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11 Aud the angel of the LORD 12 And he will be a wild man; said unto her, Behold, thou art his hand will be against every with child, and shalt bear a son, man, and every man's hand • and shall call his came Ishmael; against him; u and he shall dwell because the Lord hath heard thy in the presence of all his brethaffliction.


Sch. 17. 19. Matt. 1. 21. Luke 1. 13, 31.

t ch. 01. 20. u ch. 25. 18.

10. I will multiply thy seed exceed and promised to him, was intended to ingly, &c. Heb. nan nang multi-be affirmed of his descendants and fulplying I will multiply. The angel-filled in them. speaker here adopts a style suited only

11. Shalt bear. Heb. 8737 yoladtht; to the Deity, and for Hagar's encour

a very peculiar word, being composed agement gives her grounds to expect a

of two tenses implying time present portion of Abraham's blessing, of which and future, and equivalent 10, thou she must often have heard, viz. a nu- shalt very shortly bear.' So Judg. 13. merous offspring. This was the promp-8, where the Heb phrase for child that ting of divine benignity, for it is clear shall be born' presents the same signithat the language of absolute authori- ficant anomaly in point of grammar. ty might have been used without any

- Shall call his name Ishmael. intermingling of gracious promises ; Heb. 3&ynu yishmael, God will hcar, but God delights rather to win than to or, as immediately interpreted, God compel the hearts of his people into the hath heard, i. e. hath heard, pitied, and ways of obedience. A parallel promise relieved, thine affliction ; which is well occurs ch. 17. 20, ' And as for Ishmael, rendered by the Gr. 'Hath given heed I have heard thee: Behold, I have to thy tribulation.'

Chal. “Hath reblessed him and will make him fruitful, ceived thy prayer. Targ. Jon."'l hine and will multiply him exceedingly: affliction is revealed before the Lord' twelve princes shall he beget, and I This is the first instance of a name will make him a great nation;' on given hy divine direction before birth, which we may here take occasion to though many such instances occur hereremark, that the usual idiom of the after, as we shall have occasion to Scriptures requires us to understand in observe. It is remarkable that God is both passages what is said of Ishmael not said to have heard her prayer, for personally to be true also of his de. it does not appear that she liad yet callscendants. Indeed it is rather his pos- ed upon his name. She merely sat terity than himself that is primarily in bewailing herself, as not knowing what tended. When it is said, “I will mul. to do. Yet lo, the ear of mercy is open tiply him exceedingly,' the word 'him to what we may term the silent voice is obviously meant his posterity, for no of affliction itself. "The groans of the one can imagine that he himself was prisoner are heard of God, not only meant to be literally multiplied in vir- theirs who cry unto him, but, in many tue of this promise. So likewise in the cases, theirs who do not.

See a paralsubsequent clause 'I will make him a lel case, Gen. 21. 17, with the accomgreat nation,' it is evident that one man panying note. cannot be a nation; and therefore Ish- 12. He will be a wild man. Heb. mael throughout this whole prediction 07* 470 a wild-ass man. must be viewed as the representative of exos av@purus a wild man. Chal. Wild his posterity. What is declared of him ass among men,' i, e, rude, fierce, un

Gr. aypo

cultivated, and impatient of the re- told him the creature was perfectly unstraints of civilized life. As remarked tameable.' The passage of Job to in v. 10, the predicted character and which the author refers is ch. 39. 5-8, fortunes of Ishmael are here identified Who hath sent out the wild ass free? with those of his posterity. The 'wild or who hath loosed the bands of the man' here mentioned was to be mul- wild ass? Whose house I have made tiplied into a great nation, and if so it the wilderness, and the barren land his must necessarily be into a great nation dwellings. He scornetb the multitude of 'wild men;' and we have only to of the city, neither regardeth he the turn to the page of history to see how crying of the driver. The range of the apposite this character has been in all mountains is his pasture, and he searchages to the Arab race, the descendants eth after every green thing. By the of Ishmael. In allusion to the term use of so unusual a phrase in reference here employed it is said of unregenerate to the future seed of Hagar, it was obmen, Job, 11. 12, 'For vain man would viously intended to indicate an analbe wise, though man be born like the ogy between the wildness of Ishmael wild ass's colt.' On the contrary of and his descendants, and that of the renewed and sanctified men, it is said, wild ass (onager); and it is equally Ezek. 36. 38, 'The waste cities shall curious and surprising to observe how be filled with flocks of men.' Heb. minutely the description in Job applies 'with sheep-men,' i. e. men whose na- to the free, wandering, lawless, pastortures are tamed and softened, made al, marauding Bedouins, the descent of gentle and lamb-like. Again, Hos. 13. whose tribes from Ishmael is admitted 15, 'He (Ephraim) hath run wild (Heb. by the learned, and gloried in by themhath assified himself) amidst the bray- selves. The manners and customs of ing monsters. Sir Rob. Ker Porter these Arab tribes, except in the article of

(Trav. vol. I. p. 459) thus describes one religion, have suffered almost no change of this species of animals which he met during the long period of three thousand in the mountains of Persia :—'He ap- years. They have occupied the same peared to me to be about ten or twelve country, and followed the same mode of hands high; the skin smooth like a life, from the days of their great ancestor, deer's, and of a reddish colour; the bel- down to the present times, and range ly and hinder parts partaking of a sil- the wide extent of burning sands which very gray; his neck was finer than that separate them from all surrounding of a common ass, being longer, and nations, as rude, and savage, and bending like a stag's, and his legs beau- untractable as the wild ass himself. tifully slender ; the head and ears seem- Claiming the barren plains of Arabia, ed long in proportion in the graceful as the patrimonial domain assigned by ness of their forms, and by them I first God to the founder of their nation, they recognised that the object of my chase considered themselves entitled to seize, was of the ass tribe. The mane was and appropriate to their own use, whatshort and black, as also was a tuft which ever they can find there. Impatient of terminated his tail. The prodigious restraint and jealous of their liberty, swiftness and peculiar manner with they form no connection with the neighwhich he fled across the plain, remind-bouring states; they admit of little or ed me of the striking portrait of the an- no friendly intercourse, but live in a imal drawn by the author of the book state of continual hostility with the of Job. I was informed by the meh- rest of the world. The tent is their mandar that he had observed them of dwelling, and the circular camp their ten in the possession of the Arabs, who city; the spontaneous produce of tho soil, to which they sometimes add a have often invaded their country with little patch of corn, furnishes them with powerful armies, determined to extirmeans of subsistence, amply sufficient pale, or at least to subdue them to their for their moderate desires ; and the lib- yoke; but they always relurn baffled erly of ranging at pleasure their inter- and aisappointed. The savage freeminable wilds, fully compensates in booters, disdaining every idea of subtheir opinion for the want of all other mission, with invincible patience and accommodations. Mounted on their resolution, maintained their independfavourite horses, they scour the waste ence; and they have transmitted it unin search of plunder, with a velocity impaired to the present times. In spite surpassed only by the wild ass. They of all their enemies can do to restrain levy contributions on every person that them, they continue to dwell in the happens to fall in their way ; and fre- presence of all their brethren, and to quently rob their own countrymen, assert their right to insult and plunder with as little ceremony as they do a every one they meet with on the borstranger or an enemy; their hand is ders, or within the limits of their dostill against every man, and every man's mains. Paxton. To the same purpose hand against them. But they do not the editor of the Pict. Bible on this pasalways confine their predatory excur- sage remarks :— Even in the ordinary sions to the desert. When booty is sense of the epithet 'wild,', there is no scarce at home, they make incursions people to whom it can be applied with into the territories of their neighbours, | more propriety than to the Arabs, and having robbed the solitary travel- whether used in reference to their charler, or plundered the caravan, immedi- acier, modes of life, or place of habitaately retire into the deserts far beyond Lion. We have seen something of the reach of their pursuers. Their Arabs and their life, and always felt character, drawn by the pen of inspi- the word wild to be precisely that by ration Job, 24. 5, exactly corresponds which we should choose to character. with this view of their dispositions and ize them. Their chosen dwelling-place conduct : 'Behold, as wild asses in the is the inhospitable desert, which offers desert, go they forth to their work be no attractions to any other eyes but times for a prey: the wilderness yield-theirs, but which is all the dearer to eth food for them and for their children.' them for that very desolation, inasmuch Savage and stubborn as the wild ass as it secures to them that independence which inhabits the same wilderness, and unfettered liberty of action which they go forth on the horse or the drom-constitutes the charm of their existedary with inconceivable swiftness in ence, and which render the minute quest of their prey. Initiated in the boundaries and demarcations of settled trade of a robber from their earliest districts, and the restraints and limitayears, they know no other employment; | lions of towns and cities, perfectly they choose it as the business of their hateful in their sight. The simplicity life, and prosecute it with unwearied of their tented habitations, their dress, activity. They start before the dawn, and their diet, which forms so perfect to invade the village or the caravan; a picture of primitive usages as describmake their attack with desperate coured by the Sacred Writers, we can also age, and surprising rapidity; and, plun- characterize by no more fitting epithet ging instantly into the desert, escape than 'wild ;' and that epithet claims a from the vengeance of their enemies. still more definite application when we Provoked by their continual insults, the come to examine their continual wannations of ancient and modern times derings with their flocks and herds,

ל פני כל אחיו ישכן .sist alone in open enunity with all the


their constant readiness for action, and could not recollect this to be the case their frequent predatory and aggressive with any one among the numerous excursions against strangers or against tribes with which he was acquainted. each other.' But this point resolves it- Such wars, however, are seldom of long self into the ensuing clause." His duration ; peace is easily made, but hand will be against every man, and broken again upon the slightest preevery man's hand against him. It is tence.' Pict. Bible. -9 He shall evident that one an could not sub- dwell in the presence of all his brethren.


shall world, nor could one man's hand be dwell before, or over against, the faces literally against every man's. There is, of his brethren. The original word for moreover, not the slightest hint in dwell (150 shakan) properly signifies Scripture, nor any reason to believe to dwell in tents, or to tabernacle, that Ishinael lived personally in a state whence a portion of the Arab tribes are of opposition to his brethren. Bear- denominated Scenites, tent-dwellers, ing in mind what we have already answering to the modern Bedouins, in said respecting the collective import of opposition to those who inhabit cities. the name Ishmael in this prediction, we The meaning undoubtedly is, that he can have no difficulty in understanding i. e. his descendants, shall pitch his this as a declaration, that his posterity tents near to and in sight of his brethshould exist in an attitude of perpetual ren, and shall maintain his independhostility with the rest of mankind. ence in spite of all attempts to conquer And there is certainly no people to or dispossess him.

There is some whom this applies with greater truth doubt as to the latitude in which the than to the Arabs; for there is none of term "brethren' is here to be underwhom aggression on all the world is so stood; some taking it in a more reremarkably characteristic. * Plunder stricted sense for the other descendants in fact forms their principal occupation, of Abraham, viz. the Israelites, Midianand takes the chief place in their ites, Edomites, &ch while others, as all thoughts; and their aggressions upon mankind are brethren in a larger sense, settled districts, upon tr uvellers, and consider it as equivalent to saying that even upon other tribes of their own peo- the race of Ishmael should still subsist, ple, are undertaken and prosecuted with notwithstanding the universal enmity a feeling that they have a right to what of all nations, as an independent people they seek, and therefore without the in the face of the whole world. From least sense of guilt or degradation. the general tenor of Scriptural usage, Indeed the character of a successful and we think the former the most probaenterprising robber invests a Bedouin ble interpretation. It is unquestionawith as high a distinction in his own ble, as an historical fact, that ihey have eyes and iu the eyes of his people, as the ever been mainly surrounded by the most daring and chivalrous acts could above nations, or their posterity, and win among the nations of Europe. The nothing is more notorious than that operation of this principle would alone they have never been effectually subsuffice to verify the prediction of the dued. Although continually annoying text. But besides this, causes of vari. the adjacent countries with their robance are continually arising between beries and incursions, yet all attempts the different tribes. Burckhardt as made to extirpate them have been absures us that there are few tribes which ortive ; and even to this day travellers are ever in a state of perfect peace with are forced to go armed, and in caravans all their neighbours, and adds, that he or large companies, and to march and

13 And she called the name of Have I also here looked after him the Lord that spake unto her, *that seeth me? Thou God seest me: for she said,

X ch. 31. 12

keep watch like a little army, to defend that the Heb. word *y roi rendered themselves from the assaults of these thou seest' is really an abstract noun roving freebooters of the desert. These of the form of any oni, affiction, * robberies they justify, according to Mr. ani, ship, &c. signifying here as elseSale (Prelim. Disserts to the Koran) by where vision or the subject of vision. alleging the hard usage of their father Thus, 1. Sam. 16. 12, ‘Now he was Ishmael; who being turned out of ruddy, and withal of a beautiful coundoors by Abraham had the open plains tenance, and goodly to look to (Heb. 270 and deserts given him by God for his 27 good or fair of visage or sight).' patrimony, with permission to take Job, 33. 21, His flesh is consumed whatever he could find there. On this away that it cannot be seen (Heb. von account they think they may, with a from sight, from visibility).' Comp. safe conscience, indemnify themselves, Job, 7. 3. The purport of her words is as well as they can, not only on the undoubtedly that of a grateful recogniposterity of Isaac, but on every one tion of the fact, that God had condeelse; and in relating their adventures of scended, in the person of the Angel to this kind, deem themselves warranted, make himself graciously visible in instead of saying, 'I robbed a man of the hour of her extremity. - Have such a thing,' to sy. 'I gained it.' In- I also looked after him that seeth me. deed from a view of the character and Or Heb. $97k 90*- huve I lookhistory of this remarkable people du- ed upon the back parts of my seer, bering a period of 4000 years, as compar- holder. Although the letters of the oried with this prediction, we may say ginal o are the same as in the pre with Dr. A. Clarke, that "it furnishes ceding clause, yet the vowel-pointing an absolute demonstrative argument of is different, so as to give the sense not the divine origin of the Pentateuch. To of seeing in the abstract, but of a seer attempt ils refutation, in the sight of in the concrete. Again, the other imreason and common sense, would con- portant word in the clause one renvict f most ridiculous presumption dered after is the same as that applied and excessive folly.'

to the view of the divine glory which 13. She called the name of the Lord Moses enjoyed in the cleft of the rock, that spake unto her, Thou God seest Ex. 33. 23. After the full brightness of me. Heb. 38 70* thou (art) the the Shekinah had passed by, the prophGod of vision, or rather of visibility ; et saw the mitigated or shaded glories i. e. the God that sufferest thyself to be of the Godhead, the 'back-part,' as it

The Gi. indeed renders differ- were, of the sacred vision. It is not ently; Ev 6 Ocas ó Enidww uk thou art the unlikely that a similar import is to be God that secth me, i. e. who careth for affixed to the word here; yet there is me, who pondereth and pitieth my af- such a vast variety in the renderings of fictions; a sense which the original the ancient versions, that nothing posword for see often bears in the Scrip-itive can be affirmed respecting it. We tures, as Ex. 3. 7. Ps. 9. 14.-25. 18. have suggested that which seems to us This rendering, after the example of the most probable. If this be not satisfacLat. Vulgate, has been followed by our tory to the reader, he is left at liberty translation. But there is little doubt to exercise his choice among the fol


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