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19 Every beast, every creeping 20 And Noah builded an altar thing, and every fowl, and what- unto the Lord, and took of kevsoever creepeth upon the earth, ery clean beast, and of every after their kinds, went forth out of clean fowl, and offered burnt-ofthe ark.

ferings on the altar.

k Lev. ch. 11.

restraints should continue, and desired while he and his little household were mercies be delayed.' Henry.

now the sole survivors of an extinguish19. After their kinds. Heb. 'accorded race; to see the whole face of creaing to their families.' That is, they tion so entirely changed, and no trace rushed not out confusedly together, but of former scenes remaining; and then in exact order, the several pairs with to think of what he owed to the prethe increase which may have accrued serving goodness of God, that had kept to them in the ark. Families are here him safe in the midst of such an awful attributed to brute creatures, as before catastrophe ;-all this could not but man and wife, ch. 7. 2.

inspire him with the most melting and 20. Builded an altar. The Heb. overwhelming emotions of thankfutterm for 'altar,' properly signifies a ness, which he would naturally make sacrificatory, or place for slaying sac- it his first business suitably to express, rifices. The Eng. word altar, comęs - Offered burnt-offerings. Heb. from the Lat. altus, high, elevated, be a3y ascensions or rise-offerings, so cause they were originally made of called because they went up to the high-raised mounds of earth, Ex. 20. Lord in fire; every part except the skin 24, or built on the tops of hills and was consumed; whence they were mountains. The high places' so fre- called in Gr. vloxavpara whole burnta quently mentioned in the subsequent offerings, which the Apostle teaches, Scriptures, signify either such altars Heb. 10. 6, 10, were a prefiguration of themselves, a kind of tumuli, or the the sacrifice of the body of Christ. As eminences on which they were built. to the exact nature of the sacrifice now As altars and sacrifices were undoubt-offered, it probably partook of the twoedly common before the flood as a part fold character of eucharistic and expia-, of the system of religious worship, tory; the occasion giving it the one, Noah had no occasion to wait for a and the material the other; for under particular command relative to this the law thank-offerings were not usumode of expressing his gratitude for the ally of the bloody kind. But in this signal mercies he had experienced ; | instance, the offering was probably deand it was no doubt of so much more signed as an atonement in behalf of the value in the sight of God, as he went remnant that was left, and also as a about it, not of constraint, but wil significant testimonial of Noah's belingly.' God is peculiarly pleased with lieving respect to the Great Sacrifice free-will offerings, and with praises afterwards to be made, and on the spontaneously prompted. And surely ground of which he would now acif ever an occasion existed for the exer- knowledge Jehovah's intention to deal cise of grateful and adoring sentiments with his creatures in all future periods of the present was one. To look back the renovated earth. The act also is to upon the world, and reflect that in so be viewed in close connection with the short a space of time all his cotempo- covenant engagement mentioned below. raries were blotted from existence, 21. Smelled a sroeet savour. Heb.. 21 And the LORD smelled la man's sake; for the n imagination sweet savour; and the LORD said of man's heart is evil from his in his heart, I will not again youth: 'neither will I again smite m curse the ground any more for any more every thing living, as I

have done.

1 Lev. 1. 9. Ezek. 20. 41. 2 Cor. 2. 15. Eph. 5. 2. m ch. 3. 17. & 6. 17.

nch. 6. 5. Job 14. 4. & 15. 14. Ps. 51. 5. Jer. 17. 9. Matt. 15. 19. Rom. 1. 21. & 3. och. 9. 11, 15.

777 7777 savour of rest ; having i. e. to himself; he inwardly determinthus a verbal reference to Noah's name, ed. Another meaning, but one less ch. 5. 29. Chal..the Lord accepted probable, may be that 'the Lord spake with favour his oblation. Gr. 'the 10 his (Noah's) heart;' i. e. the Lord Lord God smelt a savour of sweetness, comforted him, as the phrase somefacun comóla ).' The meaning is, that times implies, Jud. 19. 3. Ruth 2. 13. Noah's sacrifice was as grateful and I s. 40. 2. Ilos. 2. 14. Thus too the acceptable to the Lord as sweet odours Arab. “God said to his prophet.' But are to a man. Thus | Sam. 26. 19, on the contrary the Syr. 'the Lord 'If the Lord have stirred thee up against said in his heart.' Chal.' the Lord said me let him accept (Heb. 17*- smell) an

in (or by) his word.' Gr. 'and the offering.' Lev. 26. 31, 'I will not smell Lord God considering said,' which last the savour of your sweet odours ;' i. e. undoubtedly gives the true sense. The I will reject your sacrifices. In order expression is perhaps equivalent to an however that sacrifices should be thus oath; the very one, it may be, to which acceptable to Jehovah it was requisite God alludes by the prophet, Is. 54. 9, both that they should conform to his 'For as I have sworn that the waters appointment, and that the offerer of Noah should no more govern the should be himself a believer, and earth,' &c. We know of no other should present tbem in faith of the time but this when this swearing can great atonement of the Messiah ; as be supposed to have occurred. - Will otherwise instead of coming up as fra- | not again curse the ground. Heb. grant odours before the Lord, they will not add to curse ;' i. e. as I have should be to him as a nauseous smell done now, by a general deluge. The which he abhorred; 'I hate, I despise words are to be considered not as cancelyour feast-days, and I will not smelling the general curse inflicted upon the in your solemn assemblies. Though earth for man's sin, Gen. 3. 17, nor as ye offer me burnt-offerings and your precluding a future destruction by fire, meat-offerings, I will not accept them; but simply as declaring that the judgneither will I regard the peace-offerings ment of a universal deluge shall not be of your fat beasts. Am. 5. 21, 22. That repeated, thongh there might still be the sacrifice of Noah on this occasion partial inundations in particular regions prefigured that of Christ is evident from that would be marked by very desolathe words of Paul Eph. 5. 2, “Who ting effects. -- 1 For the imagination hath loved us diven himself for us, of man's heart, &c. Rather, Heb. an offering and a sacrifice to God for a ki, though the imagination (or fabrisweet smelling savour (vonen erwợrus);' cation, 2o),' &c. Thus Josh. 17. 13, where the phrase used by the apostle

"Thou shalt drive out the Canaanites is the very phrase used by the Septua-though ( ) they have iron chariots.' gint in this place. - The Lord said As if he should Notwithstanding in his heart. Heb. 723 38 to his heart;l I see man's heart is still the same as

say,

22 p While the earth remain

CHAPTER IX. eth; seed-time and harvest

, and AND God blessed Noahand winter, and day and night, shall Be fruitful, and multiply, and

replenish the earth.

not cease.

p Is. 54. 8. q Jer. 33. 20, 25.

a ch. 1. 28. ver, 7, 19. ch. 10, 37.

before the flood, yet will I no more de- the new charter of privileges was constroy the earth on that account; but, ferred upon him. The true clew to the looking to the atoning sacrifice of the scope of the first paragraph is containpromised Messiah, I will spare them ed in the first and seventh verses by and bless them for his sake.'

which it is limited, and which it will be 22. While the earth remaineth, seed- perceived are of equivalent import, both time and harvest, &c. Six divisions of containing the command, or the promthe natural year are here mentioned ; ise rather, of an abundant increase. But and it seems that the Jews adopted the to the accomplishmentof such a promise same divisions of the seasons, in refer the history of the past and the view of ence to the labours of agriculture, which the present would suggest very formidaformed the principal employment of the ble obstacles to the mind of Noah. The mass of the population. The same di- sole survivors of the former world were visions are still in use among the Arabs. now but a feeble handful, and a natural The promise is clearly general in its ground of apprehension was, that in import, and therefore partial failures their weakness they would not be able are not inconsistent with it.

to cope with the beasts of the field,

who might soon be more than able to CHAPTER IX.

dispute the mastery with the adult inThe deliverance of the earth from fants issuing from the second cradle of the dominion of the overflowing waters the human race. To obviate the apprewas a sort of second creation. Noah hensions arising from this source, God and his sons accordingly were intro- is pleased, in the first instance, to asduced into the possession and lordship sure them that he would henceforth so of this new empire with very nearly the impress the spirits of the brute creation same form of benediction as that which with a fear and dread of man that, as a was bestowed upon Adam at the begin- general fact, they might promise themning. The prerogatives of Noah were selves abundant security on this score, indeed enlarged beyond those of Adam and not only so, but by giving them by the grant of animal food, but like permission to kill the animals for food, the first father of the race he receives an they should have a still farther guarassurance of blessing and a command anty of safety, as they would in this to be fruitful, to multiply, and to re- way be imposing a continual check upplenish the earth. In connection with on their too rapid increase. But, the this he is formally invested with a re- depredations and ferocity of wild beasts newed dominion over the creatures, and were not all that Noah and his family comforted with the assurance that the would feel that they had reason to earth should not again be destroyed by fear. The wrathful passions of men a like catastrophe. But in order to gain as well as the destructive instincts of a still fuller view of the scope of the animals were to be dreaded Societies opening part of this chapter, we must in a state of lawless misrule marked revert to the circnmstances, in which I by deeds of violence and blood had no

+ 2 6 And the fear of you, and into your hand are they delivthe dread of you, shall be upon ered. every beast of the earth, and upon 3 • Every moving thing that every fowl of the air, upon all liveth shall be meat for you; even that moveth upon the earth, and as the d green herb have I given upon all the fishes of the sea ; you all things.

b ch. 1. 28. Hos. 2. 18.

c Deut. 12. 15. & 14. 3, 9, 11. d ch. 1. 29. e Rom. 14. 14, 20. Col. 2. 16. 1 Tim 4.3, 4.

Acts 10. 12, 13. 1 Cor. 10. 23, 26.

doubt been common before the flood, race would probably long ere this have and how natural was it for Noah to been destroyed by the beasts of tho give way to the fear that like scenes of field. It is ordinarily but little considcruelty, rapine, and murder would in- ered what mercy God has shown to terfere with the promise now given of man in hiding from even the domestic the plentiful increase of his seed? But animals the consciousness of their suhere too the Lord meets his misgivings perior strength.— It is not to be inferred with a quieting assurance. He utters from the language of this passage that an edict against the shedder of man's the same degree of the fear of man was blood which would at once erect a bar- impressed upon all the different species rier against the inroad of evils other- of animals; but that even the fiercest and wise to be anticipated from this source, most powerful possess more or less of and so having fully obviated these it is certain. It is the instinct even of the two grand tacit objections to the ful- lion, the tiger, and the wild elephant in filment of the gracious promise, he ordinary circumstances and when not again repeats in v. 7, the benediction provoked, rather to flue from man than which he had first announced in v. 1, to attack him ; thus acknowledging the

Be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring majesty of his presence and the factof his forth abundanıly in the earth and mul- original lordship. This passage seems tiply therein ;' all the intermediate mat- to be alluded to in James 3.7, 'Forevery ter between these two verses being ap- kind (Gr. prois nature) of beasts, and parently introduced for the sole purpose of birds, and of serpenis, and of things of removing the objections above stated. in the sea, is tamed, and hath been

2. The fear of you, &c. In these tamed of mankind (Gr. pvoel av&pwrivn words is pointed out a striking differ- by the human nature) ;' i. e. the nature ence in the nature of the dominion of the one is constitutionally subject to which was exercised over the brute the nature of the other. creation by Adam in innocence and by 3. Every moving thing that liveth. Noah after the flood. Previous to the Heb. On7 creeping thing. From the fall, man ruled the inferior animals by peculiar emphasis of the original the love and kindness, as then gentleness words would seem to imply, that the and docility were their principal char- animals allowed for food were to be acteristics. After that event, untracta- killed for this purpose, and that such bleness, savage ferocity, and enmity as died of themselves, or were slain by to man, prevailed among almost all other beasts, were excluded froni the orders of the animal tribes; and had grant. This was afterwards expressly not God in his mercy impressed them prescribed in the law; Lev. 22. 8, “That with the fear and terror of man, so which dieth of itself, or is torn with that some submit to his will, while beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself others flee from his abodes, the human therewith,' Such general expressions

4' But flesh with the life there-, hand of every beast will I require of, which is the blood thereof, it, and hat the hand of man; at shall ye not eat.

the hand of every i man's brother 5 And surely your blood of will I require the life of man. your lives will I require: & at the

h ch. 4. 9, 10. Ps. 9. 12. i Acts 17. 28.

(Lev. 17, 10, 11, 14. & 19. 26. Deut. 12.. 23. 1 Sam. 14. 34. Acts 15. 20, 29. & Ex. 21. 28.

.of the subject we cannot here enlarge אך בשר בנפשו דמו לא תאכלו .Heb

as that here used are often to be under- of vitality in the animal structure. He stood with some exceptions, and the may have designed simply to convey fact that certain species of reptiles were the idea that the blood was ostensibly afterwards forbidden to be eaten, Lev. the grand medium of life, that upon 11, is not to be constructed as militar- which its continuance more especially ing with the drift of this passage. depended; yet it is not a little remark

Even as the green herb have I given able that the discoveries of the celebrayou all things. Alluding to the primited John Hunter in the middle of the tive grant made Gen. 1. 29. The whole last century have gone far to establish scope makes it evident that the use of the point, that the blood is strictly a rianimal food is here spoken of not as an tal fluid, and is, in this respect, disinjunction, but as a permission. tinguished from every other part of the 4. But flesh with the life thereof, &c. animal economy. But upon this view

. . only flesh with the life (or soul) thereof, -As to the true scope of the passage, the blood thereof, ye shall not eat. It is the Hebrew doctors generally underto be noticed, however, that according stand it as a prohibition against cutting to the distinction of the Heb. accents off any limb of a living animal and which, though not infallible guides to eating it while the life, i. e. the lifethe sense, are always entitled to res- blood, is in it. Maimonides speaks of pect as giving the readings of the an- a fierce and barbarous people, who after cient Jews, this verse in connection cutting pieces of flesh from a living anwith the preceding requires to be ren- imal, devoured it raw with the blood dered and pointed as follows: 'As the sire ning from it, as a part of their green herb have I given you all, (all idolatrous worship; and that this horkinds of animals for food, yet not all rid practice is kept up to this day parts of the animal alike, but) only the among the Abyssinians is placed beflesh: the life thereof, (which is) the yond the reach of controversy by the blood thereof, ye shall not

eat.' AC- reports of Mr. Bruce and Mr. Salt, cording to this construction, which we confirmed by the statements of a still have little doubt is the true one, the later traveller, Mr. Madden, whose repreposition before w life serves lations on this subject may be seen in both to designate the accusative of the my 'Illustrations of the Scriptures,' object, as it does repeatedly after this p. 17. But this, though perhaps indivery verb 354 to eat (Ex. 12. 43–45. rectly involved in the spirit of the proLev. 22. 11), and also to point out the hibition, does not seem to be its primainternal nature and quality of the sub- ry drift. This was undoubtedly to forject to which it applies, and its virtual bid the use of blood in its simple unidentity with the blood. It cannot mixed state as an article of diet, and perhaps be positively affirmed that Mo- for this the grand reason is to be sought, ses here intended to assert the physio- not so much from its tendency to beget logical fact, that the blood is the seat a cruel, ferocious, and blood-thirsty dis

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