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We mean to make this trial of our child. Your care, and our dear blessing, in mean
time, We pray may prosper this intended work.
Prioress. May your happy soul be blithe, That so truly pay your tithe: He that many children gave, 'T is fit that he one child should have. Then, fair virgin, hear my spell, For I must your duty tell. Millisent. Good men and true, stand to
gether, And hear your charge.
Prioress. First, a mornings take your book, The glass wherein yourself must look; Your young thoughts, so proud and jolly, Must be turned to motions holy; For your busk attires, and toys, Have your thoughts on heavenly joys : And for all your follies past You must do penance, pray, and fast. You must read the morning mass, You must creep unto the cross, Put cold ashes on your head, Have a hair-cloth for your bed; Bind your beads, and tell your needs, Your holy aves, and your creeds: Holy maid, this must be done, If you mean to live a nun."
The sweetness of some of these lines argues the practised poet. Indeed the whole play is remarkable for its elegance rather than its and it
appears to us exactly such a performance as was within the range of Drayton's powers.
The device of Fabel proceeds, in the appearance of Raymond Mounchensey guised as a friar. Sir Arthur Clare has disclosed to him all his projects. The “holy young novice” proceeds to the priory as a visitor sent from Waltham House to ascertain whether Millisent is about to take the veil“ from conscience and devotion.” The device succeeds, and the lovers are left together :
“ Moun. Life of my soul ! bright angel !
know that voice. You? who are you? the holy Virgin bless me! Tell me your name; you shall ere you confess
Moun. Mounchensey, thy true friend.
Millisent. My Raymond! my dear heart ! Sweet life, give leave to my distracted soul To wake a little from this swoon of joy. By what means camest thou to assume this
shape? Moun. By means of Peter Fabel, my kind
tutor, Who, in the habit of friar Hildersham, Frank Jerningham's old friend and confessor, Plotted by Frank, by Fabel, and myself, And so deliver'd to Sir Arthur Clare, Who brought me here unto the abbey-gate, To be his nun-made daughter's visitor. Millisent. You are all sweet traitors to my
poor old father. O my dear life, I was a dream'd to-night, That, as I was praying in my psalter, There came a spirit unto me, as I kneeld, And by his strong persuasions tempted me To leave this nunnery: and methought He came in the most glorious angel shape That mortal eye did ever look upon. Ha! thou art sure that spirit, for there's no
form Is in mine eye so glorious as thine own. Moun. 0 thou idolatress, that dost this
worship To him whose likeness is but praise of thee! Thou bright unsetting star, which, through
this veil, For very envy mak’st the sun look pale.
Millisent. Well, visitor, lest that perhaps
Should think the friar too strict in his de
crees, I this confess to my sweet ghostly faiher; If chaste pure love be sin, I must confess I have offended three years now with thee. Moun. But do you yet repent you of the
same? Millisent. I' faith I cannot. Moun.
Nor will I absolve thee Of that sweet sin, though it be venial: Yet have the penance of a thousand kisses; And I enjoin you to this pilgrimage :That in the evening you bestow yourself Here in the walk near to the willow-ground, Where I 'll be ready both with men and
horse To wait your coming, and convey you hence Unto a lodge I have in Enfield Chase: No more reply if that you yield consent : I see more eyes upon our stay are bent.
Millisent. Sweet life, farewell? 't is done, Such as but sat upon the skirts of art; let that suffice;
No conjurations, nor such weighty spells What my tongue fails, I send thee by mine As tie the soul to their performancy; eyes."
These, for his love who once was my dear The votaress is carried off by her brother
Have I effected. Now, methinks, 't is strange and Jerningham ; but in the darkness of the night they lose their way, and encounter the
That you, being old in wisdom, should thus
knit deer-stealers and the keepers. A friendly
Your forehead on this match; since reason forester, however, assists them, and they
fails, reach Enfield in safety. Not so fortunate
No law can curb the lover's rash attempt; are Sir Arthur and Sir Ralph, who are in
Years, in resisting this, are sadly spent: pursuit of the unwilling nun. They are
Smile then upon your daughter and kind son, roughly treated by the keepers, and, after a And let our toil to future ages prove, night of toil, find a resting-place at Waltham. The Devil of Edmonton did good in love. The priest and his companions are terrified Sir Arthur. Well, 't is in vain to cross the by their encounters in the Chase : the lady providence: in white, who has been hiding from them, is Dear son, I take thee up into my heart; taken for a spirit ; and the sexton has seen Rise, daughter, this is a kind father's part. a vision in the church-porch. The morning
Host. Why, Sir George, send for Spindle's however arrives, and we see “Sir Arthur
noise presently: Clare and Sir Ralph Jerningham trussing
Ha! ere’t be night I'll serve the good Duke
of Norfolk. their points, as newly up.” They had made
Sir John. Grass and hay, mine host; let's good their retreat, as they fancied, to the inn of mine host of the George, but the
live till we die, and be merry, and there's an
end." merry devil of Edmonton had set the host and the smith to change the sign of the We lament with Tieck that the continuahouse with that of another inn ; and at the tion of the career of “The Merry Devil' is real George the lovers were being happily possibly lost. We imagine that we should married by the venison-stealing priest, in have seen him expiating his fault by doing the company of their faithful friends. Sir
as much good to his fellow-mortals as he Arthur and Sir Ralph are of course very could accomplish without the aid of necroangry when the truth is made known; but
mancy. Old Weever, in his · Funeral Monureconcilement and peace are soon accom ments,' has no great faith in his art magic: plished :
“Here (at Edmonton) lieth interred under a “ Fabel. To end this difference, know, at seemelie Tome, without Inscription, the Body first I knew
of Peter Fabell (as the report goes) upon What you intended, ere your love took flight
whom this Fable was fathered, that he by From old Mounchensey: you, Sir Arthur his wittie devises beguiled the devill: belike Clare,
he was some ingenious conceited gentleman, Were minded to have married this sweet who did use some sleighty trickes for his beauty
owne disports. He lived and died in the To young Frank Jerningham. To cross this raigne of Henry the Seventh, saith the booke match
of his merry pranks.” I used some pretty sleights, but, I protest,
AS YOU LIKE IT.
“As You LIKE IT'was first printed in the If we were to accept the oracular decisions folio collection of 1623.
of Farmer and Steevens, as to the sources The exact date of this comedy cannot be from which Shakspere derived the story of fixed, but there is no doubt that it belongs ‘As You Like It,' we might dismiss the subto the first or second year of the seventeenth ject very briefly. The one says, with his century. It is not mentioned in the list usual pedantie insolence, “. As You Like It' published by Meres in 1598; and there is an was certainly borrowed, if we believe Dr. allusion in the comedy which fixes the limits Grey and Mr. Upton, from the 'Coke's Tale of its date in the other direction : “I will of Gamelyn,' which, by the way, was not weep for nothing,” says Rosalind,“ like Diana printed till a century afterward, when, in in the fountain.” The cross in Westcheap, truth, the old bard, who was no hunter of originally erected by Edward I., was recon- MSS., contented himself solely with structed in the reign of Henry VI., and con- Lodge’s ‘Rosalynd, or Euphues' Golden verted to the useful purpose of a conduit. Legacye,' quarto, 1590."* Thus “ the old The images about the cross were often broken bard,” meaning Shakspere, did not take the and defaced, probably by the misdirected trouble of doing, or was incapable of doing, , zeal of the early reformers; and so the what another old bard, Lodge (first a player, heathen deities were called in, and in 1596, and afterwards a naval surgeon), did with according to Stow, was set up an alabaster great care-consult the manuscript copy of image of Diana, and water conveyed from an old English tale attributed, but supposed the Thames prilling from her breast.” Stow incorrectly so, to Chaucer. In spite, howgives us this information in 1599; but in ever, of Dr. Farmer, we shall take the liberty 1603, when the second edition of his 'Survey of looking at the 'Tale of Gamelyn,' in the of London’ was published, the glories of endeavour to find some traces of Shakspere. Diana were passed away; her fountain was Steevens disposes of Lodge’s ‘Rosalynd' in no longer “prilling.” “The same is ofttimes as summary a way as Farmer does of dried up, and now decayed,” says Stow. 'Gamelyn.' Shakespeare has followed There can be no doubt that Diana was Lodge's novel more exactly than is his included in the popular hatred of this unfor- general custom when he is indebted to such tunate cross; for although Elizabeth, on the worthless originals, and has sketched some of 24th September, 1600, sent a special com his principal characters and borrowed a few mand to the city respecting “the con
expressions from it.
The imitations, &c., tinuance of that monument,” in accordance however, are in general too insignificant to with which it was again repaired, gilded, merit transcription.” All this is very unand cleansed from dust, “about twelve scrupulous, ignorant, and tasteless. Lodge's nights following the image of our Lady was ‘Rosalynd' is not a worthless original ; again defaced by plucking off her crown, and Shakspere's imitations of it are not insignialmost her head.” When Rosalind made the ficant. Lodge's novel is, in many respects, allusion to Diana in the fountain, we may be however quaint and pedantic, informed with pretty sure that the fountain was not “ dried
* ' Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare, Boswell's up.”
Edition, r. 214.
a bright poetical spirit, and possesses a pas- style, and versification, all prove it to have toral charm which may occasionally be com been the work of an author much inferior to pared with the best parts of Sydney's Chaucer.” He adds—“As a relique of our
Arcadia.' Lodge most scrupulously follows ancient poetry, and the foundation, perhaps, the Tale of Gamelyn, as far as that poem of Shakespeare's “ As You Like It,' I could would harmonise with other parts of his have wished to see it more accurately printed story which we may consider to be his own than it is in the only edition which we have invention. But he has added so much that of it.” + Of the antiquity of the poem
there is new, in the creation of the incident of the can be no doubt. It not only employs the banished king, the adventures of Rosalynd old language in the old spirit, but its conand Alinda (Celia) in the forest, the passion ception of the heroic character is altogether of Rosader (Orlando), and the pretty mistake that of a rude age, when deeds of violence of Phebe arising out of the disguise of did not present themselves to the imaginaRosalynd, that it is nothing less than absurd tion as any other than the natural accomto consider Shakspere's obligations to him as paniments of bodily strength and undaunted insignificant. It is rema
that in the two courage. There is nothing more remarkable instances where Shakspere founded dramas than the different modes in which Lodge upon the novels of two contemporary English and Shakspere—who, be it remembered, writers, the “Rosalynd' of Lodge, and the were contemporaries, and therefore, with 'Pandosto’ of Greene, he offered a decided the exception of the differences of their inhomage to their genius, by adopting their dividual habits of thought, to be supposed incidents with great fidelity. But in the equally capable of modifying their impresprocess of converting a narrative into a sions by the associations of a different state drama he manifests the wonderful superiority of society—have dealt with their common of his powers over those of the most gifted original. In the Tale of Gamelyn,' an old of his fellow-poets, even in a more remark- doughty knight, Sir Johan of Boundis, is at able
way than if, using the common language the point of death, and directs certain“ wise of criticism, we might call the 'As You Like knights" to settle how he shall divide his It' and the “Winter's Tale' his own inven- goods amongst his three sons. The division tion ; especially in the exquisite taste with which they make is, as we shall presently which he combines old materials with new, see, not agreeable to the wishes of the father, narrates what is unfit to be dramatically and he thus decrees that his land shall be represented, represents what he finds nar divided otherwise than the friends had rated, informs the actors with the most lively willed :and discriminating touches of character, and
“For Godd 'is love, my neighbouris, throws over the whole the rich light of his
Standeith ye alle still, poetry and his philosophy. We believe that
And I will delin my londe our readers will not, in this point of view
After my owne will. consider the space ill bestowed which we
Johan myn eldest sone shall shall devote to an analysis of Lodge's Yhave plowis five, · Rosalynd, as compared with the 'As You
That was my fadir's heritage Like It.' *
While that he was on live; 6 The Coke's Tale Gamelyn,” says Tyr
And middillist sonè shall whitt, “is not to be found in any of the Five plowis have of lond MSS. of the first authority; and the manner,
That I holpe for to gettin * A reprint of this uncommonly rare tract forms part of
With myn own rightè hond; a series entitled Shakespeare's Library, a Collection of the
And all myn othir purchasis Romances, Novels, and Histories used by Shakespeare as
Of landis and of ledes accurately reprinted from the Original Editions, with In
That I bequethe Gamelyn troductory Notices by J. Payne Collier, Esq., F.S.A.' Such And all my gode stedes.” a work, so edited, is of the greatest value to the students and lovers of Shakspere.
† Introductory Discourse to the Canterbury Tales.'
the Foundation of his Dramas. Now first collected and
According to Lodge's ‘Rosalynd,' Sir John | therefore allow me such exercises as may become of Bourdeaux, in the presence of his fellow a gentleman, or give me the poor allottery my knights of Malta, calls his sons before him, father left me by testament; with that I will go and thus directs:
buy my fortunes.” “ As I leave you some fading pelf to counter- With the exception of the slight burst of check poverty, so I will bequeath you infallible violence at the insolence of his elder brother, precepts that shall lead you unto virtue. First, the youngest son of Shakspere is perfectly therefore, unto thee, Saladyne, the eldest, and submissive, unrepining at his fortunes, withtherefore the chiefest pillar of my house, wherein out revenge. In the Tale of Gamelyn,' and should be engraved as well the excellency of in Lodge's version of it, the youngest son thy father's qualities, as the essential fortune of being endowed more largely than his elder his proportion, to thee I give fourteen plough- brother, there is a perpetual contest for power lands, with all my manor houses and richest going forward. The elder brother is envious plate. Next, unto Fernandine I bequeath twelve
at the younger being preferred; the younger ploughlands. But, unto Rosader, the yoụngest, is indignant that the cunning of the elder I give my horse, my armour, and my lance, with deprives him of the advantages of his father's sixteen ploughlands ; for, if the inward thoughts testament. It is singular how closely Lodge be discovered by outward shadows, Rosader will
has here copied the old tale. In his preface exceed you all in bounty and honour.”
The Orlando of Shakspere thus describes Having, with Captain Clarke, made a voyage his legacy:
to the islands of Terceras and the Canaries, to “ As I remember, Adam, it was upon this beguile the time with labour I write this book ; fashion bequeathed me by will, but poor a thou- rough, as hatched in the storms of the ocean,
and feathered in the surge of many perilous sand crowns; and, as thou say’st, charged my
seas." brother, on his blessing, to breed me well.”
It is quite clear that he had in his cabin a copy The entire difference of the conception of in manuscript of the old “Tale of Gamelyn.' character between the Orlando of Shakspere For example:and the Rosader of Lodge follows this dif
“ Gamelyn stode upon a day ference in the statement of the father's be
In his brotheris yerde, quest. Shakspere, we have no doubt, was And he began with his honde led to this difference by his knowledge of To handilin his berde." the original tale. We do not believe that
Compare Lodge :he 66 was no hunter of MSS.” The mode in which the friends of the old doughty knight
“ With that, casting up his hand, he felt hair
upon his face, and, perceiving his beard to bud, disposed of his wealth was this :
for choler he began to blush, and swore to “For to delin them al too on
himself he would be no more subject to such That was ther only thought,
“ After came his brothir in We see at once that the course which Shak
Ywalkyng statelich thare, spere has taken was necessary to his concep And seide unto Gamelyn tion of the character of the younger brother. What? is our metè yare ? Because his brother neglected to breed him
Tho Gamelyn ywrothid hym, well, there begins his sadness :
And swore by Goddis boke,
Thou shalt y go, bake, luke, thy self; “My father charged you in his will to give
I wol not be thy coke.” me good education: you have trained me like a peasant, obscuring and hiding me from all gentle. The parallel passage in Lodge is as follows: manlike qualities: the spirit of my father grows “ As thus he. was ruminating of his melancholy strong in me, and I will no longer endure it: passions, in came Saladyne with his men, and