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Crease of the quantity of our stock of sub- that it should scarcely ever be adopted, unless sistence, and increased frugality in the use of in the case of articles which are not of priit, are the best expedients for relieving the mary necessity, or of which there is an ample, public necessities. Under this persuasion, or rather a superabundant, supply. Nor can they will endeavour to augment the amount the Committee here forbear from waming the of national provisions, by the iniportation of benevolent against all modes of administering rice, and other attainable articles of subsis. relief that will occasion an unrestrained tence, more especially fish. Measures, indeed, consumption of any articles which constitute have been taken for securing 10 the metro- the staple of the national subsistence. This polis a considerable quantity of excellent fish, is a warning, which considerations of humaniwhich, from the fear of not tinding a sale, would ty, no less than of policy, powerfully ennot otherwise be brought to any market". force, as, by acting on the opposite principle,
Economy in using the means of subsistence the most fatal consequences might ensue. At we at present possess, is an object of supreme the same time, the Comunittee express great importance : the Committee strongly recom- satisfaction in bearing from all parts of the mend to all persons of authority and influence kingdom, that the present appearance of the to adopt the most effectual methods for pro- crops atfords the niost encouraging prospect moting it, more particularly to lessen the of an abundant harvest ; and they, therefore, consumption of any articles which form the entertain strong hopes that the distress which subsistence of the poor. In some of the dis. it is the object of the association to relieve, tressed districts, barley, and still more gene. as far as it proceeds from the high price of sally oals, are their ordinary food. By linit- provisions, will be of short duration. ing the consumption of ibe latter article by An admirable plan for the establishment horses, an immense amount of provisions of local institutions for the relief of the poor night be preserved for the use of man. A has been printed, and circulated by the Comvoluntary agreement of this kind among the milice. affluent is no new idea. An association of a It is formed on the model of a soup sociesimilar nature was entered into, during the ty, established in the poor and populous di. last scarcity; and while it shewed that the strict of Spitalfields, which has atforded subhigher classes sympathised with the distresses stantial relief to the distressed manufacturers, of the lower, it produced no small augmenta- and has given rise to many important plans tion of the general stock of subsistence. The for the alleviation of human misery. The Committee confine their proposal to the opu- history of the origin of this society is instruclent only, but they are satisfied that its effects tive and encouraging, as it shews how much would be eventually extended to every branch good may be ultimately effected by the laof the community.
bours of a few persons in the first instance : As to the best methods of assisting the dis- and the plan itself, as it has been remarkably tressed; much, of course, must be left to successful, may serve as a model for similar the intelligence and prudence of the local institutions. associations. In some districts it bas been In the year 1797, an individual, affected stated, that the poor are in want of potatoes with the sufferings of the poor in Spitalfields, for seed. In others, that having pawned many of whom were starving, resolved to their wearing apparel for much less than its procure, if possible, the co-operation of some real value, they would be greatly benefited, of his friends in a plan for affording relief to at a moderate expense, by being enabled to a few of the worst cases, and to ascertain redeem it. In some cases, it may be most which were really such, by visiting them in advisable to purchase necessary articles by their houses. He communicated his idea to wholesale, and to retail them at reduced a friend. These two persons called a meetrates. But the Committee, in throwing out ing of a few of their friends at a private house, this last suggestion, feel it their duty to add, wherein the subject was discussed. At a se
cord mcering, about twenty were present, * The most complete success has attended and this company resolved to form themselves the efforts of the Committee in this respect, into a society for the purpose of supplying and vast quantities of mackarel have been the poor with nieat soup at a penny per brvught to Londoli, and sold to the poor at a quart. A subscription was commenced, penny for each. Such, indeed, lias been the the society rapidly increased, and in the extraordinary supply of this article, in conse- course of a few days a committee was formquence of the means adopted by the Commit- ed. Sub-connnittees were appointed to draw tec, that the coarser parts of butcher's meat, up rules and regulations, and by a division being those chiefly purchased by the poor, of labour in this way, the society was quickly have fallen in Spitalhelds about 2de per lb. organized. The sub-committee appointed for that purpose soon met with eligible premises committee. There are other sub-committees at No. 53, Brick Lane, Spitalfields, and no
for different purposes. time was lost in adapting them to the pure The poor person takes the recommendaposes of the institution. Tickets were print- tion to the visitors at the soup house. It is ed, and issued 10 the subscribers. On the bere numbered, put upon a file, and ihe apfirst day of delivery the visitors attended, plicant receives a ticket in its stead, bearing under no small degree of anxiety as to the the same number as that put upon the reresult of their experiment. It succeeded, commendation. It is usual to allow one however, to their utmost wish: the applicants quart of soup to every two persons in a fa. paid the penny per quart with cheerlulness, mily. and carried home a supply of food which In the boiling-house are five cast-iron boilthey could not have prepared of equal qua- ers of different capacities, capable of making lity themselves, for four or five times that from 3000 to about 3300 quarts of soup. sum. The committee purchase at the first The following are the ingredients for one of hand, at wholesale prices, meat, barley, &c. the large boilers, which furnishes froin 700 to of priimne quality; and as every thing is done 800 quarts of soup. Beef, 200 lb.; Scotch by sub-committees and individuals, from the barley, 100lb.; split peas, 76 lb.; onions, purest and most disinterested motives, there 10 lb.; salt, 15 lb.; pepper, 15 oz. are no salaries for clerks, no commission to The original practice for some time was, agents: the only expense beyond that of the to make the soup principally from the coarser ingredients of the soup is the rent of the pieces of beef; but the society has latterly premises, the lire of servants to prepare the adopted the plan of buying quarters of beef soup under the inspection of the visitors, and only, lest the demand on the market for a moderate allowance to the superintendant, coarser pieces should, by raising the price, be In the choice of the latter, the committee was of prejudice to individuals, who inay be in the most fortunate; they found a married wo- habit of providing themselves with these only, man possessing every requisite qualification Every article in the soup is of the best quafor the office, which she has continued to lity that can be procured. Every quart of discharge, with great credit to herself and be- this soup contains the essence of about five Defit to the institution, down to the present ounces of beef, and nearly three ounces of day.
solid barley and peas. It possesses the adThe cornmittee consists of above fifty gen- vantage of being ready cooked. Two or three tlemen, some of them churchmen, and the quarts of it, it mixed with boiled potatoes, rest dissenters of different denominations, would furnish a savoury meal for a large fawho regularly meet once a fortnight, and mily. transact their business with great harmony
The whole of the meat is cut up, and put and regularity. Deeply sensible that the into the boilers in the evening, and is left to success of every charity mainly consists in simmer all night. During this time it becomes personal inspection, and in a scrupulous and thoroughly stewed down, and the fleshy tibres minute attention to all the details connected equally distributed through the whole mass. with it, the committee has framed its regula- The men come at six v'clock in the morning, tions accordingly.
rouse up the fires, add the barley and pease, A constant oversight is kept up by the and at eight o'clock the onions, pepper, and members of the committee in rotation, and salt; and the whole is kept constantly stirred the whole so contrived as not to press heavi- until it is served out. ly upon any individual.
In order to prevent loss of time in disputIt comes only to the turn of the same in- ing whether the money be good or not, the dividual to altend at the making and distri- committee has ordered that only penny pieces, bution of the soup once in three weeks; and new ballpence, or silver be taken. The comthe days being fixed, every one knows his mittee, indeed, has been very anxious to time.
economize the time of the poor, and imIt has been found of great advantage to provements suggested by experience bave appoint sub-committees for particular pur- shortened the time of delivering the soup to poses ; one to provide the meat, another limits scarcely credible; for some perhaps for barley and peas, a third for pepper and will not without difficuliy be brought to be. salt, and a fourth for onions: there is also a lieve, that upwards of three thousand quarts committee for inspecting the visitors' book, are slaily distributed to above one thousand and bringing forward any remarks recorded persons applying for their families, their in that book which may appear of sufficient money taken, and their tickets marked, in consequence to engage the attention of the less than two hours and a quarter CD an ave
Tage: it has been done frequently within the ed at the market, or supplied as above'; and two hours. The average of the detention of that a ladies' committee be forined to attend each person during the delivery, from the to the cases of distressed lying-in women, time of entering the house at one door and and to clothing for the female poor, to quitting it at the other, is about thirty-eight which committee all cases within its prominutes; and as a great number of those who vince should be referred by the gentlemen's come for the soup, are either childreii, or committee. aged persons past any very beneficial labour, All local establishments are requested to it is evident that not much valuable time is appoint one of their body to correspond with lost in fetching it.
the Secretary of the London society; and if In order to shelter the poor from the in- an account of the state of a place where disconveniences and danger of being exposed to tress prevails has not been already forwardthe weather, the committee has found means ed, it would be desirable to receive it under to receive about three hundred persons at the following heads, viz. extent of the disi once under cover; and to prevent that vio- tress; cause of the distress; employment of lence and coníusion which at first were sub. the poor anri their average earnings ; price jects of just complaint, a kind of railing has of provisions; nature and extent of attempts been constructed, which insures order by at relief; general remarks. The principal obliging earh person to follow in regular suc- object of this society is to administer soch cession to the place of serving.
assistance to local establishments' as the case The average daily quantity of soup deli- may require, and their funds permit. And vered is above 3100 quarts, and the daily as the pressure on the labouring poor is pretty cousumption of beet' is 856 lb.; of Scotch muchi contined to certain districts, while others barley, 426 lb. ; of split peas, 317 lb. ; of are comparatively free, it is earnestly recomonions, 40 lb.; of pepper, 3 lb. 14 oz.; of mended to henevolent persons in the lattet, salt, 62 lb.
to form auxiliary societies in aid of the paIt is calculated, that a meal is tbus fur- rent institution; and as on the above plan of nished for 7000 persons every day. The personal inspection there will be ample secu. beef alone which enters into the composition rity against a waste of the funds, the sums of every quart, costs the institution twopence subscribed will be made to produce the greatat the wholesale price: if this portion of est possible quantity of good, and the extent meat were distributed to the poor, raw, it of the relief will only be limited by the er. must be cooked ; if roasted or fried, besides tent of the means which this society may be 'the expense of fire, there would be waste : if enabled to employ. boiled, some of the gelatine, one of the most nutritious parts of the meat, would be dis- PRAYER-BOOK AND HOMILY SOCIETY. dissolved out by the water; but in this mode Since our last number was published, this of cooking the whole of the nourishment is infant society has become the subject of ve. preserved. For the detailed regulations for liement attack, hy persons calling themselves the proper management of such an institu- Churchinen. One man has assiduously cirtion, we must refer to the account published culated " a Consideration of the Reasons for by this association, which may be had on establishing this Society," and even Dr. application 10 the secretary, W. G. Carter, Marsh, the Margaret Professor of Divinity Esq., John Street, America Square. in the University of Cambridge, bas con
The Committee suggest to local associations, descended to devote eleven pages of a new that as all attempts to relieve the poor in a pamphlet to the purpose of discrediting this time of scarcity, by enabling them to pur. altempt to give additional circulation to the chase bread, four, or meal, at reduced prices, authorised compositions of the Church of has a direct tendency to increase the scarcity, England. it is strongly recommended that their atten- it certainly is somewhat singular, not tion be principally directed to such nourishing only that such an institution should be opsübstitntes as rice and peasc, also dried and posed by persons calling themselves Churchfresh fish, where the latter can be procured, men, but that the man who heads the oppoand to shops for the sale of these articles, sition should be the very man who has soundat reduced prices, to persons who bring tick- ed the alarm of the Church being in danger ets; that a small tract or paper be circulat- from the inadequate distribution of the ed among the families of the industrious poor, Liturgy. pointing out the method by which they may Dr.Marsh has written a book to convince the forin wholesonte and palatable dishes at a world that the Bible Society will overtorn cheap ráte, from articles either to be purchas. the Church, becnuse it does not distribute
the Liturgy. The world, however, will not populous district. Suppose, some man were believe that the circulation of the Bible can not only to refuse bis aid to this society, overturn the Church, seeing the Church is but were so wrong-headed as to attack it built upon that as its foundation. Some publicly, because it neglected to connect a persons think, however, that although no Vaccine Institution with that for distribut. danger of this kind exists, too large a cir- ing soup. Suppose him tu produce instances culation cannot be givea to that Liturgy of persons in Spitalfields dying of the small, which has been justly and eloquently pox in consequence of this neglect; and to styled the daughter of the Bible," and that urge, with great vehemence, against the Soup if any deficieney, in this respect, exists, it Society, that its constitution was ruost dan ought forılıwith to be supplied. Hence the gerous to the health of his Majesty's subjects, Prayer-book and Homily Society.
because, while they were distributing soup Now let us suppose that the Bible Society, alone to thousands, scores were perishing convinced by the reasoning of Dr. Marsh (the through their neglect of vaccination. The Soup supposition, we confess, is somewhat extrava- Society might very fairly answer: gant), had adopted the resolution of adding not, as a society, interfere in this matter. We the Liturgy to every copy of the Bible which have our own proper and exclusive object: might be circulated among members of the we give soup alone; and we cannot engage Church of England: would Dr. Marslo have in the distribution of vaccine matter withcensured them? If so, he would have blamed out prejudice to our institution. Nobody shem for acting conformably to his own sug. doubis the benefit arising from distributing gestions.
good soup to a set of starving manufacThe Bible Society itself, indeed, does not turers. Unfortunately, there arc individuals thus act; but a number of persons, many of who dispute the utility of vaccination; and them friends to that society, do. They say, some of these belong to our society. We if the statenient of Dr. Marsh be true; if the should materially injure, therefore, our iusti. evil exist which he so energetically denounces, tution, which, as it now stands, is most exit becomes all good churchmen to remedy that cellent and unexceptionable, both in respect evil. Nor is it necessary, in such a case, to to its object and its means of attaining inquire very particularly into the accuracy that object, if we were to attempt to emof the statement. If it be correct, then good brace another object about which there unis done: the vacant space is supplied with happily exist differences of opinion,” Prayer-books. If it is incorrect, and Prayer- Would there be any ibing unreascuable in books are not wanted, still no harm is done: all this? Or would it be inconsistent with the only consequence will be, that Prayer- this reply, were a considerable number of tooks will not be called for, and that the the individuals forming the Soup Society to minds of such alarmists as Dr. Marsh will be say," Although we cannot possibly recom. relieved from their apprehensions. Such an mend that our society should becoine also a institution, it were vain to deny, is a sort of Vaccine Society, yet we highly admire vacpractical refutation of Dr. Marsh's argument cination, and are anxious to promote it. of the neglect of the Liturgy. And the most We will therefore assist in forming a Vaesolid objection that was made to it from the cine Institution in Spitalfields, which may first, perhaps was, that it was too epigram- obviaie all the evils complained of, and we matic. This, however, was a mere accident, will be among its most active supporters." which could not be avoided, and did not en- Let Dr. Marsh exert bis ingenuity in ter into the essence of the plan.
pointing out any real difference between Dr. Marsh assumes, that the formation of the two cases. this society is at complete variance with the Dr. Marsh triumphs in the institution of arguments used in defence of the Bible Su. this society, as an admission not only of the ciety. We do not think so. We have been, existence of neglect as to the Liturgy, but and still are, anong the warmest advocates of of the cause he bas assigned for it, and the this society. In the rery same breath, how. consequences he has deduced from it. His ever, we can commend and support an in- inference is ceriainly not very logical. For stitution for circulating the Prayer-book. Is our own parts, we deny it in foto. But there any inconsistency in this? If there be, we should be willing to concede this point we are too dull to perceive it.
to Dr. Marsh, to allow him the triumple of Take a parallel case: There exists a having originated this society, if he would Soup Society, in the parish of Spitalfields, only support his own oft'spring. Ilis conducte which has done, and is doing, immense good, howeres, is not a little ounatural. He claips by the distribution of soup in that poor and to be the father of the child, and yet refuses it his parental protection, gay, exerts But the object which Dr. Marsh has at himself to deprive it even of parish aid. heart is, that all who are friendly to the This is hard.
distribution of the Prayer-book should juin But one great ground of offence with Dr. the Society for promoting Christian KnowMarsh, and probably with many others, is, ledge. But will he receive shem? Has he prothat it seems to ibem to interfere with posed Mr. Simeon to that society, and has the Bartlett's Buildings' Society ; and he Mr. Simeon been accepted? Does be mean · argues, that there can be no reason why to say, that every person who may wish to
churchmen should forsake the old society distribute Prayer-books, will be received into for the sake of the new, In this proposi- the pale of that society without the risk of a tion we are glad to be able to concur with black ball? Does he mean to say, that there Dr. Marsh.
are not many persons who object, on vari. It is one of the unliappy distinctions of ous grounds, to joining that society, who yet those who have called themselves the would be most glad to contribute to the obfriends, and have been the avowed advo- ject of circulating the Liturgy? There must cates, of the Society for promoting Christian be many such. Why should Dr. Marsh in. Knowledge, (a distinction in which we trust sist, that none shall distribute the Liturgy but they will long stand unrivalled and unen. those who have nerves to stand a ballot at vied), that they cannot tolerate any scheme Bartieti’s Buildings ; or against whom no preof benevolence, embracing any one of the judice exists there; or who approve all that objects of that suciety, which does not im- society's tracts ; or who are able to pay at mediately emanate from it. In most other least two pounds at admission, and a guinea cases it would be deemed indecorous for the annually? Many good churchmen, he will members of one charitable institution to admit, may be unable, with convenience, 1o object to the formation of others. We do make this payment, who may yet spare an not hear the contributors to the Lock Hos. annual guinea or half.guinea. But he will pital and Asylum anathematizing the sub- be ready to say, that those must be bad scribers to the Female Penitentiary, nor the churchmen who fear the ballui, or dislike members of the Magdalen proscribing both the society's tracts. Be it so. Then, is it these. Even if any of them should appre. not politic to engage such men in a society hend that some diversion of their means which shall tend to uphold the church? might be caused by the rival institutions, He can surely apprehend no injury from yet they would perceive that it would be both distributing the Liturgy. He cannot supunfeeling and indecorous to circulate hand- pose that the Liturgy will acquire a taiut by bills, and publish painphlets, in order either passing through such hands. For our own to dam up the current of benevolence, or to parts, we should have thought it wise in prevent its flowing freely in any direction to Dr. Marsh, on the supposition that his fears which it might point.
were real, to have encouraged a society The advocates of the Bartlett's Buildings' which should embark bad Churchien, Society are not restrained by such com- Methodists, and even Dissenters, if that non-place notions of decorum. No good might be, in the beneficial work of circulatmust be done in their line but after their ing the Liturgy. fashion, and by their hands.
We shall probably have much more to Still it may be proper, in some cases, not say on this head hereafter. In the mean to be swayed by motives of delicacy. The tiine, we wish to advert 10 a necessity of a public safety nay require a violation of or- different description, which exists for a new dinary rules. Here, however, no such thing society like the present, even as it respects can be alleged. The utmost that can be the Liturgy. The Bartlett's Buildings' Sosaid is, that the new society is useless, as it re- ciety furnishes its books only to those who spects the distribution of Prayer-books, the are its inembers, and it exercises a right Bartlett's Buildings' Suciety being fully equal of excluding whom it pleases from its to satisfying all the necessities of the church. pale. This circumstance would be attendBut if this be so, whence have arisen all the ed with less inconvenience, il members were alarm and clamour which we have lately allowed to transfer their privilege (certain witnessed on the part of Dr. Marsh and limits being put to its exercise) to others, liis associates? No new institution, accord- whether members or not. This is done in ing to them, is needed for distributing the Bible Society, without any apparent Prayer-books; and yet the church is in the effect except that of an increased circulation most iminent danger from the neglect of of Bibles. But this, it may be alleged, the the Prayer-book!
funds of the Society for promoting Christian