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of original sin, justification by faith, Io general, Dr. Maltby is very and the necessity of spiritual regene- perspicuous : his grand principle is ration, are classed together, whether intelligible enough ; but there is they belong to the established one passage occurring (p. 49), of church, the methodists, or the dis- which we find it difficult to compresenters; whether they lived in this hend the drift. The passage century or the last. In this mixed mean is that in which he tells us, mass some individuals are discovered that the Bible Society “ was origiwho have promulged very excep- nally planned, not for the benefit of tionable opinions, or done very ex- churchmen as such--not for the beceptionable things. These are se- nefit of dissenters as such, but for lected as fair specimens of the opin the ultimate, and what practically nions and conduct of the whole body, would be the separate, interests of an which, on this kind of evidence, is at heterogeneous sect, who belong to once condemned as sharing in the both or to neither ; but who would guilt of the specified individuals. In gladly employ the agency of churchthis way the violence and the regi- men, and of dissenters too, in promotcide principles of the Cromwellians, ing their own favourite views and disthe antinomian dotages of Dr. Crisp, seminating their peculiar doctrines.” the irregularities and occasional en What is this heterogeneous mixture? thusiasm of the founders of metho- Is it a new name for Unitarians ? dism, the disgusting coarsenesses of No: they would prefer Cappe's Life one living character, the wildnesses of Christ. Does it consist of a class of another, and the buffooneries ol'a of Frenchified philosophers, who distbird, are all heaped on the heads of believe the Mosaic account of the those whom, whether properly or Creation? No: they would not not, it is the custom of the day to circulate the Book of Genesis. Is designate as evangelical clergymen. it composed of persons, who disbeBut is there any fairness in this? Is lieve the doctrine of an over-ruling it not just as unfair as it would be to Providence? They surely would reconfound the whole of the opponents ject the writings of the Apostles, and of this body together, as men marked the Prophets. Does it comprehend with the same general character? that non-descript race, which fancies How, for example, would the Bishops death to be an eternal sleep? These of London and Lincoln, Dr. Gaskin, men disbelieve the doctrine of the Dr. Wordsworth, and many other resurrection, and would therefore active distributors of the Holy Scrip- expunge from their Bibles the {Epi. tures, like to be confounded with stle to the Corinthians, if it were of Dr. Maltby in his hostility to the fensive on no other account, yet for general circulation of these writings; its assertion of that doctrine. We or with Mr. Fellowes and the Bar. have entered with some care upon rister in their Socinian principles; the inquiry, but are utterly at a loss merely because they happened to to discover this “ heterogeneous view certain subjects, such as the mixture ;" and the early accounts of Bible Society and the evangelical the Society, which have been long elergy, in the same light? But is it before the world, afford us no help more fair to make such men as Mr. in this intricate research. Scott, or Mr. Basil Woodd, or Mr. We wish that Dr. Maltby had Venn, or Mr. Cunningham, or Mr. throughout the whole of his publiCooper, responsible for all that Dr. cation maintained more decisively Crisp, or Mr. Whitfield, or Mr. those claims to candour and fairness Wesley, or Dr. Hawker, may have which we believe hu might genesaid or written ? "As ye would, rally urge with justice. But what then, that men should do unto you, is the purport of the declaration, even so do ye unto them, for this is that he "by no means presumes to the law and the prophets."

question the motives of the greater

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part of those, wllo step forward to tual state of this nation, and of the world patronize the rising institution ?” around us, we can spare neither of them. What reason has he io question the May they sit therefore in council together at motives of the rest?

home, and go forth hand in hand to evangeWe think also that Dr. Maltby borizon, that in effect, which the twin stars

lize the nations. May they arise upon our would have consulted his reputation

were in the inythology of the heatlien, signs for candour and fairness, by extend- of peace and deliverance. ing some of his remarks to the op

Quorum simul alba nautis, ponents of the Bible Society, as well

Stella refulsit, as to its defenders. We mean not to Defluit saxis agitatus humor: vindicate harshness, from whatever Concidunt venti, fugiuntque nubes, quarter it may proceed: but when Et minax (quod sic voluere) ponto Dr. Maltby next adverts to the sub

Unda recumbit.” ject of invective, we earnestly ad

Cunninghain, pp. 5, 6. vise him to begin with those who first set the example ; who gave Sixth Report of the Directors of the currency to accusations, which no- Africun Institution, read at the thing but extreme ignorance, united

Annual General Meeting on the to extreme irritation, could induce

25th March, 1812. To which are any man to advance; and who stig- added, an Appendix and a List of matised the friends of the Society, as

Subscribers. London, Hatchard. if they were influenced by some of

1812. Price 23. 8vo. pp. 183. the worst motives which can ope. In our review of the preceding Rerate upon the human mind. We port of this excellent Institution will not pollute our pages by sup- (vol. for 1811, p. 428), we entered plying him with specimens; but so largely into the discussion of when he next fancies himself to be some important questions connect" assailed with acrimonious rebuke," ed with the progress of its grand we would request him to examine, design of amelicrating the condition whether these imaginary assailants of the African race, that we shall are not in truth acting on the de- have little more to do on the present fensive; whether the darts, which occasion, than to make our readers are flung from the camp of those acquainted with the main facts who are friendly to the rising in- which have been brought to light stitution,” are not partly in return by the publication now before us. for the poisoned arrows which have

The first fact which meets us, is been shot against themselves.

one of the most melanchóly descripIt is time that the weapons of tion. The Slave Trade, under the hostility should be laid aside. No protection of the Portuguese and wish has ever been shewn by the Spanish flags, is said to have revived advocates of the Bible Society to in

to a most enornious extent; and it jure ihe Society for promoting Chris. is calculated, on data which have the tian Knowledge; and it would have appearance of being correct, that in spared much pain to the friends of the year 1310, no less than from seboth, if the same spirit of forbear- venty to eighty thousand Africans ance and respect had been shewn by were carried from the coast of Afritheir opponents. But as these have ca into a state of bondage on the in every instance been the aggres- American continent. The actors in sors, we cannot but rejoice that in this tragedy, it is true, are many of every instance they haye been de- them the subjects of Great Britain feated ; and that they have unwit- and America, and neither Spaniards tingly built up the cause, which it nor Portuguese ; but then it is the was their hearty intention to destroy. flag of Portugal, or of Spain, which

screens them from detection and puWe would earnestly 'lift our " voice to nishment, and which frustrates the buth for peace and co-operation. In the ac. benevolent intentions of our legisla

zers.

we

ture, and the vigilance of our crui- and had it not been for the island of

Now, when it is considered Bissao, at the mouth of the Rio that Spain and Portugal exist only Grande, the only Portuguese setileby our support; that but for us no ment in the whole of ihis district flag of theirs could have waved for extending from Senegal to Cape Palany purpose, much less for one so

mas, they would probably have suenefarious as this; is it not 100 much ceeded in delivering it entirely from to be endured, that they shall per- the ravages of the Slave Trade. In sist in nullifying our most solemn the late treaty of amity with the enactments, and in spreading misery Prince Regent of Portugal, which and desolation, where it is one of commences the work of abolishing the first wishes of this country to the Portuguese slave trade, a right diffuse peace and happiness? But is retained of continuing i: from it may be said, we have no right to places subject to the crown of Porinterfere with the conduct of friend. iugal. Bissao, therefore, furnished ly states. No right! What, when a kind of privileged spot to the traf

are cheerfully sacrificing for fickers in human misery, where they them our best blood and treasure, could collect their cargoes, and have sve no right to require that they whence they could dispatch them shall not injure other friendly states, for the opposite continent, without in whose prosperity we are interest- danger. The effect of this guilty ed; nay, that they shall not use the distinction was such as might be exlife and strength, which we impart pected. An intelligent payal officer, to them, in forcing those states to Capt. Bones, who visited Bissao ja drain to the dregs the cup of wretch- 1811, and sailed a considerable way edness? If some imaginary princi- up the Rio Grande, at the mouth of ple of international law, some inge- which Bissao is situated, describes, nious comment of Puffendorff or in feeling terms, the devastation Vattel, should be adduced to prove which had taken place along the the illegality of such interference, banks of that river. He stales, that as it respects Spain and Portugal; the country on both sides was quite we would ask, are there then no re- unpeopled, in consequence of the clamations in favour of Africa ? Is increased activity which the peculiar Africa beyond the pale of the inter- circumstances of Bissao bad given national code? After having, for to the Slave Trade in that vicinity. centuries, subjected her 10 every It is a very mortifying consideration, wrong which civilized Europe coulil that the aitempts which, for the last inflici, shall we, now that we are five years, the Directors have been alive to our flagrant injustice, deny making to obtain the cession of this to her any community in our rights ? paltry possession, expressly with a We hesitate not to say, and we trust view to prevent the cruel use to the sentiment will become general, which it has now been applied, that if the alliance with Portugal should, bitherto have been uusucand Spain must be bought at the cessful. Negotiation has succeeded price of connivance at this enormily, negotiation, and Bissao is still a their hostility is less to be dreaded Portuguese settlement, the grand than their alliance. But we return slave-mart of the Windward Coast. from this discussion, into which we In consequence of the representahave been surprised, to the Report tions of the Directors, an addition on our table.

was made, about the close of the last Much had been done by the vigi- year, to the naval force on the Afrilance of our cruizers in suppressing can coast; and the whole was placed this trade, on what is called the under the command of Commodore Windward Coast, to which line the 'the Hon. F. P. Irby, a most intellismallness of their force obliged them, gent and active officer, who had for a time, to limit their exertions; zealously entered into the views of

There are many

the best friends of Africa. Much which has already proceeded from has been done, as we understand, their attention to this branch of their by his squadron, in disco iraging the benevolent pursuit, has been the Slave Trade on all parts of the adoption, by the Privy Council, of coast; but as the history of his ex- a law for instituting a register of ertions does not fall within the scope slaves in the island of Trinidad. of the present Report, we shall con- This important measure has been so tent ourselves with saying, that it is framed, as to render any fresh inrumoured that numerous captures of portations of slaves into that island slave ships have been made by his almost impossible. No person can squadron, and that all that have now be there held in a state of slabeen taken have been condemned. very, whose name is not regularly

The act of 1811, making a parti- inscribed, and whose person is not cipation in the Slave Trade felonic accurately described in the register; ous, we have no doubt, must have and the name of no slave will be had a powerful effect in deterring admitted into it, unless he is either British subjects from embarking ei- living in the island at the time the ther their persons or their capital in first list is formed, or is subsequentthe Slave Trade, and must thus bave ly born there. operated largely in the way of pre- collateral benefits likely 10 arise vention. We have learnt, that se- from this enactmeat, besides that of veral convictions under this acı have putting an end to the illicit introtaken place at Sierra Leone, since duction of Africans, and thus indithe date of the Report we are now rectly forcing the planter to look for considering; which are said to have a supply of labourers to the increase produced a more sensible impression of the natural population. It will, on the slave traders generally, than doubtless, produce many important all the captures that had been made direct effects on the comfort and by our cruisers. It is expected, also, happiness of the slave population in that some recent transactions will Trinidad; especially as the register furnish the means of arraigning and will be a register of deaths which punishing, as felons, some persons must be accounteil for, as well as of of consideration in this country, births; and as the inspections, which who appear to have been concerned it prescribes, will prove some check in them.

on tyranny. We do most anxiously The murderous cruelties exercised hope, that Parliament may follow by Mr. Huggins, of Nevis, and the precedent bere set them by the Mr. Hodge, of Tortola, towards Crown, and pass a general register their slaves, together with the tri- act for all the West-India islands, umphant impunity of the former, as a first and necessary step in the and the merited execution of the progress of reform. The Crown, latter, were detailed with sufficient indeed, may legislate for all the particularity in our Review of the conquered colonies, as it bas done Filth Report. We are happy to for Trinidad; but in the case of the perceive ibat the Directors have di- British colonies, to which separate rected much of their attention to colonial legislatures have been given, the abuses existing in our West-In- the interference of Parliament seems dian colonies; and they state their necessary. belief, that the call for a reform in the We detailed, in the review to administration of these colonies is which we have so often alluded, the strongly felt, not only by the public, case of John Wise, who had been but by many persons connected with most unjustly reduced to slavery in those islands, who can no longer the island of St. Vincents.

The shut their eyes to the consequences persevering exertions of Mr. Hugh of the system which has been esta. Perry Keane, of which it is imposblished there, One great result sible to speak too highly, we are

P. 28.

once begun, it is impossible to say where it never be duly valued by those who disbewill finish. For who is to determine what are lieve the first. Would there, then, be no the parts of the Bible exclusively necessary to risk in removing from the sight of the pour salvation? The Antinomian will say the doc- the very basis of their religion ; ia laking trinal parts; the Socinian, the practical: each from their hands the first and the connecte of these, bowever, topping away doctrines and ing iink of the great chain of doctrinas precepts unfavourable to his own creed and which constitute the national creed? Would practice. It, then, bodies of men are not to it be safe to transfer the conveyance of so be trusted, can Dr. Maltby believe that the fundamental a doctrine, from the chanael of Christian world will consent to put the scep- Scripture, to the chance veluicle of popular tre into any single hand; into his own, for instruction?" example; and constitute him sole religious “ Another objection of Dr. Maltby is to autrocrat for all ages and people? Will they the historical books,' in whichi, thougla be stake the national salvation upon the turn of allows there are many itings desirable to his solitary hand? Will they invest him with read, there are many also which are liable to that authority to decree what is essential in be misinterpreted, and more which must be religion, which his project would go near, grossly misunderstood.' (p 7). The objechowever unintentionally, to deny to God tion founded upon a ' liability to misinteihimself? And if they would, has Dr. Malt- pretatiou' has been already notices. What by that confidence in his own judgment, that the parts are which mu't be grossly mishe would venture to seat himself on the understood,' the author has not toid us; throne, and arbitrate for the eternal interests and whether it is that I myself have the of millions yet unborn? If not, is there any misfortune so to misunderstand then, I corother single individual, or any college of tainly am not able to divine these mischierapostles, to whom he would transfer the

ous parts. But I would simply ask Di. ellice?" pp. 25, 26.

Maltby, as to this point, whether it is 10 Having thus disposed of the more

disparagement to the Divine Author of these

books, to affirm, that he has exposed to the general argument, Mr. Cunningham proceeds in the next place to notice bare risk of general circulation, kouks that ihe specific objections to particular also ask, whether he is preparei to quote

must be grossly misunderstood I would parts of the Bible. The reader will many instances of these grass errors, apg find here many just and weighty the multitudes already possessing the Scripobservations, which will amply repay tures? If his theory is not gained by any the labour of perusal. Of the na- large induction of facts, I shall beg permisture of the argument, on both sides, sion to state one fact, with regard to the some estimate may be formed by the historical books, which may at least be set following extracis.

against a naked assertion. It is this - The

bistorical books are the grand instrumento “ With regard to the Book of Genesis, little maintaining and illustrating that biga.y inmore is to be found than a question, · Wie- portant doctrine of religion, a superintendo ther it can be circulated without some chance ing Providence.” pp. 34, 35. of a misconception among the illiterate of our Here, then, is the chief value of the own creed? (p.6). To this I would reply by historical books, as a work for ibe people two other questions: in the first place, cun They are to be considered as a connected any other book be circulated willwut the history of the providential dealings of God same risk? And, secondly, does any gene- with a particular people. They constitute ral or formidable misconception, with regard what may be called the sensible part of reli to any part of this book, prevail among those gion. They teach the doctrine of providence

, with whom it already has free circulation?" as it were, by signs that cannot be nis

taken. They unveil the Deity, and jpt es “ The Book of Genesis, then, be it remem- see and hear the terrors of his violated las, bered, contains the only distinct and sysie- In this point of view, then, they are of ile matic history of the fall of man by the sin of highest importance; and on this accouet Adam; uf a fact, that is, upon which, as a amongst others, thinking men will not willbasis, every orthodox Christian agrees in ingly surrender them to the over-anxious spa thinking that the whole of Christianity rests. culations of the author. The fall of man, and his consequent corrup

" The next objection is to the prophetist tion, create the importance and necessity of books, whose very object, . that of portici lhe death of Chist. This last event will ing future cvents by dark hiuis anú odku

66

P. 27.

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