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Which is from my remembrance! Please you, And executing th' outward face of royalty, farther.

With all prerogative:-hence his ambition growPros. My brother, and thy uncle, call'd An- ingtonio,

Dost thou hear? I pray thee, mark me,-that a brother should

Mir. Your tale, sir, would cure deafness. Be so perfidious!-he whom, next thyself,

Pros. To have no screen between this part he Of all the world I lov’d, and to him put

play'd, The manage of my state; as, at that time, And him he play'd it for, he needs will be Through all the signories it was the first

Absolute Milan. Me, poor man,23 my library (And Prospero the prime duke, being so reputed Was dukedom large enough: of temporal royalties In dignity), and, for the liberal arts,

He thinks me now incapable; confederates 24 Without a parallel ; those being all my study, (So dry 25 he was for sway) with the King of Naples The government I cast upon my brother,

To give him annual tribute, do him homage,
And to my state grew stranger, being transported Subject his coronet to his crown, and bend
And wrapt in secret studies. Thy false uncle- The dukedom, yet unbow'd,-alas! poor Milan-
Dost thou attend me ?

To most ignoble stooping.
Mir.
Sir, most heedfully.

Mir.

Oh, the heavens! Pros. Being once perfected how to grant suits,

Pros. Mark his condition, and th' event; then How to deny them, whom t'advance, and whom

tell me To trash for over-topping, 20 new created

If this might be a brother. The creatures that were mine, I say, or changed

Mir.

I should sin them,

To think but 28 nobly of my grandmother : Or else new formed them: having both the key

Good wombs have borne bad sons. Of officer and office, set all hearts i' the state

Pros.

Now the condition. To what tune pleased his ear; that now he was

This King of Naples, being an enemy The ivy, which had hid my princely trunk, To me inveterate, hearkens my brother's suit; And suck'd my verdure out on't.—Thou attend'st Which was, that he, in lieu o' 27 the premises,

Of homage, and I know not how much tribute,Mir. Oh, good sir, I do.

Should presently extirpate me and mine Pros.

I pray thee, mark me. Out of the dukedom, and confer fair Milan, 1, thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated With all the honours, on my brother: whereon, To closeness, and the bettering of my mind A treacherous army levied, one midnight With that which, but by being so retired,

Fated to the purpose, did Antonio open O'er-priz'd all popular rate, in my false brother The gates of Milan; and, i' the dead of darkness, Awak'd an evil nature; and my trust,

The ministers for the purpose hurried thence Like a good parent, did beget of him

Me, and thy crying self. A falsehood, in its contrary as great

Mir.

Alack, for pity!
As my trust was; which had indeed no limit, I, not remembering how I cried out then,
A confidence sans 21 bound. He being thus lorded, Will cry it o'er again : it is a hint 28
Not only with what my revenue yielded,

That wrings mine eyes to't.
But what my power might else exact,-like one, 22

Pros.

Hear a little farther, Who having, unto truth, by telling of it,

And then I'll bring thee to the present business Made such a sinner of his memory,

Which now's upon's; without the which, this story To credit his own lie,-he did believe

Were most impertinent. He was indeed the duke; out o' the substitution, Mir,

Wherefore did they not

not.

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za Trash for over-topping. These are sporting terms, the former meaning to check, stop, or correct a hound ; the latter, outrunning the rest of the pack. Shakespeare often metaphorises thus, using technicalities in a figurative sense. He frequently, too, makes a nominative serve, unrepeated, through a long sentence; as in this speech, “thy uncle" (named in Prospero's previous speech) serves to govern the whole narration.

"me;" as in a similar passage in “ Timon of Athens," v. 1:-
“Whose thankless natures, not all the whips of heaven are large
enough ;" where “for" is understood before “whose."

24. Confederates. Rarely now used as a verb.

25. So dry he was for sway. Dry" is a homely word for "thirsty."

M. Sans. French, without.

22. Like one, who having, unto truth, &c. This phrase, somewhat obscurely expressed, seems to mean,

“One who, having long repeated a lie, sins against truth by forgetting it and believing his own falsehood instead. 23 Me, poor man, &c. Here “for” is understood before

26. To think but nobly. “But" is here used exceptively, and means “any other than," or " otherwise than." 27. In lieu o' the.

“In lieu of" here has not its usual sig, nification of "instead of," or "in place of,” but means in exchange for," as an equivalent for."

28. Hint. Used for "suggested ground ;” and again in the first speech at the beginning of the next Act we find “ of woe,” for “the ground or subject of our woe.

our hint "Nec gravem

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That hour destroy us?

Mir. Heavens thank you for't! And now, I
Pros.
Well demanded, wench:

pray you, sir,
My tale provokes that question. Dear, they durst For still 'tis beating in my mind,--your reason
not, -

For raising this sea-storm ?
So dear the love my people bore me,-nor set Pros.

Know thus far forth.
A mark so bloody on the business; but

By accident most strange, bounuful Fortune-
With colours fairer painted their foul ends. Now my dear lady_hath mine enemies
In few,2° they hurried us aboard a bark,

Brought to this shore; and by my prescience
Bore us some leagues to sea; where they prepar'd I find my zenith doth depend upon
A rotten carcass of a boat, not rigg'd,

A most auspicious star, whose influence
Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats

If now I court not, but omit, my fortunes
Instinctively have quit it:30 there they hoist us, Will ever after droop. Here cease more questions:
To cry to the sea that roar'd to us; to sigh Thou art inclined to sleep; 'tis a good dulness,
To the winds, whose pity, sighing back again, And give it way:-I know thou canst not choose.—
Did us but loving wrong.

[Miranda sleeps.
Mir.
Alack, what trouble

Come away, servant, come! I am ready now:
Was I then to you!

Approach, my Ariel, come!
Pros.

Oh, a cherubin
Thou wast, that did preserve me! Thou didst

Enter ARIEL.
smile,

Ari. All hail, great master! grave sir, hail !
Infusèd with a fortitude from heaven,

I come
When I have deck'd the sea 31 with drops full salt, To answer thy best pleasure; be't to fly,
Under my burden groan’d; which rais'd in me To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride
An undergoing stomach, 32 to bear up

On the curl'd clouds: to thy strong bidding task
Against what should ensue.

Ariel, and all his quality. 35
Mir,
How came we ashore ?

Pros.

Hast thou, spirit,
Pros. By Providence divine.

Perform'd to point 36 the tempest that I bade thee ?
Some food we had, and some fresh water, that Ari. To every article.
A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo,

I boarded the king's ship; now on the beak,
Out of his charity (who being then appointed Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin,
Master of this design) did give us; with

I Aam'd amazement: sometimes I'd divide,
Rich garments, linens, stuffs, and necessaries, And burn in many places; on the topmast,
Which since have steaded much: so, of his gentle. The yards, and bowsprit, would I flame distinctly, s:
ness,

Then meet, and join. Jove's lightnings the pre-
Knowing I loved my books, he furnish'd me,
From mi! e own library, with volumes that O'the dreadful thunder-claps, more momentary
I prize above my dukedom.

And sight-outrunning were not: the fire, and
Mir.
Would I might

cracks
But ever see that man!

Of sulphurous roaring, the most mighty Neptune
Pros,
Now I arise :-

Seem to besiege, 38 and make his bold waves
[Puts on his robe again. tremble,
Sit still, and hear the last of our sea-sorrow

Yea, his dread trident shake.
Here in this island we arrived; and here

Pros.

My brave spirit!
Have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more profit Who was so firm, so constant, that this coil 39
Than other princess' 33 can, that have more time Would not infect his reason?
For vainer hours, and tutors not so careful.

Ari.

Not a soul

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29. In few. For “ briefly,” “in few words.".

30. Have quit it. The old writers sometimes used “have" for “had," and also “ quit” for “quitted," especially where the rhythm required the abbreviated form. As in Ariel's third speech, "plunged in the foaming brire, and quit the vessel.”

31. Deck'd the sea. To “deck,” or “deg," is a provincial term for “ to sprinkle."

32. An undergoing stomach. An enduring fortitude or courage. Shakespeare often uses “stomach” in the sense of valour ; sometimes in that of pride or haughtiness, and sonietimes in that of wrath or choler, according to the original Latin word, stomachus. The classical reader will remember

Pelidæ stomachum," &c. in Horace's Ode VI. to Agrippa.

33. Princess'. For "princesses.” A form of plural to be found in old writers, where it suited the rhythm.

34. Now my dear lady. Now propitious to me.
35. Quality. Gift, qualification.
36. To point. Exactly, punctiliously.
37. Distinctly. Separately.

38. Seem to besiege. It is not unusual with Shakespeare to deviate into present tense, while relating an event that has occurred, and it gives great vivacity and force to the effect.

Used here for "noise," "tumult."

39. Coil

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But felt a fever of the mad, and play'd

In troops I have dispersd them 'bout the isle. Some tricks of desperation. All, þut mariners, The king's son have lạnded hy himself; Plung'd in the foaming brine, and quit the vessel, Whom I left cooling of the air with sighs Then all a-fire with me: the king's son, Ferdinand, In an odd angle of the isle, and sitting, With hair up-staring,—then like reeds, not hair, His arms in this sad knot. A Was the first man that leap'd; cried " Hell is Pros.

Of the king's ship empty,

The mariners, say how thou hast dispos'd,
And all the devils are here."

And all the rest o' the feet.
Pros.
Why, that's my spirit ! Ari.

Safely in harbour But was not this nigh shore ?

Is the king's ship; in the deep nook, where once Ari.

Close by, my master:

Thou call’dst me up at midnight to fetch dew Pros. But are they, Ariel, safe ?

From the still-vex'd Bermoothes, there she's hid: Ari.

Not a hair perishid ; | The mariners all under hatches stow'd; On their sustaining garments not a blemish, Whom, with a charm join'd to their suffer'd labour, But fresher than before: and, as thou bad'st me, I have left asleep: and for the rest o' the fleet,

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Which I dispers’d, they all have met again, Thou know'st, was banishd: for one thing she did, And are upon the Mediterranean flote, 12

They would not take her life. Is not this true ? Bound sadly home for Naples;

Ari. Ay, sir. Supposing that they saw the king's ship wreck'd, Pros. This blue-eyed 45 hag was hither brought And his great person perish.

with child, Pros.

Ariel, thy charge And here was left by the sailors. Thou, my slave, Exactly is perform'd: but there's more work.

As thou report'st thyself, was then her servant : What is the time o' the day?

And, for thou wast a spirit too delicate Ari.

Past the mid season. To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands, Pros. At least two glasses.43 The time 'twixt Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee, six and now

By help of her more potent ministers, Must by us both be spent most preciously.

And in her most unmitigable rage, Ari. Is there more toil? Since thou dost give into a cloven pine ; within which rift me pains,

Imprison'd, thou didst painfully remain
Let me remember thee what thou hast promised, A dozen years; within which space she died,
Which is not yet perform'd me.

And left thee there; where thou didst vent thy
Pros.
How now! moody?

groans What is't thou canst demand?

As fast as mill-wheels strike. Then was this islandAri, My liberty.

Save for the son that she did litter here, Pros. Before the time be out? no more!

A freckled whelp, hag-born—not honour'd with Ari.

I prithee, A human shape. Remember I have done thee worthy service;

Ari.

Yes; Caliban, her son. Told thee no lies, made no mistakings, serv’d Pros. Dull thing, 1 say so; he, that Caliban, Without or grudge or grumblings: thou didst Whom now I keep in service. Thou best know'st promise

What torment I did find thee in ; thy groans To bate me a full year.

Did make wolves howl, and penetrate the breasts Pros.

Dost thou forget Of ever-angry bears: it was a torment From what a torment I did free thee?

To lay upon the doom'd, which Sycorax Ari.

No. Could not again undo. It was mine art, Pros. Thou dost; and think'st it much, to tread When I arriv'd and heard thee, that made gape the ooze

The pine, and let thee out. Of the salt deep,

Ari.

thank thee, master. To run upon the sharp wind of the north,

Pros. If thou more murmur'st, I will rend an To do me business in the veins o'th' earth

oak, When it is bak'd with frost.

And peg thee in his knotiy entrails, till Ari.

I do not, sir.

Thou hast howld away twelve winters. Pros. Thou liest, malignant thing! Hast thou Ari.

Pardon, master : forgot

I will be correspondents to command,
The foul witch Sycorax, who, with age and envy, And do my spiriting gently.
Was grown into a hoop? hast thou forgot her ? Pros.

Do so; and after two days Ari. No, sir.

I will discharge thee.
Pros.
Thou hast. Where was she born? Ari.

That's my noble master! speak; tell me.

What shall I do? say what; what shall I do? Ari. Sir, in Argier.“

Pros. Go make thyself like a nymph o' the sea : Pros. Oh, was she so? I must,

be subject Once in a month, recount what thou hast been, To no sight but thine and mine; invisible Which thou forget'st. This curs’d witch, Sycorax, | To every eyeball else. Go take this shape, For mischiefs manifold, and sorceries terrible And hither come in't; go, hence with diliTo enter human hearing, from Argier,

gence.

[Exit Ariel.

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or Lampedusa, or any other known and real island ; but purely an island of Shakespeare's imagination,

,-a type of poetical islands per se.

42. The Mediterraman flote. A poetic name for sea, as collective waves; from French, flot, a wave.

43. Glasses. The hour-glass, the instrument for measuring time, is here used for time itself; “two glasses" meaning "two hours."

44 Argier. The old name for Algiers,

45. Blue-eyed. This epithet, as applied by Shakespeare, is far from being commendatory, as at present. He uses it here to describe the dull, bleared, neutral colour seen in the eyes of old crones; and he uses "a blue eye" ("As You Like It," iii. 2) to represent an eye that is hollow, heavy, void of brightness and animation.

46. Hests. Behests, mandates.

47. Correspondent. Answerably submissive ; obediently adapted.

That burn by day and night: and then I lov'd thee,
And show'd thee all the qualities o' the isle,
The fresh springs, brine-pits, barren place and

fertile :
Cursèd be I that did so!-All the charms
Of Sycorax, toads, beetles, hats, light on you!
For I am all the subjects that you have,
Which first was mine own king ; 54 and here you

sty me

Awake, dear heart, awake! thou hast slept well;
Awake!
Mir. (Waking] The strangeness of your story

put Heaviness in me. Pros.

Shake it off. Come on;
We'll visit Caliban, my slave, who never
Yields us kind answer.
Mir.

'Tis a villain, sir,
I do not love to look on.
Pros.

But, as 'tis,
We cannot miss him:49 he does ma

our fire,
Fetch in our wood, and serve in offices
That profit :-What, ho! slave! Caliban!
Thou earth, thou ! 49 speak.

Cal. [Within] There's wood enough within.
Pros. Come forth, I say; there's other business

for thee:
Come, thou tortoise! when : 50

us.

In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me
The rest o' th' island.
Pros.

Thou most lying slave, Whom stripes may move, not kindness: I have

us'd thee, Filth as thou art, with human care; and lodg'd

thee In mine own cell, till thou didst seek to violate The honour of my child.

Cal. Oh, ho, oh, ho! would it had been done! Thou didst prevent me; I had peopled else This isle with Calibans. Pros.

Abhorred slave, Which any print of goodness will not take, Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee, Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each

hour One thing or other: when thou didst not, savage, Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble

like A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes With words that made them known: but thy vile

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race, 55

Re-enter ARIEL, like a water nymph.
Fine apparition! My quaint Ariel,
Hark in thine ear.
Ari.

My lord, it shall be done. [Exit. Pros. Thou poisonous slave, come forth!

Enter CALIBAN. Cal. As wicked dew 51 as e'er my mother brush'd With raven's feather from unwholesome fen, Drop on you both! a south-west blow on ye, And blister you all o'er! Pros. For this, be sure, to-night thou shalt have

cramps, Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath up; urchins52 Shall, for that vast of nights that they may work, All exercise on thee: thou shalt be pinch'd As thick as honeycomb, each pinch more stinging Than bees that made them. Cal.

I must eat my dinner. This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother, Which thou tak'st from me. When thou camest

first, Thou strok'dst me, and mad'st much of me;

wouldst give me Water with berries in't; and teach me how To name the bigger light, and how the less,

Though thou didst learn, had that in't which good

natures Could not abide to be with ; therefore wast thou Deservedly confin'd into this rock, Who hadst deserv'd more than a prison. Cal. You taught me language; and my profit

on't Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid

you, 56

For learning me your language !57
Pros.

Hag-seed, hence!
Fetch us in fuel; and be quick, thou’rt best,
To answer other business. Shrug'st thou, malice?
If thou neglect’st, or dost unwillingly

48. We cannot miss him. We cannot do without him ; an expression still in provincial use.

49 Thon earth, thou! The terms in which Caliban is summoned suffice to proclaim the essence of his being. He is earthiness itself, grossly material ; in elemental and entire contrast to Ariel.

50. When! An exclamation denoting impatience.

51. Wicked dew. “Wicked" is here used by Shakespeare as Spenser uses it in his expression "wicked weed," for baneful or harmful property. So, on the contrary, we still say the * virtues," or

“ virtuous" qualities in medicinal herbs and plants.

52. Urckins. An old name for hedgehogs; and also for evil sprites and mischievous fairies.

53. Vast of night. That dark space of night when vastness and solitude are mainly suggested. So in “Hamlet :"-" The dead vast and middle of the night.”

54. Which first was mine own king. Which” used here for "who."

55. Thy vile race. "Race" is here used for original stock, descent.

56. The red plague rid you. The "red plague" was an old name for erysipelas; and to "rid" is used by Shakespeare for

destroy" here and in “3 Henry VI.," v. 5:—"As, deathsmen, you have rid this sweet young prince!”

57. Learning me your langnage. To "learn" is often misused for to “teach," and has thus a characteristic effect in Caliban's mouth.

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