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Organization of the Army.
dence, to hold the scales of our destiny in our eight hundred and ninety-six privates, including own hands. In offering these preliminary obser- to each company eight artificers. vations, the Secretary presents nothing new to The principal reasons for this organization will the President; 'most, if not all of them have re- be briefly suggested and explained. ceived, directly or impliedly, in his communica- 1st. It will be observed, ihat the proposed protions to Congress, his deliberate sanction and au- portion of men to officers in the infantry and cavthority.
alry is considerably greater than by the present esCircumstanced as the United States now are, tablishment. This presents, in the first place, the progress of public danger may render an ex- the advantage of economy. By the proportional tension of military preparations indispensable, decrease of the officers, savings will result in their and a proper organization for the troops of the pay, subsistence, and the transportation of their United States extremely beneficial.
baggage; and the last circumstance, by lessening In proportion as the policy of the country is the impediments of an army, is also favorable to adverse to extensive military establishments
, it the celerity of its movements. ought to be our care to render the principles of 2d. The command of each officer will become our military system as perfect as possible ; our en- more respectable. This will be an inducement deavor, to turn to the best account, such force as to respectable men to accept military appointwe at any time may have on foot, and to provide ments, and it will be an incentive to exertion an eligible standard for the augmentations to among those who shall be engaged, by upholding which particular emergencies may compel a re- that justifiable pride, which is a necessary ingre sort.
dieni in the military character. A company will In these views it is conceived the organization then admit of an eligible sub-division into platof our military force would be much improved, oons, sections, and demi-sections, each of a perby modelling it according to the following plan:fect front.
1. That a regiment of infantry, composed as at 3d. Each battalion will be of the size judged present of two battalions, and each battalion of proper for a manœuvring column in the field, five companies, consist of one colonel ; two ma- and it is that portion of an army which in the jors, a first and second; one adjutant, one quar- most approved system of tactics is destined to termaster, and one paymaster, each of whom fulfil this object. A battalion, according to the shall be a lieutenant; one surgeon, and iwo sur- best judges, sanctioned by experience, ought neigeon's mates; ten captains; ien first lieutenants ther io be 100 unwieldy for rapid movements, nor and ten second lieutenants, besides the three lieu so small as to multiply too much the sub-divistenants above mentioned ; two cadets, with the ions, and render each inca pable, either of a vigorpay and emoluments of sergeants ; two serjeant ous impulse or resistance. majors; two quartermaster sergeants; two chief 4th. The proportion of officers to men ought musicians, first and second, twenty other musi- not to be greater than is adequate to the due mancians, foriy sergeants, forty corporals, and dine agement and command of them. A careful exhundred and twenty privates.
amination of this point will satisfy every judge, 2. That a regiment of dragoons consist of ten that the number now proposed will be adequate troops, making five squadrons, and the following to both. And it is illustrated by the expectation, officers and men, viz: one colonel; two majors, a that our fundamental orders, in conformity with first and second; one adjutant, one quartermas- those of the nations of Europe generally, ought ter, and one paymaster, each of whom shall be to place our infantry in three ranks, to oppose to a lieutenant; one surgeon, and two surgeon's an enemy who shall be in the same order, an mates; ten captains; ten first, and ten second lieu- equal mass for attack or defence. tenants, besides the three lieutenants above men- But it is not intended to recommend a present tioned ; five cadets, with the pay and emoluments augmentation of the number of rank and file, to of sergeants; two sergeant majors; two quarter- the proposed standard. It is only wished that it master sergeants; two chief musicians, first and may be adopted provisionally, as that of the war second; ten other musicians; forty sergeants; for establishment. ly corporals; and nine hundred and twenty pri. The regiments which have been authorized vates. The privates, including to each troop one may continue, in this respect upon the footing alsaddler, one blacksmith, and one boot-maker. ready prescribed; leaving the actual augmenta
3. That a regiment of artillery consist of four tion to depend on events which may create a nebattalions ; each battalion of four companies, cessity for the increase of our force and of the following officers and inen, viz: one
The other alterations recommended, have relacolonel ; four majors; one adjutant, one quarter- tion rather to systematic propriety, than to very master, and one paymaster, each of whom shall important military effects. be a lieutenant; one surgeon and two surgeon's ist. The term lieutenant colonel, in our present mates; sixteen captains; sixteen first and sixteen establishment, has a relative signification, without second lieutenants, besides the three lieutenants anything, in fact, to which it relates: it was inabove mentioned ; thirty-two cadets, with the pay troduced during our revolutionary war to faciliand emoluments as at present established; four tate exchanges of prisoners, as our then enemy sergeant majors; four quartermaster sergeants ; united the grade of colonel with that of general. sixty-four sergeants ; sixty-four corporals; one But the permanent forms of our military system chief musicians, and ten other musicians; and ought to be regulated by principle, not by the
Organization of the Army.
changeable and arbitrary arrangement of a pecu- calculation. But though the place of an officer, liar nation. The title of colonel, which has in his regiment, ought io be supplied upon any greater respectability, is more proper for the com- such removal, he ought not to lose his station in mander of a regiment, because it does not, like the regiment, but ought to rank and rise as if he the other, imply a relation having no existence. had continued to serve in it.
2d. The term ensign is changed into that of I should do injustice to this subject, if I did not lieutenant, as well because the latter, from usage, acknowledge that this plan of organization had rehas additional respectability, offering an induce-ceived the full and unequivocal approbation of the ment to desirable candidates, as because the for- Commander-in-chief, Lieutenant General Washmer, in its origin, signified a standard bearer, and sington. supposed that each company had a distinct stand- The annexed schedule (A) will show in one ard.
view the difference between the present and the This in practice has ceased to be the case, and, proposed establishment. for a variety of good reasons, a standard of col- The provision that aids-de-camp and officers of ors to each battalion of infantry is deemed suffi. inspection shall be drawn from ihe line of the cient. This standard is intended to be confided Army, is not restricted as to grade. There ought to a cadet, in whom it may be expected to excite to be such a restriction. The aids of major genemulation and exertion. The multiplication of erals ought not to be taken from a rank superior grades, inconvenient in exchanges, is thus avoided. to that of captain, nor those of the brigadiers frora
In the cavalry it is proper to allow a standard a rank superior io that of first lieutenant. The to each squadron consisting of two troops, and rank from which inspectors may be taken, ought, bence it is proposed to have five cadets to a regi- in like manner, to be limited; those of brigades to ment.
the rank of captain ; those of divisions to that of 3d. The nature of the artillery service being major. This will guard against the multiplicaconstantly in detachment, renders it proper to tion of superior grades by removals to fill such compose a regiment of a greater number of bat. stations. talions than the other corps. This our present The two companies which it is proposed to add establishment has recognised. But there is now to the actual number of the cavalry, it is desirable a want of uniformity which leads to disorderly should be raised immediately. If this is agreed to, consequences; one regiment being composed of they might receive the denomination of hussar four battalions, the other of three. The same or companies--a description of cavalry extremely ganization ought to be common to all. The di- serviceable in an army. minution of the number of the musicians, while It is incidentally noticed that the act of last ses. it will save expense, is also warranted by the pe- sion, augmenting the dragoon corps to eight comculiar nature of the artillery service. They an- panies, and assigning to it a lieutenant colonel and swer in this corps few of the purposes they are other officers, to constitute it a regiment, has not applied to in the infantry.
provided a surgeon or mate. This omission will Existing laws contemplate, and with good rea- require attention. son, that the aids of general officers (except of If there shall be occasion for the actual employthe commander-in-chief) shall be taken from the ment of military force, a corps of riflemen will be regiments; but they do not provide, that when so for several purposes extremely useful. The eligitaken, their places in the regiment shall be sup- ble proportion of riflemen to infantry of the line plied by others. It is conceived, that this ought may be taken at a twentieth. It is submitted to be the case. The principles of the establish- whether a specific provision to this effect will not ment suppose. for example, that three officers to be proper in arranging the Army for a war estaba company of a given number, are the just and lishment. due proportion. If, when an officer is taken from The only provision for the appointment of a a company to fill one of the stations alluded io, quartermaster general is to be found in the act of his place be not filled by another, so that the num- the 28th May, authorizing the President to raise ber of officers to a company may remain the same, a provisional army, which limits his rank and it must follow that the company will be deficieni emoluments to those of lieutenant colonel. This in officers. It is true, that the number of a com- provision is conceived to be entirely inadequate pany is continually diminishing, but it diminishes for a war establishment. The military duties of in officers as well as men; and it is known that the officer are of a nature to render it of the first the proportion is varied. Practice, in every insti- importance in an army; demanding great and petution, ought to conform to principle, or there will culiar abilities, and a character every way worresult more or less of disorder. An army is, in thy of trust. Accordingly, it is the general pracmany respects, a machine, of which the displace- tice, founded upon very substantial reasons, to meni of any of the organs, if permitted to con- confide it to an officer of high military rank. The tinue, injures its symmetry and energy, and leads probability is that, without a similar arrangement to disorder and weakness. The increase of the on our part, we shall not be able to command a number of rank and file, while it strengthens the fit character, and, in taking one of inferior pretenreasons for replacing the officers, who may be re- sions, we shall subject the service to disadvanmoved, will more than compensate, in point of tages out of all proportion to any objections economy, for the addition of officers by the sub- which may be supposed to militate against the stitution. This may be submitted to the test of conferring of such rank. It is feared that an ap
Organization of the Army.
pointment under such a provision, will only create drawn from the corps of artillerists and engineers, embarrassment should there be real necessity for or it may be left discretionary with the Presideni military exertions, and that the alternative must to choose him where he pleases. Il, however, the be either to leave the army destitute of so neces- choice is to be restricted to that corps, it will be sary an organ, or to give it one likely, in the prog- proper that, on withdrawing him from it, his ress of things, to prove unequal to the task. A place in the corps should be filled by an officer of new provision on this subject appears absolutely ihe same grade. indispensable
It will be easily imagined that, without such an The Secretary does not discover, in any of the officer, the service may essentially suffer. To obacts, the necessary provisions for the appointment viate this, the Department of War has always of hospital officers, or a hospital establishment found it necessary to employ a person, who has As military hospitals are indispensable to an army. been paid out of the contingencies, for performing especially in time of war, it is respectfully sug- that and some other duties of a military nature. gested that provision on the subjeci ought to be The importance of a faithful representation of made by law, and that the regulations to be found the real state of the fortifications, public buildings. in the resolutions of the old Congress, more par- and barracks, the qualifications of the commandticularly in those under date of September 30, ants of forts, the police they observe, and the de1780, and 3d of January, 1782, as containing the gree of attention they bestow on the works, mag. faithful result of nuch experience, may afford azines, and the like, can stand in no need of comsome important lights respecting this department. ment.
The certain consequences of disregarding so It is further submitted whether it will not be essential a measure, in the event of war, and the proper, and conduce to the improvement of artilencampments of our army, will be a train of dis- lery, to enlarge the field from which to select a fit eases which must cut off a large proportion of our character inspector of artillerists. As the law now troops.
is, the inspector must be chosen from the corps of It is deeply to be lamented that a very precious artillerists and engineers, and would require one period of leisure was not improved towards form- of its most experienced officers, all whose services ing, among ourselves, engineers and artillerists; are indispensable to the corps itself. and that, owing to this neglect, we are in danger It has been observed by the officers of the Army of being overtaken by war, without a competent that the public would save by the measure, and number of characters of this description. To form more satisfaction be given to the soldiers generthem suddenly is impracticable. Much previous ally, if a regulation was adopted to insure his elostudy and experiment are essential. If possible to thing should be fitted to the soldier. It cannot avoid it, a war ought not to find us un provided. fail to happen that clothing, made at a distance What has been done to facilitate this object, and from the Army, will, in numerous instances, be the perfection of our artillery, will be seen by the ill fitted to the person to whom it is issued. This annexed extract of a letter from the Secretary, is an inconvenience, as it respects appearance, marked B, to the Chairman of a Committee of the comfort, and ease, and causes the soldier to be House of Representatives, for the Protection of careless of his dress. Il of course merits considCommerce and the Defence of the Country, takeneration, and whether it will not be remedied by in connexion with the act providing for raising of making provision by law for the necessary altera the corps of artillerists and engineers, with the tion at the cost of the soldier. As there are al. act to augment the Army of the United States, ways to be found tailors in the Army, the alteraand for other purposes, passed the 16th of July, tions may be made there during the seasons of 1798. What has resulted from the latter act will inactivity, and moderate compensations may be make the subject of a particular report. In the established, to be deducted out of the pay of the meanwhile, it is conceived to be advisable to en-soldiers. The tailors, who, when so employed. deavor to introduce from abroad at least one dis- will be exempted from military duty, will be sailinguished engineer, and one distinguished officer of isfied with very small allowances; and the solartillery. They may be sought for preferably in diery will, from the best information I can obtain. the Austrian, and next in the Prussian armies. The prefer this expense to the inconveniences of weargrade of colonels, with adequate pecuniary com- ing clothes that do not fit them. pensations, may attract officers of a rank inferior Another point no less deserving of particular to that grade in those armies, who will be of dis- attention is the composition of the ration of proținguished abilities and merit. But in this, as we visions. It was in the last session augmented beknow from past experience, nothing is inore easy yond all former examples. It is not recollected than to be imposed upon; nothing more difficult lihat the ration which was allowed during the war than to avoid imposition; and that, therefore, with Great Britain was found insufficient by troop: should the measure be sanctioned by a law, it will once formed to military habits, and acquainted be requisite to commit the business of procuring with the best methods of managing their provisuch characters to some very judicious hand, un- sions. The present ration, estimating by price, is der every precaution that can put him upon his understood to be greater than the ration in thai guard.
war by above fifty per cent. This is evidently a It is also suggested that an inspector of fortifica- very important augmentation ; various disadvantions is much wanted. In case of a Legislative tages atiend it; a great increase of expense; adprovision on this subject, the officer may be either ditional difficulties in furnishing, under all cir
Organization of the Army.
cumstances, the stipulated allowance, consequent- The act which authorizes to raise twelve regily a multiplication of the possible causes of dis- ments of infantry and six troops of dragoons, procontent, murmurs, and perhaps even mutiny ; the vides that they shall be kept in service during the necessity of a greater number of wagons for trans continuance of the existing differences between the portation, and of course the extension of this al- United States and the French Republic, if not ways serious source of embarrassment to military sooner discharged. Upon the disbanding of these operations.
troops, it is to be presumed by far the greatest numThe quantity of spirituous liquor, which is a ber of both officers and men will find themselves component part of the ration, is so large as to en- at a considerable distance from their hoines. The danger, where they might not before exist
, habits of same thing also happens to officers on the Estabintemperance, alike fatal to health and discipline. lishment, whose age or time of life, or scanty forExperience has repeatedly shown that many sol- tune, does not permit of their continuance in the diers will exchange their rum for other articles, Army, as well as to privates serving on the fronwhich is productive of the double mischief of riers, whose engagements are successively expiring. subjecting those with whom the exchange is These have or will have to travel to their respective made to the loss of what is far more necessary, places of residence, at their own expense, if no and to all the consequences of brutal intoxication provision is made by Congress to meet the case.
These and such considerations have induced This, to many of them, must be, and is an extreme the Secretary to cause to be inserted in the con- hardship; especially when it is considered, that tracts made under his orders, a proviso, " that if the profession of arms, however important to the the quantities of the component articles of a ra- country, and noble in itself, is so far from furnishtiou shall be reduced by law, the price to be al. ing to the officers, even of the highest grades, the lowed therefor shall be proportionably reduced.” means of making a tolerable provision, out of the And in the article of enlistment, a proviso that the savings of their pay, for the future support of themsoldier is to accept such ration as is or shall be es- selves and families in advanced old age, or when tablished by law.
their services may be dispensed with by the pubIt is well understood that, the increase having lic, that it requires them to observe the greatest been once made, a change is delicate; but it is economy to be able to proceed in their career, and believed to be indispensable, and that the tempo- defray the expense of their necessary wants. rary evils of a change can bear no proportion to
In the English service, the officer, when disthe permanent and immense evils of a continuance banded, receives half-pay; the private soldier in of the error.
the cavalry has his horse, and an allowance for It may not perhaps be advisable to bring back his sword, with fourteen days' pay to carry him the ration to the standard of the late war, but to home; the infantry have likewise fourteen days modify it in some respects differently, so as not pay granted them for the same purpose. materially to affect the aggregate expense. For example, it may consist of eighteen ounces
It is respectfully suggested, whether it would of bread or flour, or an equivalent in rice or Indian
not comport with justice, and have a tendency to meal, when flour cannot be obtained; one pound vision was made for an allowance to each officer
encourage men to enter into the Army, if a proand a quarter of fresh beef, or one pound of salted and soldier, on quitting the service, or, being
disbeef, or three-quarters of a pound of salted pork; banded, equivalent to the expense he must incur salt, when fresh meat is issued, at the rate of two quarts, and candles at the rate of one pound and
in returning home. a half, for every hundred rations.
The act authorizing the President of the United With regard to liquor, it may be best to exclude States to raise a provisional army is too importit from being a component part of the ration, al- ant to the peace and safety of the Union not to lowing a discretion to commanding officers to cause
require from Congress such a matured revision as it to be issued in quantities not exceeding half a
may render it effectual to the purposes for which
it was framed. gill per day, except on extraordinary occasions. Vinegar also ought to be furnished, when to be
The first section, by which the President was had, at the rate of iwo quarts, and soap at the rate vested with the power to raise ten thousand troops, of two pounds, per hundred rations; but this ought
has expired by its own limitation. to depend on circumstances, and ought not to make
It is conceived advisable, and founded on the part of the established ration.
soundest policy, that the power to raise such troops There are often difficulties in furnishing articles as are contemplated by this clause should be exof the latter description, and the equivalent in tended at least to lwenty thousand. To be on money is frequently rather pernicious than benefi- safe ground, our preparations and supplies ought cial. Where there is a contract, the promise of to contemplate an army of fifty thousand men. such articles is apt to prove more beneficial to the The act in question contemplates also an auxcontractor than to any other person. He com- iliary force, under the denomination of volunteer monly so manages it that the substitute is not a real companies, who shall be armed, clothed, and equipequivalent
ped, at their own expense. But it need not be remarked, that whatever is It is highly pleasing to mention, that sufficient to be done in this respect, must be so conducted evidence has appeared that the patriotism of our as not to infract the conditions on which the old independent citizens will not shrink from this meatroops now in service were enlisted.
sure of defence—the number of volunteer compaOrganization of the Army.
nies which have offered their services being already of the War Department. A further arrangement considerable.
is necessary to give full effect to the Inspector GenAs it may be questioned whether the act ena- eral's department. During our war with Great bles the President to appoint all appropriate offi- Britain, this officer was allowed secretaries in adcers to these companies, when organized into regi- dition to aids as Major General. It is thought that ments, brigades, and divisions, it is desirable that one secretary to the present officer is indispensable. such power should be expressly given.
It is proper, before closing this reference, to menA specific provision for the pay and rations to tion a circumstance intimately connected with volunteers during the days it may be necessary to our military system. assemble them in bodies in each year, for the pur- Owing to the increase of the Nava! and Milipose of general discipline and manæuvres, would tary Establishments, the business of Purveyor of be very beneficial.
Public Supplies has been so augmented as to reTo form effective soldiers at this moment, and quire for the War Department, alone, the excluat so light an expense to the public, must be looked sive and uninterrupted service of such an officer. upon as an object of great national concern, espe- It seems to be improper that the Head of the cially when we take into view the difficulty of get-War Department should be obliged to employ bimting men trained to arms, in time of actual war. self in any other manner in the purveyorship, than
The value of those patriotic bands of volunteers, merely to make requisitions for articles wanted; who destine themselves to the front of danger, is to prescribe the quantities, the time and places of inappreciable. If well instructed aud disciplined, delivery; and that the whole responsibility for the they will, in the event of sudden invasion, be of execution of the order should rest upon the Purimmense utility and importance. Besides the di veyor. A Secretary of War will always find amrect effects of their own exertions in resisting the ple employment in the general superintendence enemy, till they can be succored by the regular and direction of the great operations of his departforce, if at a distance, the militia rallying to ihem ment: if a portion of his time is to be occupied in would derive from their example and countenance the details of lesser concerns, it is morally certain additional courage and perseverance. They would, that the greater must languish or suffer. thus disciplined, and aided by the regular force, Besides these duties, the Purveyor should be though small
, give a consistency and stability to charged exclusively with the disposing of all reour first efforts, of which these would otherwise turns from the Indian factories, corresponding with be destitute, and would tend powerfully to prevent these, keeping all accounts, and conducting all great, though perhaps partial, calamities. concerns relative to them, under the direction of
It is impossible to contemplate the duties of the the Secretary: office of Inspector General, without perceiving He might also be the agent and organ to procare that their due discharge will require the exercise the means of transportation for all supplies sent of extraordinary skill and labor, and that the exist-irom the seat of Government or elsewhere, to the ing law has assigned no compensation whatever army agents or quartermasters, to arsenals and for the exercise of this skill and labor.
distant places of deposite. In the case of officers taken from the line to per- The Secretary takes leave to recapitulate, for the form the specific duties of assistant inspectors, purpose of presenting, in a concise view, the proquartermasters, &c., we find the law has made a positions respectfully recommended to attention specific allowance. The principle applies, with by the foregoing observations. augmented force, to the Inspector General, who 1. A new modification of the military, so as to has not only to create regulations, but to superin- admit of an increase of numbers to the companies tend their execution, in addition to his duties as a and regiments, in case of war, an alteration in the general officer.
denomination of certain grades, and a perfect uniTo discharge, with effect, the duties of his office. formity of arrangements in the corps of the same he must make frequent journeys from one part of species of troops. the army to another, when it is encamped in dif- 2. Regulations to preserve to the companies and ferent and distant places. It must be conceived regiments their competent number of officers, in that the expenses of such journeys must quickly cases where any are taken from the line to aci as eat out the narrow allowance of a Major General. aids-de-camp, inspectors, paymasters, quartermasIf filled by a man of talents, without a fortune to ters, &c. meet such expenses, he musi either compromit his 3. To designate the grades from which aids-dereputation, and that of the Government, by not camp and officers of inspection may be taken, in producing the results to be expected from his de- order to prevent the multiplication of the higher partment, or he must ruin himself in performing grades. services for which there is no adequate compensa- 4. To add to the existing establishment two comtion. The precedent of the last war establishes the panies of horse, to be denominated and act as huspropriety of an extra allowance for the extra ser- sars; and a surgeon and mates to the regiment of vices and expenses of this officer; and it would be cavalry. infinitely more agreeable, and less embarrassing to 5. To include in the arrangement for the War the Department of War, that the latter, or his ex- Establishment a proportion of riflemen, estimated penses on journeys from one part of the army to at one-twentieth of the whole number of infantry. another, should be settled at a fixed allowance by 6. An alteration in the provision for a Quarterlaw, instead of being chargeable to the contingencies I master General, to insure the procurement of a fit