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logy), one who commands the devil, whereas the witch serves him.-The art was held by all, though not equally criminal, yet unlawful, and, therefore, Casaubon, speaking of one who had commerce with spirits, blames him, though he imagines him one of the best kind, who dealt with them by way of command. Thus Prospero repents of his art in the last scene. The spirits were always considered as in some measure enslaved to the enchanter, at least for a time, and as serving with unwillingness; therefore Ariel so often begs for liberty; and Caliban observes, that the spirits serve Prospero with no good will, but hate him rootedly. JOHNSON.

Id. 1.56.

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in Argier.] Argier is the ancient English name for Algiers. P. 6, c. 1, l. 23. - to a nymph o'the sea ;] There does not appear to be sufficient cause why Ariel should assume this new shape, as he was to be invisible to all eyes but those of Prospero. STEEVENS. Mr. Malone arranges these lines thus:

"Go make thyself like a nymph o'the sea;
be subject

To no sight but thine and mine: invisible
To every eye-ball else. Go, take this shape,
And hither come in't: go, hence, with di-
ligence."

11.30. The strangeness-] Why should a wonderful story produce sleep? I believe experience will prove, that any violent agitation of the mind easily subsides in slumber, especially when, as in Prospero's relation, the last images are pleasing. JOHNSON.

The poet seems to have been apprehensive that the audience, as well as Miranda, would sleep over this long but necessary tale, and, therefore, strives to break it. First, by making Prospero divest himself of his magic robe and wand: then by waking her attention no less than six times by verbal interruption: then by varying the action when he rises and bids her continue sitting: and lastly, by carrying on the business of the fable while Miranda sleeps, by which she is continued on the stage till the poet has occasion for her again. WARNER.

1.1.38. We cannot miss him :] that is, we cannot do without him.

4.1. 52. Cal. As wicked dew-] Wicked, having baneful qualities.

1.1.57. urchins-] i. e. hedgehogs; or 'perhaps, here, fairies.

Id. 1.58.for that vast of night that they may work] The vast of night means the night which is naturally empty and deserted, without action; or when all things lying in sleep and silence, makes the world appear one great uninhabited caste.

Vastum is likewise the ancient law term for for waste, uncultivated land.

It should be remembered, that, in the pneumatology of former ages, these particulars were settled with the most minute exactness, and the different kinds of visionary beings had different allotments of time suitable to the variety or consequence of their employments. During these spaces, they were at liberty to act, but were always obliged to leave off at a certain hour, that they might not interfere in that portion of night which belonged to others.

Id. 1. 12.

when thou didst not, savage,

21

Know thine own meaning.] By this expression, however defective, the poet seems to have meant-When thou didst utter sounds, to which thou hadst no determinate meaning.

Id. l. 14. But thy vile race,] Race, in this place, seems to signify original disposition, inborn qualities.

Id. 1. 21. the red plague rid you,] The erysipelas was anciently called the red plague. The word rid, means to destroy.

Id. l. 32. my dam's god, Setebos,] Mr. Warner has observed, on the authority of John Barbot, that "the Patagons are reported to dread a great horned devil called Setebos." We learn from Magellan's voyage, that Selebos was the supreme god of the Patagons and Cheleule was an interior one. Setebos is also mentioned in Hackluyt's Voyages, 1598. l. 35. Re-enter Ariel invisible,] In the wardrobe of the lord-admiral's men (i. e. company of comedians), 1598, was—“ a robe for to goo invisebell."

Id.

Id. l. 40. Court'sied when you have, and kiss'd,] As was anciently done at the beginning of some dances.

Id. 1. 55. Weeping again the king my father's wreck,] Thus the old copy; but in the books of Shakspeare's age again is sometimes printed instead of against, [i. e. opposite to,] which Mr. Malone thinks was our author's word.

Id. 1. 62. Full fathom five thy father lies; &c.] The songs in this play, Dr. Wilson, who reset and published two of them, tells us, in his Court Ayres, or Ballads, published at Oxford 1660, that "Full fathom five," and "Where the bee sucks," had been first set by Robert Johnson, a composer contemporary with Shakspeare. BURNEY.

Id.

1. 65. Nothing of him that doth fade,

But doth suffer a sea-change-] Every thing about him, that is liable to alteration, is changed.

Id. l. 70. The same burden to a song occurs in The Merchant of Venice. It should here be

Ding-dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, bell. Id. l. 71. Ariel's lays, however seasonable and efficacious, must be allowed to be of no supernatural dignity or eloquence; they express nothing great, or reveal any thing above mortal discovery. JOHNSON.

Id. 1. 73. That the earth owes:] To owe, in this

place, as well as many others, signifies to own. Id. l. 74. The fringed curtains, &c.] The same expression occurs in Pericles, Prince of Tyre, 1609:

66

her eyelids

Begin to part their fringes of bright gold."

The

P. 7, c. 1, l. 7. "It goes on, I see,"-MALONE. Id. 1. 20. If you be made, or no?] Some copies read maid, and the critics are not fully agreed in their opinions. Mr. M. Mason says, question is, whether our readers will adopt a natural and simple expression, which requires no comment, or one which the ingenuity of many commentators has but imperfectly supported."

Id. l. 34. And his brave son, being twain.] This is a slight forgetfulness. Nobody was lost in the wreck, yet we find no such character as the son of the duke of Milan. THEOBALD. Id. l. 36. controul thee,] Confute, or unanswerably contradict thee.

d. c. 2. 1. 4. O ho! O ho!] This savage exclamation was originally and constantly appropriated by the writers of our ancient Mystenies and Moralities, to the Devil; and has, in | Id. l. 40. this instance, been transferred to his descendant Caliban, STEEVENS.

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I fear you have done yourself some wrong: i. e. I fear that, in asserting yourself to be king of Naples, you have uttered a

falsehood, which is below your character, and, consequently injurious to your honour.

STEEVENS.

Id 1. 73. He's gentle, and not fearful.] Fearful signifies both terrible and timorous. In this place it may mean timorous; or it may signify formidable, as in K. Hen. IV:

"A mighty and a fearful head they are." and then the meaning of the passage is obvious. One of the original meanings, if not the sole meaning, of the word gentle is, noble, highminded: and to this day a Scotch woman in the situation of the young lady in The Tempest, would express herself nearly in the same terms. Don't provoke him; for being gentle, that is, high-spirited, he won't tamely bear an insult.

Id. l. 78. come from thy ward:] Desist from
any hope of awing me by that posture of de-
fence. JOHNSON.

Id. c. 2, l. 20. My spirits, as in a dream,
are all bound up.] Alluding to a common sen-
sation in dreams; when we struggle, but can-
not run, strike, &c. WARBURTON.
Id. l. 23. --are but light to me.] This passage,
as it stands at present, with all allowance for
poetical licence, cannot be reconciled to gram-
mar. I suspect that our author wrote-

66

were but light to me," in the sense ofwould be.-In the preceding line the old copy reads "nor this man's" threats. The emendation was made by Mr. Steevens. MALONE.

ACT II.

SCENE 1.

nified juicy, succulent Spencer, in his Shep-
heard's Calender, (Feb.) applies the epr-
thet lusty to green.

Id. 1. 20. With an eye of green in't.] An eye is
Claribel-] This name is probably
Id. l. 35.
taken from bl. 1. History of George Lord
Faukonbridge. CLARIREL is there the con-
cubine of king Richard I. and the mother
of lord Falconbridge.

a small shade of colour.

Id.

1. 43. Widow Dido! The name of a widow brings to their minds their own shipwreck, which they consider as having made many widows in Naples. JOHNSON. Id. l. 51. —— the miraculous harp.] Alluding to the wonders of Amphion's music. STEEVENS. Id. 1. 72. The stomach of my sense:] By sense, is meant both reason and natural affection. Mr. M. Mason, however, supposes sense, ia this place, means feeling. STEEVENS. Id. c. 2. l. 18. Weigh'd,] Weigh'd means dels

berated.

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Id. 1. 42. Mr. Malone reads thus:
"Letters should not be known: riches, po-
verty,

Id. l. 47. Our hint of woe-] Hint is that which recalls to the memory; or here it may Id. mean-circumstance.

Id. l. 49. The masters of some merchant, &c.] Thus the old copy. If the passage be not corrupt (as I suspect it is), we must suppose that by masters our author means the owners of a merchant ship, or the officers to whom the navigation of it had been trusted. I sup pose, however, that our author wrote

"The mistress of some merchant," &c. Mistress was anciently spelt-maistresse or maistres. Hence, perhaps, arose the present typographical error. STEEVENS.

Id. 1. 50. Hare just our theme of woe: but for

the miracle. The words-of woe, appear to me as an idle interpolation. STEEVENS. Id. l. 56. The visitor-] Why Dr. Warburton should change visitor to 'viser, for adviser, I cannot discover. Gonzalo gives not only advice but comfort, and is therefore properly called the visitor, like others who visit the sick or distressed to give them consolation. In some of the Protestant churches there is a kind of officers termed consolators for the sick. JOHNSON.

P. 8. c. 1. l. 3. you've pay'd] The meaning is this: Antonio lays a wager with Sebastian, that Adrian would crow before Gonzalo, and the wager was a laughter. Adrian speaks first, so Antonio is the winner. Sebastian laughs at what Adrian had said, and Antonio immediately acknowledges that by his laughing he has paid the bet.

Id. 1. 9. — and delicate temperance,] or temperature.

1d. 1. 10. Temperance was a delicate wench]

In the puritanical times it was usual to christen children from the titles of religious and moral virtues.

Id. 1. 18. How lush, &c.] Lush here signifies rank; but it appears to have sometimes sig

And use of service, none; contract, succession,

Born, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none;"&c. 1. 52. The latter end of his commonwealth forgets the beginning.] All this dialogue is a fine satire on the Utopian treatises of government, and the impracticable inconsistent schemes therein recommended. WARBURTON,

There is something so strikingly applicable to modern times in this text and note, that the Editor could not persuade himself to omit the latter, although necessary in other respects. C.

Id. t. 55. any engine,] any instrument of war, or military machine.

1d. l. 57. all foizon,] Foison, or foises, signifies plenty, ubertas: and sometimes moisture, or juice of grass.

Id. 1. 80. Enter Ariel, &c. playing solemn mysic.] This stage-direction does not mean to tell us that Ariel himself was the fidicen; but that solemn music attended his appearance, or was an accompaniment to his entry. STEP

VENS.

P. 9, c. 1, l. 48. I am more serious than my custom: you

Must be so too, if heed me; which to do, Trebles thee o'er.] The meaning of this passage seems to be-You must put on more than your usual seriousness, if you are dis posed to pay a proper attention to my proposal; which attention if you bestow, it will in the end make you thrice what you are Sebastian is already brother to the throne; but, being made a king by Antonio's contrivance, would be (according to our author's idea of greatness) thrice the man he was be fore. In this sense he would be trebled o'er. MALONE.

Id. l. 57. If you but knew, how you the purpose cherish,

Whiles thus you mock it! how, in stripping it,

You more invest it!] A judicious critic, in

The Edinburgh Magazine, for Nov., 1786. offers the following illustration of this obscure passage. "Sebastian introduces the simile of water. It is taken up by Antonio, who says he will teach his stagnant water to flow. '-It has already learned to ebb,' says Sebastian. To which Antonio replies, 0, if you but know how much even that metaphor which you use in jest, encourages to the design which I hint at; how, in stripping the words of their common meaning, and using them figuratively, you adapt them to your own siteation!" STEEVENS. P. 9, c. 1, l. 65. this lord of weak remembrance. This lord, who being now in his dotage, has outlived his faculty of remembering; and who, once laid in the ground, shall be as little remembered himself, as he can now remember other things. JOHNSON.

Id. 1.70. Mr. Malone reads,

(For he's a spirit of persuasion, only

en

Professes to persuade);-] It is an tangled sentence of which the meaning may be either, that he alone, who is a spirit of persuasion, professes to persuade the king; or that, He only professes to persuade, that is, without being so persuaded himself he makes a show of persuading the king. JOHNSON. Id 1.76. a wink beyond,] That this is the utmost extent of the prospect of ambition, the point where the eye can pass no farther, and where objects lose their distinctness, so that what is there discovered is faint, obscure, and doubtful. JOHNSON.

Id c. 2,1.3. beyond man's life;] i. e. at a greater distance than the life of man is long enough to reach. STEEVENS.

Id 4.4.. she that from Naples

Can have no note, &c.] Note is notice, or

information.

Shakspeare's great ignorance of geography is not more conspicuous in any instance than in this, where he supposes Tunis and Naples to have been at such an immeasurable distance from each other.

Id. l. 6. — she, from whom-] i. e. in coming from whom.

Id. 17. though some cast again;] Cast is here used in the same sense as in Macbeth, Act II. sc. iii."-though he took my legs from me, I made a shift to cast him." STEE

VENS.

14.1.8. And, by that, destin'd-] It is a common plea of wickedness to call temptation destiny. JOHNSON. Mr. Malone reads destiny. Id. 1. 10. In yours and my discharge.] i. e. depends on what you and I are to perform. Id. 1. 24. A chough-] Is a bird of the jack-daw

kind.

Id 1 41. And melt, ere they molest!) I had rather

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read

Would melt, ere they molest,

ie. Twenty consciences, such as stand between me and my hopes, though they were congealed, would melt before they could molest me, or prevent the execution of my purposes. JOHNSON.

43 "he's like, that's dead :"-MALONE. ld. l. 46.

-for aye-] i. e. for ever. 14147. This ancient morsel.] For morsel, Dr. Warburton reads-ancient moral, very elegantly and judiciously; yet I know not whether the author might not write morsel, as we say a piece of a man. JOHNSON.

d. 1. 49.

take suggestion,] i. e. Receive any

hint of villainy.

Id. 1.65.

-to keep them living.] By them, as the text now stands, Gonzalo and Alonzo must be understood. Dr. Johnson objects very

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Id. 1. 30.

Id. l. 43.

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SCENE II.

that moe, &c.] i. e. make mouths. Id. 1. 33. Their pricks-] i. e. prickles. Id. l. 34. wound with adders,] wound, or twisted about. looks like a foul bumbard-] This word means a large vessel for holding drink, as well as the piece of ordnance so called. Id. l. 51. this fish painted,] To exhibit fishes, either real or imaginary, was very common about the time of our author. STEE

VENS.

Id. l. 53. - make a man ;] That is, make a man's fortune.

Id. 1.67. - his gaberdine;] A gaberdine is properly the coarse frock or outward garment of a peasant, but here means a loose felt cloak. MALONE.

Id.

Id.

c. 2, l. 5. savages,] salvages was the spelling and pronunciation of the time. l. 25. too much-] Too much means any sum, ever so much. It has, however, been observed, that when the vulgar mean to ask an extravagant price for any thing, they say, with a laugh, I won't make him pay twice for it.

Id. 1. 28. I know it by thy trembling;] This tremor is always represented as the effect of being possessed by the devil.

Id. l. 31. cat; Good liquor will make a cat speak.

Id. 1. 39. His forward voice, &c. The person of Fame was anciently described in this manner. Id. l. 43. Amen! Means, stop your draught. Id. 1. 47. I have no long spoon.] Alluding to the proverb, A long spoon to eat with the devil. Id. l. 54. -to be the siege of this moon-calf?] Siege signifies stool in every sense of the word, and is here used in the dirtiest. mooncalf is an inanimate shapeless mass, supposed by Pliny to be engendered of woman only.

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the cell of Prospero, whose service he had deserted.

ACT III.

SCENE 1.

P. 11, c. 1, l. 60. "And their," &c. MALONE. Id. l. 65. "As odious ;"-MALONE. Id. l. 73. I forget:] Perhaps Ferdinand means to say-I forget my task; but that is not surprizing, for I am thinking on Miranda, and these sweet thoughts, &c. He may, however, mean, that he forgets or thinks little of the baseness of his employment. Whichsoever be the sense, And, or For, should seem more proper in the next line than But. MA

LONE.

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Id. 1. 69. 1 am a fool,

To weep at what I am glad of.] This is one of those touches of nature that distinguish Shakspeare from all other writers. It was necessary, in support of the character of Miranda, to make her appear unconscious that excess of sorrow and excess of joy find alike their relief from tears; and as this is the first time that consummate pleasure had made any near approaches to her heart, she calls such a seeming contradictory expression of it, folly. STEEVENS. P. 12. o. 1. 1. 2. your fellow-] i e. companion.

Id. . 10. here's my hand.

Mira. And mine with my heart in't:] It is still customary in the west of England, when the conditions of a bargain are agreed upon, for the parties to ratify it by joining their hands, and at the same time for the purchaser to give an earnest. HENLEY. Id. 7. 16. So glad of this as they, I cannot be,

Who are surpriz'd with all;] The sense might be clearer, were we to make a slight transposition:

"So glad of this as they, who are surpriz'd

With all, I cannot be "

Perhaps, however, more consonantly with ancient language, we should join two of the words together, and read

"Who are surpriz'd withal." STEEVENS.

Id. 1. 25.

SCENE II.

bear up, and board'em:] A metaphor alluding to a chace at sea. Id. 1. 39. - or my standard.

Trin. Your lieutenant, if you list; he's no standard.] Meaning he is so much intoxicated, as not to be able to stand. The quibble between standard, an ensign, and standard, a fruit-tree that grows without support, is evident. STEEVENS.

Id. l. 48. thou deboshed fish thou,] the same as debauched.

Id. l. 63. "to the suit."-MALONE.

Id. l. 68. --a tyrant;] Tyrant is here employed as a trisyllable.

Id. . 2. l. 12. What a pied ninny's this?]

Id.

It should be remembered that Trinculo is no sailor, but a jester; and is so called in the ancient dramatis persone. He therefore wears the party-coloured dress of one of these characters. STEEVENS.

Dr. Johnson observes, that Caliban could have no knowledge of the striped coat usually worn by fools; and would therefore transfer this speech to Stephano. But though Caliban might not know this circumstance, Shakspeare did. Surely he who has given all countries and all ages the manners of his own, might forget himself here, as well as in other places. MALONE. Remember, First to possess his books; for without them

1. 43.

He's but a shot, as I am.] In the old romances the sorcerer is always furnished with a book, by reading certain parts of which he is enabled to summon to his aid whatever demons or spirits he has occasion to employ. When he is deprived of his book, his power ceases. Our author might have observed this circumstance much insisted on in the Orlando Innamorato of Boyardo; and also in Harrington's translation of the Orlando Furioso, 1591. Id. 1. 50. "I never saw a woman,"-MALONE. Id. 1. 69. Will you troll the catch-] To trell a catch, is to dismiss it trippingly from the tongue.

Id.

P.

Id.

1. 79. This is the tune of our catch, played by the picture of No-body.] A ridiculous figure, sometimes represented on signs, but the allusion is here to the print of No-body, prefixed to the anonymous comedy of "No-body and Some-body" without date, but printed before the year 1600.

13. c. 1. l. 6. ———— afeard?] To affear is an obsolete verb, with the same meaning as to affray. Between aferde and afraide in the time of Chaucer, there might have been some nice distinction, which is at present lost STEEVENS 1. 25. Wilt come? I'll follow, Stephano] The first words are addressed to Caliban, who, vexed at the folly of his new companions idly running after the music, while they ought only to have attended to the main point, the dis patching Prospero, seems, for some little time, to have staid behind. HEATH.

The words-Wilt come? should be added to Stephano's speech. I'll follow, is Trincelo's answer. RITSON.

SCENE III.

Id. 1. 29. By'r lakin,] i. e. The diminutive only of our lady, i. e. ladykin. STEEVENS. Id. 1. 39. Our frustrate search-] Frustrate for frustrated.

Id. 1. 60. A living drollery :] Shows, called drolle ries, were in Shakspeare's time performed by puppets only. From these our modern drolls, exhibited at fairs, &c. took their name A living drollery, i. e. a drollery not represented by wooden machines, but by personages who are alive.

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Id. l. 62. one tree, the phoenix' throne;] Our poet had probably Lyly's Euphues, and kis England, particularly in his thoughts: signat Q. 3.-"As there is but one phoenix in the world, so is there but one tree in Arabia wherein she buildeth." See also, Florio's Italian Dictionary, 1598: "Rasin, a tree in Arabia, whreof there is but one fouad, and upon it the phoenix sits." MALONE.

Id. 1.71 For, certes, &c.] Certes is an obsolete word, signifying certainly.

P. 13, c. 1, l. 73 Their manners are more gentle-
kind, Mr. Malone reads "gentle, kind;" but
Steevens considers it as a compound epithet.
Id. 1.79. too much muse,] To muse, in an-
cient language, is to admire, to wonder.
Id. c. 2.1.5. Praise in departing.] i. e. Do not
praise your entertainment too soon, lest you
should have reason to retract your commen-
dation. It is a proverbial saying.

Id. l. 14. - - that there were mountaineers, &c.]
The inhabitants of the Alps have been long ac-
customed to such excrescences or tumours.
Id. 1. 18 men,

Whose heads stood in their breasts?] Our author might have had this intelligence from the translation of Pliny, b. v. chap. 8: "The Blemmyi, by report, have no heads, but mouth and eyes both in their breasts." STEEVENS. Id. 1. 19. Each putter-out, &c.] In this age of travelling, it was a practice with those who engaged in long and hazardous expeditions, to place out a sum of money on condition of receiving great interest for it at their return home.

on five for one" means on the terms of fire for one. Mr. Malone reads “——of five for one."

Id. 1. 22. I will stand to, and feed, &c.] This passage was probably intended to be in a rhyme. 14. l. 28 — and with a quaint device, the banquet vanishes.] Though I will not undertake to prove that all the culinary pantomimes exhibited in France and Italy were known and imitated in this kingdom, I may observe that flying, rising, and descending services were to be found at entertainments given by the Duke of Burgundy, &c. in 1453, and by the grand Duke of Tuscany in 1600, &c. See M. Le Grand d'Aussi's Histoire de la Vie privée des François, vol. iii. p. 294. &c. Examples, therefore, of machinery similar to that of Shakspeare in the present instance, were to be met with, and perhaps had been adopted on the stage, as well as at public festivals here in England. STEEVENS.

14. 30. (That hath to instrument this lower world, &c.] i. e. that makes use of this world, and every thing in it, as its instruments to bring about its ends.

Id. l. 42. One dowle that's in my plume:] Bailey, in his dictionary, says that dowle is a feather, or rather, the single particles of the down. 11.1 59. clear life,-] Pure, blameless, in

nocent.

Id l. 59. is nothing but heart's sorrow,

And a clear life ensuing.] that is-a miserable fate which nothing but contrition and amendment of life can avert. MALONE. 11 1.62.— with mops and mowes-] To mowe, i. e. to insult, by making mouths, or wry faces. Id 1 66 with good life,] With good life may mean, with exact presentation of their several characters, with observation strange of their particular and distinct parts, or with honest alacrity, or cheerfulness.

Id. L. 68. Their several kinds have done:] i. e. have discharged the several functions allotted to their different natures.

1.4. I. 81. — bass my trespass.] The deep pipe told it me in a rough bass sound. JOHNSON. P 14. c. 1. 1.3. And with him there lie mudded. But one fiend-] with him, and but, are probably playhouse interpolations.

Id. L. 9. Like poison given, &c.] The natives of Africa have been supposed to be possessed of the secret how to temper poisons with such art as not to operate till several years after they were administered.

M. 7.12. this ecstasy-] Ecstasy meant not

anciently, as at present, rapturous pleasure but alienation of mind.

ACT IV.

SCENE I.

Id. l. 21. - a thread of mine own life.] i. e. a fibre or a part of my own life. Prospero considers himself as the stock or parent-tree, and his daughter as a fibre or portion of himself, and for whose benefit he himself lives. TOLLET.

Id. l. 25. strangely stood the test:] Strangely is used by way of commendation, merveilleusement, to a wonder.

Id. l. 34. If thou dost break her virgin knot before

All sanctimonious ceremonies, &c.] This is a manifest allusion to the zones of the ancients which were worn as guardians of chastity by marriageable young women. HENLEY. Id. 1. 36. No sweet aspersion] Aspersion is here used in its primitive sense of sprinkling. At present it is expressive only of calumny and detraction. STEEVENS.

1d. l. 52. Fairly spoke ;] Fairly is here used as a trisyllable. Id. l. 59. the rabble,] The crew of meaner

spirits.

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Id.

Id.

l. 12. thatch'd with stover,] Stover (in Cambridgeshire and other counties) signifies hay made of coarse rank grass, such as even cows will not eat while it is green. Stover is likewise used as thatch for cart-lodges, and other buildings that deserve but rude and cheap coverings.

. 13. Thy banks with peonied and lilied brims,] The old edition reads pioned and twilled brims, which gave rise to Mr. Holt's conjecture, that the poet originally wrote:

"with pioned and tilled brims," Peonied is the emendation of Hanmer, but Mr. Malone adheres to the old edition. Id. l. 15. and thy broom groves,] Broom, in this place, signifies the Spartium scoparium, of which brooms are frequently made. Near Gamlingay, in Cambridgeshire, it grows high enough to conceal the tallest cattle as they pass through it; and in places where it is cultivated, still higher.

Id.

1. 17. Being lass-lorn;] Lass-lorn is forsaken of his mistress.

Id. l. 17. thy pole-clipt vineyard:] To clip is to twine round or embrace. The poles are clipped or embraced by the vines.

Id. l. 31. My bosky acres, &c.] Bosky is woody. Bosky acres are fields divided from each other by hedge-rows. Boscus is middle Latin for wood.

Id.

Id. l. 33. to this short-grass'd green?] The old copy reads short-grass'd green. Short graz'd green means grazed so as to be short. 1. 65. Earth's increase, and foison plenty, &c.] Earth's increase, is the produce of the earth: -foison, plenty, i. e. plenty to the utmost abundance; foison signifying plenty.

P. 15, c. 1. l. 2. · a wonder'd father,] i. e. able to perform wonders.

Id. 1.9. wand'ring brooks,] The modern edi

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