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waters of the two lakes ; and running back, on the shore of each, near one mile, it forms that peninsula; and here, at this distance from the point, the first wall of the fort — 'the old French lines' as they are now called - extended entirely across from Lake George outlet to Lake Champlain, three-fourths of a mile. In this triangular form, within their strong entrenchment, lay the whole French army.

At sunrise, four hundred and fifty Indians, under their favorite commander, Sir William Johnson, arrived and joined Abercrombie. And now, with the entire strength of the army - in the belief deduced from the engineer's report, together with the unanimous statement of the prisoners, that a large reinforcement of three thousand Canadians, under M. de Levi, which had been designed for attack on the British and Indians on the Mohawk river, would soon arrive the English General determined on making the attack at once; and the army was again put in motion. The French scouts outside the lines, from their elevated positions at one time in the tops of trees reported to Montcalm their approach, and the main strength of the French was soon brought to the entrenchments from their various positions between the garrison and the breast-work. The information given by the prisoners, whether designed or not, was incorrect; the force under De Levi were only eight hundred, and had been with the garrison several days. In fact, the entire numbers of the French did not exceed three thousand, and they often reported much less.

The great strength of the breast-work and entrenchment was in the centre; while the extremes, near the waters on each side, the breast-work, of much less height, and made up

of a few trees, was comparatively easy of assault. In the centre, the idol of the army, the brave Montcalm, brought up his most reliable and chivalric troops, consisting of Royal Roussellon and other sharp-shooters; and the position, it is said, he did not change during the entire seige. To this day the spot is plainly identified. being but ninety yards north of the travelled road, just a few yards in the rear of the old lines.

On the right, M. de Levi, held his command, consisting of the regiments, La Reine, Bearne, and Guienne ; while the left was occupied by M. de Bourlemaque, commanding other strong forces, determined, as he said, to avenge his defeat in the woods on the sixth; and the provincials, Canadian militia and Indians, were stationed within and behind those military works which then flanked the strongest part of the lines, and which show now, though in ruins, the extensive fortifications on the plain. They were designed to mount powerful batteries, and will interest the visitor while they last, and the history of this affair is not forgotten. But the most formidable auxiliary to the defences of the French, was an immense forest of oak-trees felled in front of the lines for one hundred yards, the branches sharpened and pointing outward. This, together with the natural slope of the ground, from the works all the way to the now approaching English army, was regarded as an impassable barrier to its advance upon the breast-work. The primitive growth of the oak forests at that time, and its denseness on that peninsula, can scarcely be imagined. But the French army was composed of men suited to the times

they were woodsmen as well as soldiers ; and no military barricade, so much the birth of instant exigencies, in our country has equalled it, save perhaps the cotton bales at New Orleans.

The English army having advanced to within half a mile of the entrenchments, orders were passed, and the positions of the vast force defined. On the left, the American rangers; in the centre, the batteaumen of Bradstreet; on the right, the light infantry, to no more than three yards distance from the breast-work, and in a line; and in the rear of these on the left, the first battalion of the New-York regiment; and on the right, the six Massachusetts regiments. These were to support the regiments of the regulars in case they should be forced to retire, and they were to be reïnforced by the Connecticut and New-Jersey troops bringing up the whole. The provincials near and outside the breast-work extended on either side from Lake Champlain to Lake George outlet, excepting a space directly in front of Montcalm. This was reserved open for the ready march of the regulars for the storming of this the strongest position.

A lieutenant of the New Hampshire rangers led the advance guard, when, being met by a body in ambush, within three hundred yards of the entrenchments, and fired upon, he halted and made a return, which for a moment disordered the order of the columns. Rogers, with the advancing rangers, immediately forming a front, maintained the ground, while the

army was marching up to their positions. So far the fire of the French had not killed one man. Aware of the disorder which another discharge would create, the French again made a scathing fire without the breast-work. Impetuous and regardless of orders, the rangers diverged, and instead of taking the position contemplated in their orders, commenced firing on the enemy on the right." By this means Colonel Delancy's New-York_force, which was to have taken post in the rear, was surprised by the French, and suffered their fire for nearly an hour with some loss, when the enemy were driven within their breast-work. This skirmishing and bush-fighting continued from halfpast ten till nearly one o'clock, the places of action changing but little in the time.

The formidable defences were now distinctly revealed to the English army; they saw the abattis of felled trees, and the breast-work of earth, nine feet in height; and in one account of the affair, the narrator says, • the Indians all went off.' The battery commenced its destructive fire on the centre of the army, and at one o'clock, under the most scorching rays of the July sun, the order was given for the attack by the regulars. They were directed on their peril, not to fire till they were within the breast-work; the grenadiers, with unfaltering steps, led the way; and invincible only by fatal shots, they steadily marched up to the tangled abattis ; and then, their shattered columns, fearfully thinned, pressed onward, unfaltering, through the one hundred yards of felled trees, to the trenches in front of the breast-work, which they found to be nearly twenty feet wide. They were closely followed by the fifty-fifth regiment — Lord Howe's, which had been so faithfully trained by him — considered the flower of the British army, and — foilowing others of the regulars - one battalion of the Royal Americans. Impatient and impetuous, the Highlanders rushed on, and with incredible success, their lighter equipments and broadswords favoring their way, and cutting through the felled trees, and raised on the shoulders of their fellows, many gained the breast-work, and overpowered, fighting hand to hand, died on the summit. The extraordinary prowess of Captain John Campbell, accounts of the day said, excited the terror of the French. •Pierced by bayonets, and bleeding with fearful cuts and gashes on the face, given by incredible numbers, he yielded not till eleven balls had fatally wounded him at the same moment. His body fell outside the works, and was borne from the field by his comrades.” But the men of Rob Roy knew no living conqueror; undaunted, and enraged at the fall of so many of their associates, the orders for retreat were unheeded, and like mad lions they rushed on with renewed fury, and, carrying destruction, scores died within the lines, and in the very jaws of an overwhelming force. So fought this extraordinary body of men. Accounts of deeds of valor reveal but few such instances. Three hundred and fourteen were killed, and three hundred and thirty-three wounded. Every officer except two was either killed or wounded; and when at last the shattered remnant obeyed the call for retreat, they glanced at their allies and saw them fleeing, and then at the fallen heroes; while, strange to say, they were allowed, from the very trenches, undisturbed by a single shot, to hurry off with many of their gallant but slaughtered companions.

From the earliest written history of the Highland clans, down to their formation into the Black Watch, and then into a regiment, each had its old counsellor, whose sayings were their law; its prayer-makers, whose religion was almost their gospel, and their bards and songsters, who clothed their deeds in poetry and sung the requiems of their departed. At that day such was this unmixed regiment. But a few years from their native hills, they brought from them all their primitive superstitions, which they nursed in the camp, wherever service called, among the romantic scenery of the American wilds. Three days after the battle, at Fort Edward, when the green sod covered the rude

grave of Campbell and a few others, a vacant stare was on the heavy countenances of all who were performing these rites to their fallen. Silently looking at each, at length one says : Who is our counsellor now ? and who will sing our dirges ?'

The same discipline which caused all the regulars in the first attack to face the cannon's mouth, controlled the other regiments during the action; though the sad story of their loss is not to be told like that of the forty-second Highlanders. Encouraged by every succeeding assault and retreat of those brave regiments, every distinct command being obeyed-joined by the Rangers, Royal Americans and provincials—the varied strength of the army was rushing on, filling up the broken lines, attacking in other positions, and the slaughter became general. The eloquent author of Hochelaga' says : Then fresh troops pressed on to the deadly strife, rivalling the courage and sharing the fate of those who had led the way. For nearly four hours, like the succeeding waves of an ebb-tide, they attacked again and again, each time losing somewhat of their vantage-ground; now fiercely rushing on, unflinchingly enduring the murderous fire, then sullenly falling back to re-form their broken ranks for a fresh effort.'

And now, strangely, the enemy suddenly struck their colors and hoisted the English flag from one of their strong positions on the breast-work. A large force closed in the English columns and marched up; others along the lines pierced the breast-work with their bayonets, and were about scaling them, when a whole volley from the French cannon and muskets made fearful havoc. They had thrown grenadeshells and all the avalanche of their full force at one fell swoop, mowing down the thick and extended columns of the English army. Hundreds fell; the front and the rear suffered equally. The slaughter ceased; the fortunes of the day were decided; and a mass of human bodies, dying and dead, covered the ground far beyond the lines and strong battlements of the enemy. Nineteen hundred and forty-two were killed and wounded; and of these sixteeen hundred and eight were regulars, and three hundred and thirty-four provincials. Over their mangled carcases the survivors of this ill-starred expedition rushed on in the retreat.

The loss of the enemy was for the time supposed to be trifling, but proved to be three hundred and eighty. Still masters of Northern New-York, twelve months and thirteen days longer the proud flag of France floated on the fortress-battlements of Ticonderoga.

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• The clergy did much toward accustoming mankind to prefer the authority of law to the power of the sword. At their instigation private wars ceased for certain periods and on particular days, and the observance of the TRUCE OF GOD' was guarded by the terrors of exoommunication and anathema.'

Our sires in the old time

Stayed arrow and sword,
And the earth tilled unfearing,

In truce with the LORD.

The war-cry no longer

Swelled loud o'er the plain,
But the laugh of the husbandman

Rang through the grain.

And the vintagers wakened

The song of the vine,
Where the ripe grape they gathered,

Or pressed out the wine.

Then the bride wore her garland

In gladness and glee ;
Then the sad soul was sbriven

Ere death set her free.

But when the full harvest

Was reaped from the land,
The bow-string was tightened,

Unsheathed was the brand.

Thus take we the ploughshare

While the sword lieth still,
From her blood-fattened waste lands

Earth's garners to fill.

And think, though our rulers

Feast full on our toil,
That we too shall gather

New strength from the soil.
For e'en while they revel,

Exulting in peace,
Our purpose will ripen,

Our might will increase.

Then look to our tillage,

Sow widely the corn ;
And hail to the harvest

That waits us at morn!

For the arm of the reaper

Will sway in the grain,
Till our tyrants are stubble

And chaff on the plain.

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