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and green,

and gay,

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The gentleman and lady from the court, hang himself, and to help him up in the Sedmond and Clarisia, then come out of tree to accomplish his determination. They the wood, accompanied by their servant, consent, arguing that if he hangs himself Conditions. It appears that their father they shall be free from the penalty of hanghas long been absent, and they are traveling him; and so into the tree he goes. Up ling to seek him. Clarisia is heavy-hearted; the branches he runs like a squirrel, hallooand her brother thus consoles her, after the ing for help, whilst the heavy tinkers have fashion of “epithets, metaphors, and hyper- no chance against his activity and his Shefboles :"

field knife. They finally make off; and Con

ditions releases his mistress. The next scene You see the chirping birds begin you melody to make,

presents us Sedmond, the brother, alone. He But you, ungrateful unto them, their pleasant laments the separation from his sister, and voice forsake:

the uncertainty which he has of ever finding You see the nightingale also, with sweet and his father: pleasant lay,

“But farewell now, my coursers brave, attrapped Sound for er voice chirping wise to ba

to the ground; nish care away.

Farewell, adieu, all pleasures eke, with comely You see Dame Tellus, she with mantle fresh

hawk and hound:

Farewell, ye nobles all; farewell each martial For to display everywhere most comely to be knight; seen;

Farewell, ye famous ladies all, in whom I did You see Dame Flora, she with flowers fresh delight.” Both here and there and everywhere, her Sedmond, continuing his lament, says,banners to display.”

Adieu, my native soil; adieu, Arbaccas king;

Adieu, each wight and martial knight; adieu, The lady will have no comfort. She replies each living thing : to her brother in a long echo to his speech, Adieu, my woful sire, and sister in like case, ending

Whom never I shall see again each other to " And therefore, brother, leave off talk; in vain

embrace; you seem to prate:

For now I will betake myself a wandering Not all the talk you utter can, my sorrows can

knight to be, abate."

Into some strange and foreign land, their

comeliness to see." Conditions ungallantly takes part against the lady, by a declamation in dispraise of women;

When Conditions released the lady, we learnt

that the scene was Arabia :which is happily cut short by the tinkers rushing in. Now indeed we have movement “And, lady, it is not best for us in Arabia which will stir the audience. The brother longer to tarry.” escapes; the lady is bound to a tree; Con- It is to Arabia, his native soil, that Sedmond ditions is to be hanged; but his adroitness, bids adieu. But the audience learn by a very which is excessively diverting, altogether re- simple expedient that a change is to take minding one of another little knave, the Flib- place: a board is stuck up with the word bertigibbet of Scott, sets the audience in a

“ Phrygia” upon it, and a new character, roar. They are realizing the description of Galiarbus

, entereth “out of Phrygia.”. He Gosson,—“ In the theatres they generally is the father of the fugitives, who, banished take up a wonderful laughter, and shout alto- from Arabia, has become rich, and obtained gether with one voice when they see some lordship from the Duke of Phrygia ; but he notable cozenage practised."* When the thinks of his children, and bitterly laments tinkers have the noose round the neck of that they must never meet. Those children Conditions, he persuades them to let him have arrived in Phrygia ; for a new character * Plays Confuted,'&c.

appears, Lamphedon, the son of the Duke,

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who has fallen violently in love with a lady If Fortune then fail not, and our next voyage whom we know by his description to be

prove, Clarisia. Conditions has discovered that his We will return merrily and make good cheer, mistress is equally in love with Lamphedon ; And hold altogether as friends link'd in love; all which circumstances are described and

The cans shall be filled with wine, ale, and

beer. not rendered dramatic: and then Conditions, for his own advantage, brings the two lovers

Lustily, lustily," &c. together, and they plight their troth, and are The action of this comedy is conducted for finally married. The lost brother, Sedmond, the most part by description; an easier thing next makes his appearance under the name than the dramatic development of plot and of Nomides; and with him a Phrygian lady, character. Lamphedon falls in with the Sabia, has fallen in love. But her love is pirates, and by force of arms he compels them unrequited; she is rejected, and the un to tell him of the fate of his wife. She has courteous knight flies from her. Lamphedon been taken, it seems, by Conditions, to be and Clarisia are happy at the Duke's court; sold to Cardolus, an island chief; and then but Conditions, as it obscurely appears, want- Lamphedon goes to fight Cardolus, and he ing to be travelling again, has irritated the does fight him, but finds not the lady. ConDuchess against her daughter-in-law, and ditions has however got rid of his charge, by they both, accompanied by Conditions, fly to persuading her to assume the name of Metake ship for Thracia. They fall in with træa, and enter the service of Leosthines. pirates, who receive them on ship-board, hav- Hardship must have wonderfully changed ing been secretly promised by Conditions that her; for after a time her brother, Sedmond, they will afford a good booty. We soon learn, arrives under his assumed name, and becomes by the appearance of Lamphedon, that they a candidate for her affections. The good old have thrown him overboard, and that he has man under whose protection she remains has lost his lady; but the pirates, who are by no adopted her as his daughter. Lamphedon is means bad specimens of the English mariner, on the way to seek her, accompanied by Consoon present themselves again, with a sea ditions; and thus by accident, and by the insong, which we transcribe; for assuredly it trigues of the knavish servant, all those are was fitted to rejoice the hearts of the play- reunited who have suffered in separation : for goers of a maritime nation:

Leosthines is the banished father'*. How “ Lustily, lustily, lustily, let us sail forth;

Conditions is disposed of is not so clear. He The wind trim doth serve us, it blows from

is constantly calling himself a little knave, the north.

and a crafty knave, a parasite, a turncoat; All things we have ready and nothing we want

To furnish our ship that rideth hereby; “ Conditions ? nay, double Conditions is my Victuals and weapons they be nothing scant;

name, Like worthy mariners ourselves we will try. That for my own advantage such dealings can Lustily, lustily, &c.

frame.” Her flags be new trimmed, set flaunting aloft; It is difficult to discover what advantage he Our ship for swift swimming, oh, she doth derives from his trickiness, yet he has alexcel :

ways a new trick. It is probable that he We fear no enemies, we have escaped them oft:

was personated by some diminutive perOf all ships that swimmeth, she beareth the former, whose grimaces and ugliness would bell.

make the audience roar with delight. The Lustily, lustily, &c.

tinkers in the first scene say they know not And here is a master excelleth in skill,

what to do with him, except to “set him to And our master's mate he is not to seek ; And here is a boatswain will do his good will, keep crows." The object of the writer of the

* A leaf or two is lost of the original copy, but enough And here is a ship, boy, we never had leak.

remains to let us see how the plot will end. We learn that Lustily, lustily, &c.

Nomides repents of his rejection of Sabia.

and he says,

In the page

comedy, if he had any object, would appear | dramas formed upon romances and legendary to be to show that the purposes of craft may tales, as “Common Conditions' was, says, produce results entirely unexpected by the “Sometimes you shall see nothing but the crafty one, and that happiness may be finally adventures of an amorous knight, passing obtained through the circumstances which from country to country for the love of his appear most to impede its attainment. This lady, encountering many a terrible monster comedy is remarkable for containing none of made of brown paper; and at his return is the ribaldry which was so properly objected so wonderfully changed, that he cannot be to in the plays of the early stage. It is cha- known but by some posy in his tablet, or by racterised, also, by the absence of that melo a broken ring, or a 'handkerchief, or a piece dramatic extravagance which belonged to of cockle-shell.”+ When the true masters of this period, exhibiting power, indeed, but not the romantic drama arose, they found the the power of real art. These extravagances people prepared for the transformation of the are well described by the author of "The ridiculous into the poetical. We have anaThird Blast of Retreat from Plays and Thea- lysed this very curious comedy from the tres ;' although his notion that an effort of transcript in the Bodleian Library made imagination, and a lie, are the same thing is under the direction of Malone from the only very characteristic:—“ The writers of our printed copy, and that an imperfect one, time are so led away with vain glory that which is supposed to exist. their only endeavour is to pleasure the hu- which contains the passage “Farewell, ye mour of men, and rather with vanity to con nobles all,” &c., Malone has inserted the foltent their minds than to profit them with lowing foot-note, after quoting the celebrated good ensample. The notablest liar is become lines in Othello, “ Farewell the tranquil the best poet; he that can make the most mind,” &c.:—“The coincidence is so striking notorious lie, and disguise falsehood in such that one is almost tempted to think that sort that he may pass unperceived, is held Shakspeare had read this wretched piece." the best writer. For the strangest comedy It is scarcely necessary for us to point out brings greatest delectation and pleasure. how constantly the date of a play must be Our nation is led away with vanity, which borne in mind to allow us to form any fair the author perceiving, frames himself with opinion of its merits. Malone himself connovelties and strange trifles to content the siders that this play was printed about the vain humours of his rude auditors, feigning year 1570, although we believe that this concountries never heard of, monsters and pro-jecture fixes the date at least ten years too digious creatures that are not: as of the early. It appears to us that it is a remarkArimaspie, of the Grips, the Pigmies, the able production even for 1580; and if, as a Cranes, and other such notorious lies.” Sid work of art, it be of little worth, it certainly ney, writing of the same period of the drama, contains the elements of the romantic drama, speaks of the apparition of “ a hideous mon- except the true poetical element, which could ster with fire and smoke.” * And Gosson, only be the result of extraordinary indihaving direct reference to some romantic vidual genius. * Defence of Poesy.'

+ 'Plays Confuted.'

.

CHAPTER IV.

THE LAWFULNESS OF PLAYS.

men

The controversy upon the lawfulness of stage-| thought that declamation like this would plays was a remarkable feature of the period produce any great effect in turning a poetiwhich we are now describing; and pamphlets cal mind from poetry, or that even Master were to that age what newspapers are to ours. Gosson's contrast of the “manners of EngThe dispute about the Theatre was a contest land in old time” and “ New England," between the holders of opposite opinions in would go far to move a patriotic indignation religion. The Puritans, who even at that against modern refinements. We have, on time were strong in their zeal if not in their one hand, Dion's description how Englishnumbers, made the Theatre the especial ob “ went naked and were good soldiers ; ject of their indignation; for its unquestion they fed upon roots and barks of trees; they able abuses allowed them so to frame their would stand up to the chin many days in invectives that they might tell with double marshes without victuals;” and, on the other force against every description of public hand,“ but the exercise that is now among amusement, against poetry in general, against us is banqueting, playing, piping, and dancmusic, against dancing, associated as they ing, and all such delights as may win us to were with the excesses of an ill-regulated pleasure, or rock us in sleep. Quantum mustage. A Treatise of John Northbrooke, li- tatus ab illo !In this his first tract the censed for the press in 1577, is directed worthy man has a sneaking kindness for the against “dicing, dancing, vain plays, or in- Theatre which he can with difficulty suppress: terludes.” Gosson, who had been a student _“As some of the players are far from abuse, of Christchurch, Oxford, had himself written so some of their plays are without rebuke, two or three plays previous to his publica- which are easily remembered, as quickly tion, in 1579, of 'The School of Abuse, con- reckoned. The two prose books played at taining a Pleasant Invective against Poets, . the Bel Savage, where you shall find never Pipers, Players, Jesters, and such-like Cater a word without wit, never a line without pillars of a Commonwealth.' This book, writ- pith, never a letter placed in vain. “The ten with considerable ostentation of learning, Jew,' and 'Ptolemy,' shown at the Bull; the and indeed with no common vigour and oc one representing the greediness of worldly casional eloquence, defeats its own purposes choosers, and bloody minds of usurers ; the by too large an aim. Poets, whatever be the other very lively describing how seditious character of their poetry, are the objects of estates with their own devices, false friends Gosson's new-born hostility :-“Tiberius the with their own swords, and rebellious comEmperor saw somewhat when he judged mons in their own snares, are overthrown ; Scaurus to death for writing a tragedy; Au- neither with amorous gesture wounding the gustus when he banished Ovid; and Nero eye, nor with slovenly talk hurting the ears, when he charged Lucan to put up his pipes, of the chaste hearers. "The Blacksmith's to stay his pen, and write no more.” Music Daughter, and « Catiline's Conspiracies,' comes in for the same denunciation, upon the usually brought in at the Theatre : the first authority of Pythagoras, who “condemns containing the treachery of Turks, the hothem for fools that judge music by sound nourable bounty of a noble mind, the shining and ear. The three abuses of the time are of virtue in distress. The last, because it is held to be inseparable :-“As poetry and known to be a pig of mine own sow, I will piping are cousin-germans, so piping and speak the less of it; only giving you to unplaying are of great affinity, and all three derstand that the whole mark which I shot chained in links of abuse." It is not to be at in that work was to show the reward of

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Gosson says,

traitors in Catiline, and the necessary go- | thing forgot that might serve to set out the vernment of learned men in the person of matter with pomp, or ravish the beholders Cicero, which foresees every danger that is with variety of pleasure.” Lodge, in his relikely to happen, and forestalls it continu- ply to Gosson’s ‘School of Abuse,' had indially ere it take effect.”

rectly acknowledged the want of moral purThe praise of the “two prose books at the pose in the stage exhibitions ; but he conBel Savage,” that contained “never a word tends that, as the ancient satirists were without wit, never a line without pith, never reformers of manners, so might plays be a letter placed in vain,” is quite sufficient to properly directed to the same end. Surely show us that these prose books exhibited nei we want not a Roscius, neither are there ther character nor passion. The ‘Ptolemy' great scarcity of Terence's profession : but and the Catiline, there can be no doubt, yet our men dare not nowadays presume so were composed of a succession of tedious much as the old poets might: and therefore monologues, having nothing of the principle they apply their writings to the people's vein; of dramatic art in them, although in their whereas, if in the beginning they had ruled, outward form they appeared to be dramas. we should nowadays have found small spec“ These plays are good plays tacles of folly, but of truth.

You and sweet plays, and of all plays the best say, unless the thing be taken away, the vice plays, and most to be liked, worthy to be will continue ; nay, I say, if the style were sung of the Muses, or set out with the cun- changed, the practice would profit.” To this ning of Roscius himself; yet are they not fit argument, that the Theatre might become for every man's diet, neither ought they com the censor of manners, Gosson thus replies : monly to be shown.It is clear that these “ If the common people which resort to thegood plays and sweet plays had not in them- atres, being but an assembly of tailors, tinkselves any of the elements of popularity ; ers, cordwainers, sailors, old men, young therefore they were utterly barren of real men, women, boys, girls, and such-like, be poetry. The highest poetry is essentially the judges of faults there pointed out, the the popular poetry : it is universal in its rebuking of manners in that place is neither range, it is unlimited in its duration. The lawful nor convenient, but to be held for a lowest poetry (if poetry it can be called) is kind of libelling and defaming.” The noconventional; it lives for a little while in tion which appears to have possessed the narrow corners, the pet thing of fashion or minds of the writers against the stage at of pedantry. When Gosson wrote, the poetry this period is, that a fiction and a lie were of the English drama was not yet born; and the same.

“ The perfectest the people contented themselves with some image is that which maketh the thing to thing else that was nearer poetry than the seem neither greater nor less than indeed plays which were “ not fit for every man's it is; but, in plays, either the things are diet.” Gosson, in his second tract, which, feigned that never were, as Cupid and Psyche provoked by the answer of Lodge to his played at Paul's, and a great many comeSchool of Abuse, is written with much | dies more at the Blackfriars, and in every more virulence against plays especially, thus playhouse in London, which, for brevity sake, describes what the people most delighted in: I overskip; or, if a true history be taken in “As the devil hath brought in all that Poetry hand, it is made like our shadows, longest at can sing, so hath he sought out every strain the rising and fall of the sun; shortest of all that Music is able to pipe, and drawn all at high noon. kinds of instruments into that compass, It has scarcely, we think, been noticed that simple and mixed. For the eye, beside the the justly celebrated work of Sir Philip Sidbeauty of the houses and the stages, he ney forms an important part of the controsendeth in garish apparel, masks, vaulting, versy, not only against the Stage, but against tumbling, dancing of jigs, galliards, moriscos, Poetry and Music, that appears to have comhobby-horses, showing of juggling casts ; no menced in England a little previous to 1580.

Gosson says,

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