chal.,' is that of Paulus Fagius, and the fullest information concerning it is to be found in a tract by G. B. Winer, entitled, 'De Onkeloso ejusque Paraphrasi Chaldaica Dissertatio, 4to. Lips. 1820.
For the sake of affording the English reader a still clearer idea of the nature of these paraphrases, and how far they differ from the original, we subjoin a specimen of each, in a literal translation ranged in parallel columns with the corresponding passages from our received version.
TARG. OF ONKELOS.
Gen. 1. 2. And the earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
v. 11. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was 80,
And the earth was waste and empty; and darkness was upon the face of the abyss : and a wind from before the Lord breathed over the surface of the waters.
And the Lord said; Let the earth cause to spring up the tender herb, whose seed may be sown; the fruit-tree producing fruit after its kind, whose seed is in itself
upon the earth: and it was so
v. 14. And God said, Let there be lights And the Lord said: Let there be lights in in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the the expanse of heaven to distinguish beday from the night; and let them be for tween the day and the night, and let them signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for be for signs, and for seasons, and for to years.
measure by them days and years. v. 20. And God said, Let the waters bring And the Lord said: Let the waters proforth abundantly the moving creature that duce the creeping thing endowed with the hath life, and fowl that may fly above the principle of life, and fowl that may fly over earth in the open firmament of heaven. the earth upon the face of the expanse of
heaven. Ch. 2. 7. And the Lord God formed man And the Lord God created the man of the of the dust of the ground, and breathed in- dust of the earth, and breatheul into his nos to his nostrils the breath of life ; and man trils the breath of life, and it became in the became a living soul.
man a speaking spirit. v. 8. And the Lord God planted a garden And the Lord God had planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the in Eden from the beginning, and be placed man whom he had formed.
there the man whom he had created. v. 9. And out of the ground made the Lord And the Lord God caused to spring up God to grow every tree that is pleasant to from the earth every tree that was desirathe sight, and good for food; the tree of life ble to be seen, or good for food, and the tree also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the of knowledge of good and evil.
tree of whose fruit they who cat are wise in
discerning between good and evil. v. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of But of the tree of whose fruit they w!:0 good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in eat are wise in discerning between good ar 1 the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt sure. evil, thou shalt not eat of it, for in the dav ly die.
that thou shalt eat of it, thou shalt die the
death. v. 18. And the Lord God said, It is not And the Lord God said: It is not fit that good that the man should be alone: I will man should be by himself, I will make for make him an help meet for him.
him a support, to be, as it were, his coun
terpart. v. 20. And Adam gave names to all cattle And Adam gave names to all cattle and and to the fowl of the air, and to every fowl of the air, and to every beast of the beast of the field: but for Adam there was field: but for man he did not find a support not found an help meet for hiin.
who was, as it were, his counterpart. v. 24. Therefore shall a man leave his fa- For this cause a man shall leave the bedther and his mother, and shall cleave unto chamber of his father and of his mother, his wife : and they shall be one flesh. and shall adhere to his wife, and they shall
be as one flesh. Ch. 3. 10. And he said, I heard thy voice And he said : I heard in the garden the in the garden : and I was afraid, because I voice of thy word, and I was afraid, because was naked; and I hid myself.
I am naked, and I hid myself. v. 15. And I will put enmity between thee And I will put enmity between thee and and the woman, and between thy seed and the woman, and between thy son and her her seed: it shall bruise thy head, and thou son. He shall remember against thee what shalt bruise his heel.
thou hast done to him from the beginning, and thou shalt be observant of him unto the end.
Targum of the Pseudo-Jonathan.-So called from being ascribed by many to Jonathan Ben Uzziel, who wrote the much esteemed paraphrase on the Prophets. But the difference in the style and diction of this Targum, which is very impure, as well as in the method of paraphrasing adopted in it, clearly proves that it could not have been written by Jonathan Ben Uzziel, who indeed sometimes indulges in allegories, and has introduced a few barbarisms; but this Targum on the Law abounds with the most idle Jewish fables that can well be conceived; which, together with the barbarous and foreign words it contains, renders it of very little utility. Learned men are unanimous in the opinion that
it could not have been written before the seventh, or even the eighth century. Its general character may be learned from a very few specimens.
TARG. OF PS.-JON.
Gen. 1. 2. And the earth was without
But the earth was confusion and empti. form, and void ; and darkness was upon the
ness, destitute of the sons of men, and bare
of all cattle ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep : and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
face of the abyss; and the spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed over the surface of the waters.
And the Lord called the light day, and v.5. And God called the light Day, and
made it that the inhabiters of the world the darkness he called Night : and the
might work therein; and the darkness he evening and the morning were the first called night, and made it that his creatures
should rest therein. And there was evenday.
ing, and there was inorning, one day.
And the Lord formed the firmament,
which sustaineth him, with three fingers v.7. And God made the firmament, and
breadth between the uttermost part of the divided the waters which were under the
heaven, and the waters of the ocean : and firmament from the waters which were
he made a separation between the waters above the firmament: and it was so.
which are under the firmament, and the waters which are above in the tabernacle of the firmament: and it was 80.
And the Lord made the two great lights: and they were equal in their glory twenty
and one years, subtracting from these six v. 16. And God made two great lights; the
hundred and seventy parts of an hour. But greater light to rule the day, and the lesser after this, the moon brought a calumnious light to rule the night: he made the stars
accusation against the sun, and she was also.
made less : and he appointed the sun, which was the greater light, to rule in the day, and the moon, which was the lesser light, to rule in the night: with the stars also.
And the Lord said to the angels who min.
istered before him, who were created on v. 26. And God said, Let us make man in the second day of the creation of the world : our image, after our likeness : and let them Let us make man in our image, in our have dominion over the fish of the sea, and likeness, and let them bear rule over the over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, fishes of the sea, and over the fowl in the and over all the earth, and over every creep- air of heaven, and over the cattle, and over ing thing that creepeth upon the earth. all the earth, and over every creeping thing
which creepeth upon the earth.
And the Lord created man in his own like.
ness : in the image of the Lord created he v. 27. So God created man in his own im
him, with two hundred and forty-eight mem.
bers, and three hundred and sixty-five sin. age, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
ews, and clothed him with a skin, and filled hirn with flesh and blood: male and female in their body created he them.
And the Lord God said: It is not fit that Ch.2. 18. And the Lord God said, It is not
man should sleep by himself: I will make good that the man should be alone: I will
for him a woman, who shall be a support to inake him an help meet for him.
him, as his counterpart. v. 25. And they were both naked, the And they were both of them wise, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. man and his wife: but they did not tarry in
their glory. The Jerusalem Targum.—This also paraphrases the five books of Moses, and derives its name from the dialect in which it is composed. It is by no means a connected paraphrase, sometimes omitting whole verses or even chapters; at other times explaining only a single word of a verse, of which it sometimes gives a twofold interpretation; and at others, Hebrew words are inserted without any
explanation whatever. In many respects it corresponds with the paraphrase of the Pseudo-Jonathan, whose legendary tales and rabbinical fictions are copiously interspersed throughout, though sometimes abridged and sometimes expanded. It cannot be referred to a date earlier than the seventh or eighth century, nor is any thing known of the author. The following may serve as specimens.
Gen. 1. 1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
v. 5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night: and the evening and the inorning were the first day.
Ch. 2. 15. And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden, to drese it, and to keep it.
v. 18. And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone: I will make him an help meet for him.
In wisdom the Lord created the heaven and the earth.
And evening was, and morning was, in the order of the work of creation, the first day.
And the Lord God took the man, and established him in the garden of Eden, and placed him there that he should be a cultivator of the law, and should keep it.
I will make for him a consort proceeding forth as it were from him.
Ch. 3. 9. Apd the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou ?
And the word of the Lord God called un.
And it shall be when the sons of the wo-
v. 15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed: it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
The above mentioned Targums, but more especially those of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel, were held by the Jews in nearly as much veneration as their Hebrew Scriptures; and to give them the greater authority, they traced back their origin to the time of Moses and the ancient prophets; asserting that Onkelos and Jonathan only restored, by committing to writing, what they had received by divine tradition. But this supposition exceeds the usual extravagance of Rabbinical fictions; for it admits that Moses and the prophets dictated a Chaldee paraphrase to the Jews at a time when they could not possibly have had any knowledge of that language. But while we repudiate these extravagant claims, in regard to the antiquity and authority of the Chaldee paraphrases, and treat as they deserve the idle Rabbinical conceits, with which they are interspersed, we may admit, at the same time, that they are of considerable value in the interpretation of the sacred text. They are undoubtedly the most ancient books, next to the Hebrew Scriptures, possessed by the Jewish nation, and being ex