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taking wights, who look, with a scrutinizing eye, into catalogues of scarce and curious books, or who have the patience to search for literary documents amongst the trash of the stalls. Our excerpts will, we flatter ourselves, vindicate our opinion, that the author of The Honour of the Gout was gifted with a considerable share of dry humour. He was evidently, also, a man of learning, and had a keen sense of the ridiculousness of false philosophy. From the vividness of his description of the pains of gouty paroxysm, for the accuracy of which, we are, according to his doctrine,“ happily” qualified to vouch, we have no doubt, that he was himself "favoured by these visitations, which his natural buoyancy of spirits taught him to turn to the best possible account. Nor, as we firmly believe, has the satisfaction, which he no doubt experienced in penning this treatise, been confined to himself. As to ourselves, at least, we have, from time to time, spent an interesting hour in the perusal of it, when the acuteness and fury of the ethereal fire, which has pervaded our joints, has subsided into that gentle tingling, which stirs the faculties, and gives a man the pleasure to know and feel that he is alive. It is true wisdom which teaches us to bear, with good humour, the ills “ which flesh is heir to ;” and as an example of this genuine species of philosophy, we shall close this article, by a sonnet, which was composed by a poet, blind and poverty-stricken, on the approach of a fit of the gout.
'Tis strange, that thou should'st leave the downy bed,
The Turkey carpet, and the soft settee ;
To fix thy odious residence with me.
Should'st leave those dwellings for a roof like mine,
And where thou wilt not find one drop of wine.
And fill these bones with agonizing pangs,
And teach the affluent how to bear thy fangs.
* Poems, by Edward Rushton.
Art. III.-The Workes of that famous Chirurgeon Ambrose
Parey. Translated out of Latin and compared with the French, by Th. Johnson, Esq. London, printed by Th. Cotes and R. Young. Annô, 1634.
The illustrious name of Ambrose Parè (or Parey) is familiar, to the ear of every medical man in any degree conversant with the literature of his profession. Parey was one of those extra . ordinary persons upon whom nature appears to have bestowed a peculiar aptitude for the study of a particular science, and who, by the exertion of their superior genius, confer a lasting obligation on mankind. Like our own famous surgeon, John Hunter, he was not a man of profound learning; but he possessed that which is often more valuable than learningoriginality of thought and capacity of invention.
Ambrose Parey was born at Laval, in the district of Maine, in the year 1509. From his earliest youth he studied the art of surgery, which he prosecuted both in the hospitals and in the army. So distinguished was the reputation which he enjoyed in his profession, that in the year 1552 he was appointed surgeon in ordinary to Henry II., and subsequently served the succeeding monarchs, Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III. in the same capacity, as we learn from the dedication of his works to the latter sovereign. Being, in faith, a Huguenot, and firmly attached to his religion, Parey would undoubtedly have perished on that awful night which witnessed the massacre of St. Bartholomew, had not Charles IX., who duly appreciated his professional services and talents, sent for him" ere the work of destruction begun, and afforded him the sanctuary of the royal chamber. Could any thing increase the detestation with wÞich the character of Charles IX. must be for ever regarded, it is this fact, that, where his own personal interests were concerned, he could subdue the madness of his fanaticism,-but that where the lives of his subjects were the only sacrifice, he did not hesitate to offer them upon the altar of his bigotry. In the course of his professional life, Parey was frequently called upon to accompany the French armies in various campaigns, and he has left us an account of these expeditions in a short tract, entitled “The Apology and Treatise, containing the Voyages made into divers Places, by Ambrose Parey, of Laval, in Maine, Councellor and Chief Chirurgeon to the King.” It is to this portion of his works that we propose to confine our attention on the present occasion, which we are induced to do by the very interesting nature of these travels, which will be found to afford much amusement, independently of their value in a professional point of view. Having long been regarded as the head
of his profession, and highly esteemed for his private virtues. Parey died in 1590, at the age of 81.
It was an enthusiastic desire of learning his profession, (says Mr. John Bell in his introduction to his excellent work on the Principles of Surgery,) that induced Parey to follow the French armies while yet very young; and we have a singular testimony of his early abilities from an old physician, who, after the taking of the city of Turin, always called for young Parey “ when any great surgical work was in hand, because he was delighted with the bold and spirited manner in which he parformed all the great operations.” To the Seigneur le Mareschal Montjan, this old physician said, at parting, “ My Lord, you have got a surgeon young in years, but old in experience and wisdom. Keep him carefully, for he will do you both service and honour.” Parey himself tells this tale of his early days in the mere garrulity of old age, but along with this ebullition of vanity there is good sense and even modesty ; for he adds, soon after, “ But the good old man did not know that I had lived three years in the Hotel Dieu, attending the sick.”
Parey begun his career in the Hotel Dieu. He perfected himself by practising in the camps and armies, and having lived in familiar society with the king and nobles of France, he finished a long, honourable, and busy life in the city of Paris. It is seen in the history of the French academy, that the princes and generals willingly took the field when they could prevail upon Parey to go out along with them; and at the time when all the noblesse of the kingdom were shut up in Mentz, which was besieged by Charles V. in person, at the head of 100,000 men, they sent a sort of embassy to the king, their master, beseeching him to send Parey to them. An Italian captain, for a great reward, introduced him into the city. They instantly sent at midnight to awaken the prince, who commanded the city, with the good news of his arrival
. The governor begged of him that he would go, next day, and shew himself upon the breach: he was received with shouts of triumph. Mentz was then the bulwark of France; and it has always been ascribed to the
presence of this single man, (so perfect was their confidence in him), that they kept the city till the gallant army which lay around it, perished beneath its walls. Charles lost upwards of thirty thousand men by disease and by the enemy.
The name of Parey is held in the highest veneration by his countrymen, as the following very absurd paragraph from Larrey's Memoires de Chirurgie Militaire will testify :-“A notre passage à Laval qui a vu naître Ambrose Paré, le père de la chirurgie Française, nous nous fimes indiquer la maison qu'il avait habitée. En y entrant, je fus saisi d'un sentiment de veneration tel
que, m'abandonnant à une douce illusion, je crus que j'allais voir paraître à nos yeux ce grand homme, lorsque, tout-à-coup, la presence des proprietaires de la maison, venus à notre rencontre pour nous montrer la chambre qu'il avait occupée, der truisit le prestige qui abusait mon imagination.”
But let us hear Parey's own account of himself: he says, addressing himself to one of his adversaries, (for, like our own celebrated Hunter, he had to encounter the opposition of men now only known as the enemies of his genius ;)
“ Moreover, you say that you will teach me my lesson in the operations of surgery, which I think you cannot do; because I have not only learned them in my study, and by the hearing of many years the lessons of doctors of physic: but, as I said before, in my epistle to the reader, I was resident the space of three years in the hospital of Paris, where I had the means to use and learn divers works of surgery upon divers diseases, together with the anatomy upon a great number of dead bodies; as oftentimes I have sufficiently made trial publicly in the physicians' school at Paris, and my good luck hath made me see much more. For being called to the service of the king of France (four of which I have served), 1 have been in company at battles, skirmishes, assaults, and besieging of cities and fortresses; as also, I have been shut up in cities with those that have been besieged, having charge to dress those that were hurt. Also I have dwelt many years in this great and famous city of Paris, where, (thanks be to God), I have lived in very good reputation amongst all men, and have not been esteemed the least in rank of men of my profession, seeing there was not any cure, were it ever so difficult and great, where my hand and my counsel have not been required, as I make it appear in this my work. Now, dare you, (these things being understood), say you will teach me to perform the works of surgery, since you never went further than your own study?
“The operations of chirurgery are learnt by the eye and by the touch. I will say that you much resemble a young lad of Low Brittany, bien fessu et materiel, who demanded leave of his father to come to Paris, to take France. Being arrived, the organist of our lady's church met with him at the palace-gate, who took him to blow the bellows for the organ, where he was remaining three years; he saw he could somewhat speak French, he returns to his father; and told him that he spake good French, and moreover, he knew well to play on the organs: his father received him very joyfully, for that he was so wise and learned in a short time. He went to the organist of their great church and prayed him to permit his son to play on the organ, to the end he might know whether his son was become so skilful a master as he said he was; which the organist agreed to very willingly. Being entered to che organ, he cast himself with a fun leap to the bellows; the master organist bid him play, and that he would blow. Then this good organist answers, let him play himself on the organ, if he would ; for him, he could do nothing but play on the
bellows. I think also, 'my little master, that you know nothing else, but to prattle in a chair; but I will play upon the keys, and make the organ sound, (that is to say), I will do the operations of chirurgery, that which you cannot in any wise do, because you have not gone from your study or the schools, as I have said before.
“ You see now (my little master), my answers to your calumniations, and I pray you, if you bear a good mind, to review and correct your book, as soon as you can, and not to hold young
chirurgeons in this error by reading of the same, where you teach them to use hot irons, after the amputation of limbs, to stay a flux of blood ; seeing there is another means and not so cruel, and more sure and easy. Moreover, if to-day, after an assault of a city, where divers soldiers have had arms and legs broken and shot off by cannon-bullets, cutlas and other instruments of war, to stay the flux of blood, if you should use hot irons, it would be needful to have a forge and much coals to heat them; and also the soldiers would hold you in such horror for this cruelty that they would kill you like a calf: even as in time past they did one of the chiefest chirurgeons of Rome, which may be found written in the third chapter of the first book.”
Although Parey did not invent the method of tying divided arteries, to which he alludes in the above paragraph, yet he greatly promoted the practice. His plan was to draw the arteries out naked and to pass a ligature over them.
We shall now proceed to give some extracts from the Travels of this celebrated man.
The Voyage of Thurin, 1535. “ Moreover, I will here shew to the readers the places where I have had means to learn the art of surgery; and first, in the year 1536, the king of France sent a great army to Thurin, to recover the city and castles which the Marquis of Guast, lieutenant-general of the emperor, had taken; where the High Constable of France was lieutenant-general of the army, and Monsieur de Montain colonel-general of the foot, of which I was then surgeon. A great part of the army arrived in the country of Suze: we found the enemy, which stopt the passage, and had 'made certain forts and trenches, insomuch that to hunt them out and make them leave the place, we were forced to fight, where there were divers hurt and slain, as well of the one side as the other; but the enemies were constrained to retire and get into the castle, which was caused partly by one captain Ratt, who climbed with divers soldiers of his company upon a little mountain there, where he shot directly upon the enemy : he received a shot
upon the ancle of his right foot, wherewith presently he fell to the ground, and said then—now is the Ratt taken. I dressed him and God healed him; we entered the throng into the city, and passed over the dead bodies, and some which were not yet dead; we heard them cry under our horses' feet, which made my heart relent to hear them. And truly I repented to have forsaken Paris to see such a pitiful spectacle.
VOL. XI. PART I.