Imágenes de páginas

ments of a man in a paroxysm of rage against Seneca his style, and as full of notable morathe whole world. Towards the close of his litie, which it doth most delightfully teach, and days, he seems to have repented of his so obtain the very end of poesie : yet, in truth, excesses; for in a pamphlet called Christ's it is very defectious in the circumstances; Tears over Jerusalem, he writes thus: “A which grieves me, because it might not remain hundred unfortunate farewells to fantasticall) an exact model of all tragedies. For it is faultie satirisme. In those vaines, heretoforel mispent both in place and time, the two necessary commy spirit, and prodigally conspired against panions of all compositions." good bours. Nothing is there now so much in my vowes as to be at peace with all men, and

LODGE. make submissive amends where I have most displeased. To a lillle more wit have my A Doctor of medicine in great practice toincreasing yeeres reclaimed mee than I had | wards the end of Elizabeth's reigo. He acbefore; those that have been perverted by any quired considerable extra-professional reputaof my workes, let them reade this, and it shall lion, both as a poet and a wit. His dramatic thrice more benefit them. The autumne I works are, Wounds of Civil War, 1594, and imitate, in shedding my leaves with the trees, A Looking Glass for London and England, and so doth the peacocke shead his taile.” Nash 1594. Judging from these compositions, the was peculiarly successful in salire; in an old writer seems to have been most happy in salire; copy of verses he is thus spoken of;

there is a playful smarlness about his jokes,

which is highly agreeable and amusing.
«Sharply satiric was he, and that way
He went, that since his being, to this day
Few have attempted; and I surely think
Those words shall hardly be set down in ink,

Shall scorch and blast so as be could when he
Would inflict vengeance.”

This author, the most popular writer of his Nash composed three p.ays; among tnem ! times, was born about 1553. He studied first was Dido, Queen of Cartbage. Copies of this at Oxford, but latterly at Cambridge; being or drama are uncommonly scarce. Malone gave good family, he followed the court, expecting 161. 16s. for one at Dr. Wright's sale. to be appointed master of the revels, but he

reaped nothing from attendance on Elizabeth THOMAS SACKVILLE, LORD but disappointment, the usual wages of cour BUCKHURST.

liers. He died in the prime of life, 1597,

universally regretted and respected. His One of the most illustrious noblemen of an dramas are nine in number: Alexander and age when titular honours were bestowed, not Campaspe, 1564, and Mother Bombie, 1594, merely as nominal distinctions, but as the best are the best ; but his claims on the police of rewards for great and virtuous actions. He is | posterity are referable to the two following mentioned here on account of his having been works, of which we shall give the titles at length, concerned in the composition of Ferrex and as he therein made the praiseworthy attempt Porrex, the first regular tragedy ever performed to reform and purify our language from the upon the English stage. Or this drama, surrep- couth, barbarous, and obsolete expressions by tiliously printed under the lille of Gorboduc, which it was then overrun :-The Anatomie 1565, and with its present designation 1571, of Wit, verie pleasant for all Gentlemen to Norlon wrote the first three acts, and Lord read, and most necessary to remember: where Buckhurst, then Mr. Sackville, the last two. | in are contayned the Delyghts that Wit followeth It was acted by the gentlemen of the Inner in his Youth by the pleasantnesse of Love, and Temple, at Whitehall, before queen Elizabeth, the Happiness he reapelh in Age by the Per on the 18th of January, 1561, many years rectnesse of Wisdome, quarto, bl. lett. 1581. prior to the appearance of Sbakspeare. Sir -Euphues and bis England, containing bis Philip Sidney, in bis Defence of Pocsie, says, Voyage and Adventures, mixt with sundrie

Our tragedies and comedies, not without prellie Discourses of honest Love, the Decause cried out against, observing rules neither scription of the Countrie, the Court, and the of honest civilitie, nor skilful poelrie, excepting | Manners of that Isle, delightful to be read, and Gorboduc, which, notwithstanding as it is full | nothing hurtfull lo be regarded : wherein there of stately speeches, climbing to the height of is small Offence by Lightnesse given to the Wise, and less Occasion of Loosenesse proffered Tho. Nash, or Jobo Heywood.” lo 1608, to the Wanlon, quarto, bl. lett. 1582. this same ager maintained at Oxford, a lbesis,

Lyly has committed many extravagancies in that it was lan ful for husbands to beat their these productions, and they were, no doubt, wives; so that his elaborate Latin dramas have much overrated; but the excellencies which small chance of finding favour with the blues of they unquestionably contained are now as un- the nineteenth century. justly overlooked; for is, on the whole, Lyly's allempt must be considered a failure, on such

PRESTON. un occasion even failure was glorious, and enles him to be remembered with respect.

This persc..wrote about 1561, A lament

able Tragedie, mixed full of pleasant Mirth; GREEN.

contayning the Life of Cambises, King of

Persia, from the beginning of his Kingdome This highly talented, but most immoral unto his Death; his one good Deede of Execuauthor, was celebrated, in bis day, for a broad tion after the many wicked Deeds and tirranous and coarse, but spirited and characteristic vein Murders committed by and through him; and of humour, which runs through all his produc- last of all, his odious Death by God's Justice bons. His dramas are very numerous, and appointed; doon on such Order as followeth. many plays are ascribed to bim on mere sup- Which Shakspeare is supposed to ridicule, position ; but he undoubtedly wrote The His- when he makes Falstaff talk of speaking in kipg tory of Friar Bacon and Friar Bongay, 1594; Cambyses' vein. The Comical llistory of Alphonsus, King of Arragon, 1594; and The Scoltishe Story of

WHETSTONE. James the Fourthe, slaine at Flodden, intermired with a pleasant Comedie presented by

This writer is only known by his Promos and Oberon, King of the Fairies, 1599. Or this

Cassandra, a play of wbich Shakspeare has last play, Shakspeare seems to have made some

undoubtedly availed himself in his Measure for use in bis Midsummer Night's Dream.

| Measure. It appears that Whetstone first tried

his fortune at court, and dissipated his patriGASCOIGNE.

mony in vain expectation of preferment. Des

titule of subsistence, he became a soldier, and This author translated The Supposes, from | served with so much credit that he was rewarded Ariosto, and Jocasta, from Euripides; besides with additional pay. Honour, however, is a which, be wrote the Glass of Government, bad pay-master, and he was compelled to con1366, and, The Princely Pleasures of Kenil- | vert his sword into a ploughshare. His farming Werth Castle, 1587. The Supposes is among concerns proved unfortunate, and in his nethe earliest regular dramas produced on our cessity he tried the generosity of his friends. stage; and Gascoigne, both in this translation This he found was a broken reed, and worse and his original compositions, has displayed than common beggary of charity from strangers. very superior endowments.

Now Craft accosted him in his sleepe, and

tempted him with the proposals of several proGAGER.

posals of several professions; but for the kpavery

or slavery of them, he rejected all; his mudiA profoundly learned man. His composi ficence constrained him to love money, and his tions are in the Latin tongue, and we should magnanimity to hale all the ways of getting it." not have noticed him but on account of Anth. He now sought fortune at sea ; but sir Humphrey a Wood's singular panegyric of his genius :

Gilbert's fleet, in which he had embarked, was “ He was an excellent poet, especially in the

ruined by an engagement with the Spaniards. Latin language, and reported the best comedian

Poor Whelstone was thus reduced to write for of bis time, whether it was Edward, earl of

bread. Ascham tells us, that “wits live obOxford, Will. Rowley, the once ornament for

scurely, men care not hon, and die neglected, wit and ingenuity, of Pembroke Hall in Cam men mark not where." And where or in what bridge, Richard Edwards, Jobn Lylie, Tho. manner this amiable mon breathed this last, we Lodge, Geo. Gascoigne, Will. Shakspcare,

are tolally ignorant.


from Charles I. After the judicial murder of

that monarch, he retired to the Continent with A native of Warwickshire, much celebrated queen Henrietta and the prince of Wales. for a metrical chronicle of British history, called Being employed in their service, he was taken Albion's England, which is written throughout

prisoner, confined at Cowes castle, and his life with great ability, and occasionally evinces a

threatened. Under these trying circumstances, highly poetical spirit. Percy says of Warner :

Davenant's courage was singularly conspicuous; -“To his merit nothing can be objected, un

he was then writing his poem of Gondibert, less, perhaps, an affected quaintness in some of

and potwithstanding the almost certain prospect his expressions, and an indelicacy in some of

of immediate death, such was his fortitude and his pastoral images." The following account self possession, that he was able to proceed of his dealh is extracted from the parish register

with the work. A fact like this, is more hoof Amwell :-“ 1668-9. Master William

nourableto Davenant than volumes of panegyric. Warner, a man of good years, and of honest

At the intercession of Milton be was spared, reputation ; by his profession, alturney at com

and received permission to open a theatre in mon plese; author of Albion's England; dyinge

Charterhouse Yard. When Charles II. ascended suddenly in the nyght in his bedde, without any

the throne, Sir William received a patent to former complaynt or sicknesse, on Thursday

act plays at the Duke's theatre, in Lincoln's Inn Dyght, being the 9th daye of March, and was

Fields; and here it was that he first introduced buried the Saturday following, and lieth in the

the present mode of illustrating the drama by church at ibe upper end, under the stone of

means of appropriate scenery and decorations. Gwalter Sludes." Warner also wrote Syrinx,

Davenant died at an advanced age, admired or, a Seaven told Historie, handled with va

and beloved by all parties. Dryden, and we rietie of pleasant and profitable, both comicall cannot give nobler praise, estimated his talents and tragicall Argument, 1597.

very highly.


SIR PHILIP SYDNEY. The water poet, he having been a sculler on A hero, in whom the chivalrous virtues wbich the Thames. He was once mad enough to we read of in romance, and which we are acventure himself, with a companion, in a paper

customed to treat as fabulous, were realized. boat to Rochester, when they were both nearly His person was the perfection of the buman drowned. He seems to have been very illiterale;

form; he was brave to a fault; his munificence but in spite of the most disheartening obstacles, was princely; and his courteous manners won be applied himself to composition, and his pro- the hearts of all that approached him. In the ductions are far from contemptible. Taylor presence of monarchs his bumil

presence of monarchs his bumility was that of was a violent royalist. At the commencement an equal; but when the poor and miserable of the rebellion he retired to Oxford, but that surrounded him, his countenance beamed with city being surrendered to the parliament, he

welcome and kindliness. To all these amiable returned to London and kept a public-house in qualities, were united a depth of learning and Long Acre. At the king's death, he set up the a felicity of genius, wbich entitled him to rank sign of the Mourning Crown, wbich, giving

with the best writers of his age. He was the offence, he substituted his own effigy, inscribed darling of England and the admiration of Euwith this distich :

rope. He was born at Pepshurst in Kent,

1554; he remained at Oxford till his 17th year, « There's many a king's head hang'd up for a sign, And many a saint's head too. Then why not mine?"

and then set out on the grand tour. Al his

return, in the pride of his youth and the full SIR WILLIAM DAVENANT.

vigour of his intellect, queen Elizabeth ap-|

pointed him ber ambassador to the friendly Born at Oxford, 1605, and supposed by some, German powers; but when the fame of his though on very slight grounds, to have been valour and genius became so general, that he was a nalural son of Sbakspeare's. At Ben Jonson's put in nomination for the kingdom of Poland, death he was chosen laureate ; and in 1643, she refused to sanction his advancement lest sbe having distinguished himself on a variety of should lose the brightest jewel in her crown. occasions, he received the honour of knighthood His life was one continued course of glorious

actions, and he died the death of a hero, being her pen being nothing short of his, as I am slain at the baltle of Zutphen, in 1586, while ready to altest, so far as so inferior a reason be was mounting the third horse, having pre may be taken, having seen incomparable letters viously bad two killed under him. He wrote of hers. But, lest I should seem to trespass one dramatic piece, The Lady of the May, a upon truth, which few do unsuborned (as I masque acted before Elizabeth, in the gardens protest I am, unless by her rhetoric), I shall

Wanstead, in Essex ; but his noblest work is leave the world her epitaph, in which the authe Arcadia, which, with bis poems, will live thor (B. Jonson), doch manifest himself a poet as long as the language in which they are in all things but untruth: written,

« Underneath this sable hearse

Lies the subject of all verse; MARY HERBERT, COUNTESS

Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother;

Death, ere thou kill'st such another,

Fair, and good, and learn'd as she,
Time shall throw a dart at thee.

Marble piles let no man raise
The favourite sister of Sydney, to whom he

To her fame, for after days dedicated his Arcadia. This lady was a gene

Some kind woman, born as she,

Reading this, like Niobe, raus friend of learning and genius, and her own

Shall turn statue, and become endowments were of the first order. Francis

Both her mourner and her tomb." Osborne, in his Memoirs of King James, says of her, “She was that sister of sir Philip

And these were Shakspeare's contemporaries; Sidney, to whom he addressed bis Arcadia, and and a few brief pages is all we afford to the of whom he had no other advantage than what fame of those, who, while living, filled the be received from the partial benevolence of world with their genius. Melancholy reflection ! fortope in making him a man, which yet she -this, if anything can, must teach us the did, in some judgments, recompense in beauty, nothingness of earthly bonours.

Original Actors in Shakspeare's Dramas.



This personage, who appeared at the head of The brother of the poet, was a performer at he King's Servants, in the royal license of the Globe, lived in St. Saviour's, and was buried 1603, has escaped the notice of the historian of in the church of that parish. The entry in the Har stage; and, in truth, we know scarcely register runs thus“ 1606, December 31, (was anything of him. Fletcher was, probably, of buried] Edmond Shakspeare, a player, in the St. Saviour's, Southwark, where several fa- church.” Nothing more is known of him ; milies of that name resided, as may be learnt stimulated, most probably, by bis brother's sucfrom the parish register. He was placed be- cess, be came to the metropolis and attached lore Shakspeare and Richard Burbadge in king himself to the theatre; but he died young, and James's license, as much, perhaps, by accident seems to have made little progress in his preis design. Augustine Phillips, when be made fession. his will, in May, 1605, bequeathed to his Cellow, Laurence Fletcher, twenty shillings. RICHARD BURBAGE, And this fellow of Philips and of Shakspeare was buried in St. Saviour's church, on the i 21h The most celebrated tragedian of our author's

September, 1608. What plays of our author time, was the son of James Burbage, who was be performed in is uncertain, nor does it ap- also an actor, and, perhaps, a countryman of jear whether be excelled in tragedy or comedy. Shakspeare's. He lived in Holywell-street, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch; from Philpol's Additions to Camden's Remains we which it may be supposed that he originally find an epitaph on this tragedian more concise played at the Curtain Theatre, which was in than even that on Ben Jonson, being only that neighbourhood. It is singular that he “ Exit Burbage." The following also appears should have resided, from the year 1600 to bis in a manuscript in the British Museum : death, in a place so distant from the Blackfriars playhouse, and still further from the Globe, in “Epitaph on Mr. Richard Burbage, the Player. which theatres he acted during the whole of

“This life's a play, scean'd out by natures arte,

Where every man hath his allotted parte. that time. By his wife, Winifred, he bad four Tais man hat he now (as many more can tell)

Ended his part, and he hath acted well. daughters, two of whom were baptized by the

The play now ended, think his grave to be name of Juliet. His fondness for the name of The detiring bowse of his sad tragedie;

Where to give his fame this, be not afraid, Juliet, perhaps, arose from his having been the

Here lies the best tragedian ever plaid.” original Romeo in our author's play. Burbage died about the 13th of March, 1619, and was buried in the church of St. Leonard, Shoreditch.

JOHN HEMINGES His will is still extant in the Prerogative Office, but it contains noibing remarkable. Richard

Is said by Roberts, the player, to bave been

a tragedian, and, in conjunction with Condell, Burbage is introduced in person in an old play

to have followed the business of printing, but called The Relurne from Parnassus, and in

his authority is doubtful. As early as November, structs a Cambridge scholar how to play the part of King Richard the Third, in which

1597, he appears to have been the manager of

the Lord Chamberlain's Company. This station, character Burbage was greatly admired. That

for which bis prudence qualified him, he held, he represented this part is proved by bishop Corbet, who, in his ller Boreale, speaking of

probably, during forty years. There is reason

lo believe that he was originally a Warrickshire his host at Leicester, tells us,

lad, a shire which bas produced so many When he would have said, king Richard died.

players and poels; the Burbages, the ShalAnd call'd a horse, a horse, he Burbage cry'd."

speares, the Greens, and the Harts. Or He

minges' cast of characters lillle is known; He, probably, also enacted the characters of

there is only a tradition that he was the first King John, Richard II., Henry V., Timon,

representative of Falstaff. He was adopted Brutus, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Lear, and Othello.

by king James, on his accession, as one of his He was one of the principal sharers or pro

theatrical servants; and was ranked the 60th in prietors of the Globe and Blackfriars theatres;

the royal license of 1603. He had the honour and was of such eminence, that in a leller,

to be remembered in Shakspeare's will, and was preserved in the British Museum, written in

the first editor of Shakspeare's works. He the year 1613, the actors at the Globe are

died at the age of seventy-five, in the parish of called Burbage's Company Flecknoe writes

Si. Mary, Aldermanbury; and was buried, thus of him in his Short Discourse of the Eng

according to the register, on the 12th of October, lish Stage, 1664: “ He was a delightful Pro

1630. His will, still preserved, devises con teus, so wholly transforming himself into his

siderable properly, and provides various kind parls, and pulling off himself with his cloaths,

tokens of remembrance for his relations an as he never (not so much as in the trying

fellows. house) assumed himself again, until the play was done. He had all the parts of an excellent orator, animating his words with speaking, and

AUGUSTINE PHILLIPS speech with action; his auditors being never more delighted than when he spake, nor more

Was placed next to Burhage in the royal li sorry than when he held his peace; yet, even

cense of 1603. He was an author as well as an then, he was an excellent actor still; never actor, and left behind him some ludicrous rhymes failing in his part when he had done speaking, which were entered in the Stationers' book is but with his looks and gesture maintaining it | 1593, and were entitled The Jigg of th still to the height." The testimony of sir Ri- Slippers. He is supposed to have performe chard Baker is to the same purpose; he pro

characters in low life. Whatever he might nounces him lo bave been “such an actor as have been in the theatre, he was certainly no age must ever look lo see the like.” Jo respectable man in the world. He amasse

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