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Slow to resolve, but in performance quick; ing as the advanced growth of the particular So true, that he was awkward at a trick;

sorts proceed; and at the same time to supply For little souls on little shifts rely. Dryden.

an additional proportion of fresh earth about the The most beautiful parts must be the most finished, root-fibres of the plants, to promote their growth : the colours and words most chosen ; many things in and sometimes, for the application of fresh comboth, wirich are not deserving of this care, must be

post, either in part or wholly. shifted off, content with vulgar expressions.

Some sorts, of a strong free growth, require

Dryden's Dufresnoy. Men in distress will look to themselves, and leave shifting once every year or two: others, more their companions to shift as well as they can.

moderate growers, or of more settled growths,

L'Estrange. once in two or three years; and some large growNature instructs every creature to shift for them- ing kinds, that are advanced to a considerable selves in cases of danger.

size, having been occasionally shifted, in their A fashionable hypocrisy shall be called good increasing growth, from smaller into larger pots manners, so we make a shift somewhat to legitimate of different proportionable sizes, and some from the abuse.

Id. large pots into tubs of still larger dimensions, If the ideas of our minds constantly change and as large plants of the American aloe, orange, shift, in a continual succession, it would be impossi- and lemon-tree kinds, kc. In that advanced ble for a man to think long of any one thing.


state, they sometimes only need occasional shift

ing once in three or several years, especially Struggle and contrive as you will, and lay your taxes as you please, the traders will shift it off from when the pots or tubs are capacions, containing their own gain.


a large supply of earth, and are occasionally reHere you see your commission; this is

your duty,

freshed with some new compost at top, and a these are your discouragements : never seek for little way down, round the sides about the exshifts and evasions from worldly afflictions : this is treme roots : and in some small slow-growing your reward, if you perform it'; this your doom if plants, as in many of the succulent tribe, shiftyou decline it.

South. ing them once in two or three years may be sufiThose little animals provide themselves with cient; other sorts want shifting annually into wheat ; but they can make shift without it.

larger pots, according as they advance in a free Addison.

growth, as the hardy and tender kinds of herbaVegetables being fixed to the same place, and so

ceous and shrubby plants, &c. Some of the not able to shift and seek out after proper matter for their increment, it was necessary that it should be tender annual flower-plants, cultivated in pots, brought to them.


and forwarded in hot-beds, being planted first By various illusions of the devil they are prevailed in small pots, want shifting, in their increasing on to shift off the duties, and neglect the conditions, growth, into larger sizes, once or twice the same on which salvation is promised. Rogers's Sermons. season, as from April to the beginning of June,

For the poor shiftless irrationals, it is a prodigious when, being shifted finally into the requisite fullact of the great Creator's indulgence, that they are sized pots, they remain during their existence. all ready furnished with such clothing.

But though large grown plants, either of the Derham's Physico Theology. shrub or tree kind, as we'l as other plants of Since we desire no recompense nor thanks, we large growths, after being finally stationed in the ought to be dismissed, and have leave to shift. for fullest-sized large pots and tubs, succeed several ourselves.

Come, assist me, muse obedient,

years without shifting, they should in the interval Let us try some new expedient ;

have the top earth loosened, and down round the Shift the scene for half an hour,

sides to some little depth, removing the loosened Time and place are in thy power.

old soil, and filling up the pots, tubs, &c., with This perfect artifice and accuracy might have been fresh earth, settling it close by a moderate waomitted, and yet they have made shift to move up tering. and down in the water.

The season for occasional shifting plants is More's Antidote against Atheism. principally the spring and autumn, as from She begs you just would turn you while she shifts. March to May for the spring shifting; and from

Young. August to the end of September for the autumn; Our herbals are sufficiently stored with plants, and though, in plants that can be removed with the we have made a tolerable shift to reduce them to full balls of earth about the roots, it may be occlasses.


casionally performed almost at any time; howThen shifting his side (as a lawyer knows how), ever, for any general shifting, the spring and He pleaded again in behalf of the Eyes :

autumn are the most successful seasons, as the But what were his arguments few people know, plants then sooner strike fresh root; and many For the court did not think they were equally wise.


sorts preferably in the spring, by having the be

nefit of the same growing season, and that of SHIFTERS, on board a man of war, are certain summer. In performing the business, it is. men who are employed by the cooks to shift and mostly proper to remove the plants from the change the water in which the flesh or fish is smaller to the larger pots, with the balls of earth put, and laid for some time, in order to fit it for about the roots, either wholly, or some of the the kettle.

outward old earth, the dry or matted radical SHIFTING of Plants, in horticulture, the fibres only being carefully trimmed away, so as business of removing plants from smaller pots not to disturb the principal roots in the bodies to larger ones, &c., to give them fresh earth or of them, as by this means the plants receive but mould. It is necessary occasionally, in all plants little check in their growth by the removal. in pots, to assist them with larger ones, accord. Sometimes, when any particular plants, shrubs,


or trees, &c., in their pots, discover by their to which they are applied, in order to give a tops that they are in a declining state, as pro greater scope of extent to their purchase. This bably the defect may be either in the root, or the operation is otherwise called fleeting. Shifting old balls of earth, it may be proper to shake all the helm denotes the alteration of its position, the earth entirely away, in order io examine the by pushing it towards the opposite side of the roots, and to trim and dress them as the case ship. Shifting the voyal signifies changing its may require, replanting them in entire fresh com- position on the capstern, from the right to the post or mould.

left, and vice versa. In preparing for this work, where necessary SHIGGAION, in ancient Hebrew music, is to give larger pots, &c., it is proper to provide either the name of a musical instrument, or of a them of suitable sizes, in some regular gradation tune whose notes were very much diversified. larger than the old ones, according to the nature Psal. vii. title. and growth of the plants, the whole being placed SHIITES, a religious sect, or rather a reready, with a proper quantity of fresh compost ligious political party among the Mahometans, earth, in proportion to the number and size of which originated on the death of Mahomet, from the plants intended to be shifted : then let those the rejection of his son-in-law Ali, and which plants intended to be removed with balls de still divides all his followers in Turkey, Arabia, taken out of their old pots separately, with the and Persia. If Christians may presume to dewhole balls or clumps of earth about the roots as cide in a Mahometan controversy, we would say entire as possible; and when large, or tolerably the Shiites have justice on their side. Their opfull, with a knife trim off some of the outward ponents are called Sonnites. loosest earth, and the extreme fibres of the roots; The name Shiites properly signifies sectaries but when small, and adhering together com or adherents in general, but is peculiarly used pactly, the whole may be preserved entire; and to denote those of Ali Ebn Abi Taleb; who in either case, where there are very matted, dry, maintain him to be lawful caliph and imam, and or decayed fibres surrounding the balls, they that the supreme authority, both in spirituals and should be trimmed as it may seem necessary : temporals, of right belongs to his descendants. in those of a fresh lively growth, the loose strag- The principal sects of the Shiites are five, which gling parts only should be cut away. The requi- are subdivided into an almost incredible numsite pruning, trimming, or dressing in the heads ber; so that some understand Mahomet's proor tops, should also be given where it may seem phecy of the seventy odd sects, of the Shiites proper, according to the state of growth, and the only. Their general opinions are, 1. That the natural habit of the different plants; but many peculiar designation of the imam, and the testisorts require little or none of this sort of atten- monies of the koran and Mahomet concerning tion. Then having placed some pieces of tile him, are necessary points. 2. That the imams or oyster shell, &c., loosely over the holes at ought necessarily to keep themselves free from bottom, and laid in a little fresh earth, two, three, light sins as well as more grievous. 3. That or four inches deep, or more, according to the every one ought publicly to declare who it is size of the pot, the plant should be set in with that he adheres to, and from whom he separates its ball of earth, as above, filling up around it himself, by word, deed, and engagement, and with more fresh mould, raising it an inch or two that herein there should be no dissimulation. over the top of the ball; and giving directly a But in this last point some of the Zeidians, a moderate watering, to settle the earth close about sect so named from Zeid, the son of Ali, surthe ball and roots regularly in every part, in a named Zein al Abedin, and great grandson of proper manner : in such cases, where the ball in Ali, dissented from the rest of the Shiites. As particular plants appears very compactly hard to other articles, wherein they agreed not, some and binding, it may be proper to loosen it a lit- of them came pretty near to the notions of the tle, by thrusting a sharp pointed stick down into Motazalites, others to those of the Moshabthe earth into different parts, giving it a gentle behites, and others to those of the Sonnites. wrench, to open the earth moderately; or some- Among the latter of these, Mahommed al Baker, times it may also be proper to trim away some another son of Zein al Abedin's, seems to claim of the old earth on the top and sides, then plant- a place: for his opinion as to the will of God ing it as above, and filling up round and over was, that God willeth something in us, and somethe ball with fresh earth, and watering it after- thing from us, and that he willeth from us he wards. Also, in shifting hardy or tender, shrub- has revealed to us; for which reason he thought by, succulent, or herbaceous plants, when any it preposterous that we should employ our appear of a sickly, weak, or unhealthy growth, thoughts about those things which God willeth it may be adviseable to clear off a considerable in us, and neglect those which he willeth from part of the outward old earth from the balls us : and, as to God's decree, he held that the way about the roots, or, in some cases, to shake it lay in the middle, and that there was neither wholly away, that the defects in the growths, oc- compulsion nor free liberty. A tenet of the casioned either by faults in the roots or in the Khattabians, or disciples of one Abu'l Khattâb, earth, may be removed by pruning out any de- is too peculiar to be omitted. These maintained cayed or bad parts of the roots, and replanting paradise to be no other than the pleasures of this them wholly in fresh earth. After shifting a world, and hell-fire to be the pains thereof, and moderate watering will of course be required. that the world will never decay: which propo

SHIFTING A Tackle, in sea-language, the sition being first laid down, it is no wonder they act of removing the blocks of a tackle to went farther, and declared it lawful to indulge greater distance from each other, on the object themselves in drinking wine and whoring, and

to do other things forbidden by the law, and also of the first ages we shall subjoin a brief mento omit doing the things commanded by the law. tion of the great schism at this day subsisting Many of the Shiites have carried their venera- between the Sonnites and the Shiites, or partition for Ali and his descendants so far that they sans of Ali, and maintained on either side with transgressed all bounds of reason and decency; implacable hatred and furious zeal. Though the though some of them are less extravagant than difference arose at first on a political occasion, others. The Gholaites, who had their name it has, notwithstanding, been so well improved from their excessive zeal for their imams, were by additional circumstances, and the spirit of so highly transported therewith that they raised contradiction, that each party detest and anathethem above the degree of created beings, and matise the other as abominable heretics, and farattributed divine properties to them; trangres- ther from the truth than either the Christians or sing on either hand, by deifying of mortal men, the Jews. The chief points wberein they differ and by making God corporeal : for one while are, 1. That the Shiites reject Abu Becr, Omar, they liken one of their imams to God, and ano and Othman, the three first caliphs, as usurpers ther while they liken God to a creature. The and intruders; whereas the Sonnites acknow. sects of these are various, and have various ap- ledge and respect them as rightful imams. 2. pellations in different countries. Abd'allah Ebn The Shiites prefer Ali to Mahomet, or at least Saba (who had been a Jew, and had asserted esteem them both equal; but the Sonnites ad. the same thing of Joshua the son of Nun), was mit neither Ali, nor any of the prophels, to be the ringleader of one of them. This man gave equal to Mahomet. 3. The Sonnites charge the following salutation to Ali, viz. Thou art the Shiites with corrupting the koran, and negThou, i. e. thou art God: and hereupon the lecting its precepts; and the Shiites retort the Gholaites became divided into several species; same charge on the Sonnites. 4. The Sonnites some maintaining the same thing, or something receive the Sonna, or book of traditions of their like it, of Ali, and others of some of one of his prophet, as of canonical authority; whereas the descendants; affirming that he was not dead, but Shiites reject it as apocryphal and unworthy of would return again in the clouds, and fill the credit. And to these disputes, and some others earth with justice. But, how much soever they of less moment, is principally owing the antidisagreed in other things, they unanimously held pathy which has long reigned between the Turks, a metempsychosis, and what they call al Holul, who are Sonnites, and the Persians, who are of or the descent of God on his creatures ; mean the sect of Ali.-Sale's Koran, Introduction. ing thereby that God is present in every place, SHILLER SPAR, in mineralogy, a species of and speaks with every tongue, and appears in hornblende. See MINERALOGY. some 'individual persons; and hence some of SHIL'LING, n. s. Saxon and Erse scylling, them asserted their imams to be prophets, and Belg. schelling. A coin of various value in difat length gods. The Nosairians and the Isha- ferent times. It is now twelve pence. kians taught that spiritual substances appear in Five of these pence made their shilling, which they grosser bodies; and that the angels and the devil called scilling, probably from scillingus, which the have appeared in this manner. They also assert Romans used for the fourth part of an ounce; and that God has appeared in the form of certain forty-eight of these scillings made their pound, and men; and since, after Mahomet, there has four hundred of these pounds were a legacy for a been no man more excellent than Ali, and, after king's daughter, as appeareth by the last will of king him, his sons have excelled all other men, that Alfred.

Cumden's Remains. God has appeared in their form, spoken with The very same shilling may at one time pay their tongue, and made use of their hands, for twenty men in twenty days, and at another rest in which reason, say they, we attribute divinity to the same hands one hundred days.

Locke. them. And, to support these blasphemies, they

"Vho, with much pains exerting all his sense, tell several miraculous things of Ali, as his Can range aright his shillings, pounds, and pence. moving the gates of Khaibar, which they urge as

Young a plain proof that he was endued with a particle SHILLING, an English silver coin, equal to the of divinity, and with sovereign power, and that twentieth part of a pound. Freherus derives the he was the person in whose form God appeared, Saxon scilling, whence our shilling, from a corwith whose hands he created all things, and with ruption of siliqua; proving the derivation by whose tongue he published his commands; and several texts of law, and, among others, by the therefore they say he was in being before the twenty-sixth law, De annuis legatis. Skinner decreation of heaven and earth. In so impious a

duces it from the Saxon scild, shield, by reason inanner do they seem to wrest those things which of the escutcheon of arms thereon. Bishop are said in Scripture of Christ, by applying them Hooper derives it from the Arabic schecle, sigto Ali. These extravagant fancies of the Shiites, nifying a weight; but others, with greater prohowever, in making their imams partakers of bability, deduce it from the Latin sicilicus, which the divine nature, and the impiety of some of signified a quarter of an ounce, or the fortythose imams in laying claim thereto, are so far eighth part of a Roman pound. In confirmafrom being peculiar to this sect, that most of the tion of this etymology it is alleged that the other Mahometan sects are tainted with the shilling kept its original signification, and bore same madness; there being many found among the same proportion to the Saxon pound as them, and among the Susis especially, who sicilicus did to the Roman and the Greek, being pretend to be nearly related to heaven, and exactly the forty-eighth part of the Saxon who boast of strange revelations before the cre- pound; a discovery which we owe to Mr. Lam. dulous people. To this account of the Shiites barde. (Explic. Rer. et l'erb. Sax. voc. Libra),

However, the Saxon laws reckon the pound in part less than the English shilling, it should the round number at fifty shillings, but they therefore proportionably weigh one-fourth part really coined out of it only forty-eight; the value less, and its full weight be somewhat more than of the shilling was five-pence; but it was re- sixty-two grains ; but some of them found at duced to four-pence above a century before the this time, though much worn, weighed sixty-nine conquest; for several of the Saxon laws, made grains. In 1598 five different pieces of money in Athelstan's reign, oblige us to take this esti- of this kind were struck in England for the sermate. Thus it continued to the Norman times, vice of the kingdom of Ireland at twelvepence as one of the conqueror's laws sufficiently ascer each; half shillings to be current at sixpence, tains; and it seems to have been the common coin and quarter shillings at threepence. Pennies by which the English payments were adjusted. and halfpennies were also struck of the same After the conquest the French solidus of twelve kind, and sent over for the payment of the army pence, which was in use among the Normans, in Ireland. The money thus coined was of a was called by the English name of shilling; and very base mixture of copper and silver; and two the Saxon shilling of fourpence took a Norman years after there were more pieces of the same name, and was called the groat, or great coin, kind struck for the same service, which were because it was the largest English coin then still worse; the former being three ounces of known in England. It has been the opinion of silver to nine ounces of copper; and these latter the bishops Fleetwood and Gibson, and of the only two ounces eighteen pennyweights to nine antiquaries in general, that, though the method ounces two pennyweights of the alloy. The of reckoning by pounds, marks, and shillings, Dutch, Flemish, and Germans have likewise their as well as by pence and farthings, had been in shilling, called schelin, schilling, scalin, &c., but constant use even from the Saxon times, long these, not being of the same weight or fineness before the Norman conquest, there never was with the English shilling, are not current at the such a coin in England as either a pound or a same value. The English shilling is worth about mark, nor any shilling, till the year 1504 or twenty-three French sols ; those of Holland and 1505, when a few silver shillings or twelve-pences Germany about eleven sols and a half; those of were coined, which have long since been solely Flanders about nine. The Dutch shillings are confined to the cabinets of collectors. Mr. also called sols de gros, because equal to twelve Clarke combats this opinion, alleging that some gros. The Danes have copper shillings worth. coins mentioned by Mr. Folkes, under Edward about one-fourth of a farthing sterling. I., were probably Saxon shillings new minted, and SHILL-I-SHALL-I. A corrupt reduplicathat archbishop Aelfric expressly says (Gram. tion of shall I ?' The question of a man hesiSaxon. p. 52) that the Saxons had three names for tating. To stand shill-I-shall-I is to continue their money, viz. mancuses, shillings, and pennies. hesitating and procrastinating. He also urges the different value of the Saxon shilling at different times, and its uniform pro

I am somewhat dainty in making a resolution, beportion to the pound, as an argument that their shill-i-shall-I then : if I say 't, I'll do '.

cause, when I make it, I keep it : I don't stand shilling was a coin ; and the testimony of the Saxon gospels, in which the word we have trans

Congreve's Way of the World. lated pieces of silver is rendered shillings, which,

SHILLUK, a town of Africa, on the banks of he says, they would hardly have done, if there the Bahr el Abiad, or true Nile. The houses had been no such coin as a shilling then in use.

are built of clay, and the inhabitants are idolaAccordingly the Saxons expressed their shilling ters, have no other clothing than bands of long in Latin by siclus and argenteus. He farther grass, which they pass round the waist and beadds that the Saxon shilling was never expressed tween the thighs. They are all black; both by solidus till after the Norman settlements in sexes are accustomed to shave their heads. The England ; and, howsoever it altered during the people of Shilluk have the dominion of the river, long period that elapsed from the conquest to and take toll of all passengers, in such articles the time of Henry VII., it was the most constant of traffic as pass among them. They are hosdenomination of money in all payments, though pitable to such as come among them in a peaceit was then only a species of account, or the able manner, and never betray those to whom twentieth part of the pound sterling : and when they have once accorded protection. Long. 32° it was again revived as a coin, it lessened 26° E., lat. 130° 0° N.. gradually as the pound sterling lessened, from the SHILOH, a term much disputed among intertwenty-eighth of Edward III. to the forty-third preters and commentators upon Scripture. In of Elizabeth. In 1560 there was a peculiar sort Gen. xlix. 10 it denotes the Messiah. The paof shilling struck in Ireland, of the value of triarch Jacob foretels his coming in these words : pinepence English, which passed in Ireland for the sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a the value of twelvepence. The motto on the lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come: reverse was posui Deum adjutorem meum. Of and unto him shall the gathering of the people these shillings, according to Malynes, eighty-two be.' The Hebrew text reads iso xsi vyty went to the pound; they therefore weighed until Shiloh come. All Christian commentwenty grains one-fourth each, which is somewhattators agree that this word ought to be underheavier in proportion than the English shilling stood of the Messiah, or Jesus Christ ; but all of that time, sixiy-two whereof went to the are not agreed about its literal and grammatical pound, each weighing ninety-two grains seven- signification. St. Jerome, who translates it by eighths; and the Irish shilling being valued at Qui mittendus est, manifestly reads Shiloach, the tower at ninepence English, that is, one-fourth sent, instead of Shiloh. The Septuagint have it

Εως αν έλθη τα απιοκεμενα αυτω ; or, Eως αν dants of Zerubbabel, and afterwards in the

In 'W aforeitai (as if they had read 150 instead Asmonean, or Maccabbean family; till the ususof no), i.e. Until the coming of him for pation of Herod the Ascalonite or Idumean, a whom it is reserved;' or, till we see arrive that few years before the birth of our Saviour, showed which is reserved for him. Some translate, that the completion of the prophecy by the the sceptre shall not depart from Judah till he coming of Shiloh, and the departure of the comes to whom it belongs ;' mbw or 50 instead sceptre from Judah, was about to take place.

See Herod, and the chronological series of the of 358 oly. Others, 'till the coming of the princes of Judah, under Juday. The total conpeace-maker;' or, óthe pacific;' or, of pros- quest and dispersion of the Jews soon after, perity,' abo prosperatus est. Shalah signifies and the dreadful destruction of Jerusalem by * to be in peace, to be in prosperity;' others, 'till the Romans, completely fulfilled the prophecies the birth of him who shall be born of a woman of Jacob and our Saviour. See Jews. that shall conceive without the knowledge of a Shilor, in ancient geography, a celebrated man,' 510 or so 50, secundina, Auxus. Le Clerc city of Israel, in the tribe of Ephraim, about ten explains it, “the sceptre shall not depart from miles south of Shechem, and twenty-five north Judah, till its end, its ruin ; till the downfal of of Jerusalem. In this city Joshua divided the the kingdom of the Jews,' bou or above it has Western Canaan among the nine tribes and a ceased, it has finished. But this explains half (Josh. xviii.); and here he fixed the Tabernothing. It is only saying, the sceptre shall not nacle of God; where it remained for about 350 depart till it depart ! A more modern author years, till it was taken by the Philistines, little derives Shiloh from abw, fatigare, which some

to their advantage. Here too the remaining 200 times signifies to be weary, to suffer ; « till his Benjamites provided themselves with wives at labors, his sufferings, his passion, shall happen. the vintage festival (Judges xxi. 23.); as the But, whatever be the precise grammatical signifi- Romans afterwards did with the Sabine virgins. cation of Shiloh, it is sufficient for us to show SHIM, in agriculture, a tool of the tillage that the ancient

Jews are in this matter agreed kind, used in breaking down and reducing the with the Christians; they acknowledge that this

more stiff and heavy sorts of land, as well as word stands for the Messiah, the king. It is cutting up and clearing them from weeds. In thus that the paraphrasts Onkelos and Jonathan, the Hertford Agricultural Survey by the Board that the ancient Hebrew commentaries upon this kind is in use by Mr. Calvert

, which differs

of Agriculture, the writer remarks that a tool of Genesis, and that the Talmudists themselves explain it. If Jesus Christ and his apostles did from those usually employed, in which the cutnot make use of this passage to prove the coming ting-iron or plate, which for the work it is adaptof the Messiah, it was because then the com- ed for, as that of cutting up weeds on two-bout pletion of this prophecy was not sufficiently or four-furrow Essex ridges, or of cleaning land manifest. The sceptre still continued among

without ploughing or burying the soil, is a small the Jews; they seemed to have still kings of segment of a large circle. It despatches a ridge their own nation, though the royal family was

at a time, and is an implement that performs its extirpated by Herod ; but soon after the sceptre business well, and which deserves the notice of was entirely taken away from them, and has the tillage-farmer in other places. It is readily never been restored to them since. But that altered for flat work, and is said to be had reJacob's prophecy was literally fulfilled is clear course to by other farmers with success in the from the whole history of the Jews. Nothing is same district. A useful tool of this sort has more evident than that the posterity of Judah also been recommended by Mr. Young, in his preserved their distinct existence as a tribe, or Annals, the hint of which he took from the Berk. rather as a nation, together with a power of go- shire one, and to which the beam and block is vernment and legislation, even when they were capable of being applied. In a wide interval, occasionally subject to other nations, till Jesus the three shares may be worked on a level. BeChrist was born into the world. The tribe of tween the rows of cabbages, after earthing up, Judah was the most numerous of the twelve the two external shares may be set to cut the when they came out of Egypt: under Moses weeds that are apt to rise on the sides of the they led the van in the wilderness: after leaving ridges, without disturbing too much earth, and it they were divinely ordered to make the first the centre share sunk to scrape the bottom of the attack on the remaining Canaanites (Judges, i. 1, furrow. The centre one may also be worked 2), as well as afterwards against the Benjamites alone, between narrow rows. In forging the (xx. 18). Caleb, and his son-in-law Othniel, the shares of all shims, he has well observed that the first judge of Israel after Joshua, were of this blacksmith should be careful to give them tentribe : and, from the death of Saul, the royal dency enough into the ground, by bending them house of David held the supreme power till the downwards : for want of this caution, he has Babylonish captivity. Even under the Chal- found many of them to work badly. The wheel deans, Medes and Persians, Jeconiah, Zerubba- in the beam counteracts this tendency sufficiently bel, and Nehemiah, who were all of this tribe, when at work. These tools should be


all held an evident superiority over the Jews. (See tillage farms. 2 Kings xxv. Ezra, i-vi. Neh. i-xii.) And Shim, Potatoe, a tool of the shim kind, used for a period of about 450 years, from the death for cleaning the potatoe crops. of Zerubhabel to the usurpation of Herod, the SHIN, n. s. Saxon scina; Teut. schren. The government of Judah continued in the descen- forepart of the leg.

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